• Title, Summary, Keyword: 마이크로파 산란계

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Analysis of Land Subsidence and Microwave Penetration on Drying Mudflat by using a Polarimetric Scatterometer Experiment (다편광 산란계 실험을 통한 개펄 건조시의 지반 침하와 마이크로파 침투 분석)

  • Lee Hoon-Yol;Chae Hee-Sam;Cho Seong-Jun
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.145-148
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    • 2006
  • 새로 조성된 간척지 갯벌이 건조 수축하면 지반 침하와 더불어 토양 내로의 마이크로파의 침투 깊이가 증가한다 따라서 인공위성 DInSAR를 이용하여 지반 침하량을 구하고자 할 때, 건조 시 동시에 발생하는 마이크로파의 개펄 침투 현상을 규명하여 보정해 주어야 한다. 이를 위하여 다편광 산란계(Polarimetric Scatterometer)를 구성하여 건조 개펄에 대한 실내실험을 실시하였다. PolScat의 구성은 5.0-5.6GHz 대역의 dual-polarization square horn antenna를 사용하였으며 Agilent 8753ES 벡터 네트워크 분석기를 사용하였다. 길이 2m, 폭 2m, 높이 20cm의 개펄 샘플을 약 6주 동안 실내에서 건조시켜 위상을 측정한 결과 지반 침하와 함께 약 4mm의 마이크로파 투과현상이 발견되었다. 따라서 인공위성 DInSAR 지반침하량 계산에 있어서 반드시 토양 수분에 따른 마이크로파의 토양 침투 깊이를 보정해 주어야 함이 밝혀졌다.

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Technical Status of Microwave Remote Sensing of Tropical Cyclones (열대저기압 마이크로파 원격탐사의 기술 현황)

  • Choi, Geun-Chul;Yang, Chan-Su;Pack, Han-Il
    • Proceedings of KOSOMES biannual meeting
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    • pp.193-199
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    • 2006
  • This article reviews several microwave instruments employed in observation and analysis of tropical cyclones (TCs), typhoon, and hurricanes. Microwave signals are useful for observing tropical cyclones with severe storms since it isn't severely absorbed by the clouds and rain in the storm. The instruments discussed include scatterometers, microwave radiometers, synthetic aperture radars (SARs), and rain radar from space. The date such as winds, rainfall and cloud-distribution in the TCs obtained by microwave instruments provide important informations for forecasting the intensity and path of the typhoon. For example, there're wind-distribution provided by SSM/I which has a wide swath, detailed wind fields from ERS-1, 2 scatterometers and RADARSAT-1 SAR and TRMM's rain radar pro 떠 ding high resolution. Operational satellite instruments lunched recently have improved upon the problems of low resolution and narrow swath indicated at the beginning microwave remote sensing. Understanding and practical using sufficiently about the microwave instruments will serve for searching the features such as generation and development of the TCs.

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A Study on the Measurement of River Ice Thickness by Using X-band Scatterometer (X-밴드 산란계를 이용한 하천 얼음 두께 측정에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Hyang-Sun;Kim, Bum-Jun;Lee, Hoon-Yol
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 2012
  • In this study, we setup a ground-based scatterometer using an antenna of which the center frequency is 9.5 GHz (X-band), and measured radar backscatterings from air/ice and ice/water interfaces to extract ice thickness. Both of air/ice and ice/water interfaces make strong radar backscatterings and so we can clearly identify two peaks in measured data by scatterometer. By using the distance of two peaks and refractive index of ice, we confirmed that it is possible to measure ice thickness. Field survey was performed at the downstream of Jiam River flowing into Chuncheon Lake. We measured radar backscattering from river ice along a survey path and extracted ice thickness. The ice thickness map of the downstream of Jiam River was produced by using kriging which is one of well known interpolation methods. The ice thickness was about 50 cm along the mainstream while ice was thin as 30 ~ 40 cm at a fast-flowing meander. Ice thickness was particularly thinner at some locations than that of surrounding areas even in the mainstream region of constant flow. This was because of impurities in ice or artificially formed refrozen holes after fishing. We expect that this study helps to expand utilization field of X-band SAR and airborne scatterometer system.

Estimation of Rice and Soybean Growth Stage Using a Microwave Scatterometer (마이크로파 산란계를 이용한 벼, 콩 생육단계 추정)

  • Kim, Yi-Hyun;Hong, Suk-Young;Lee, Hoon-Yol;Lee, Jae-Eun;Lee, Kyung-Do
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.503-510
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    • 2012
  • Microwave radar can penetrate cloud cover regardless of weather conditions and can be used day and night. Especially a A ground-based polarimetric scatterometer operating at multiple frequencies can continuously monitor the crop conditions. We analyzed scattering characteristics of rice and soybean using pauli decomposition method. Surface scattering (${\alpha}$) is the dominant component over the entire stages for all bands and pauli decomposition value was the highest for L-band. Double bounce scattering (${\beta}$) and volume scattering (${\gamma}$) were approximately equal for C-band and volume scattering was higher than double bounce scattering for X-band in rice field. In soybean, double bounce scattering becomes higher than volume scattering during the R2 stage (DOY 224) and there was a significant difference between the two components after the R4 stage (DOY 242) for L-band. The maximum growth stage of soybean can also be detected using L-band double bounce scattering. The peak of double bounce effect coincides with the peak of growth biophysical variables on DOY 271. We found that pauli decomposition can provide insight on the relative magnitude of different scattering mechanisms during the rice and soybean growth cycle.

A study of high power microwave output oscillation condition (대용량 마이크로파 출력장치의 발진조건에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Won-Sop;Kim, Jong-Man
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.523-524
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    • 2008
  • 전자빔의 산란에 의한 자기 공명현상과 지파 사이크로트론과의 상호작용에 의한 해석에서 체렌코프 발진이 일어나는 것은 확인하기 위하여 대구경 후진파 발진기를 이용한 실험을 하였다. 전자계와 전자빌의 상호작용을 위한 조절을 위하여 도파관의 반경과 진폭, 파장을 조절하였으며 이에 따른 주파수의 발진을 알수 있었다.

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Estimation of Wheat Growth using a Microwave Scatterometer (마이크로파 산란계를 이용한 밀 생육 추정)

  • Kim, Yihyun;Hong, Sukyoung;Lee, Kyungdo;Jang, Soyeong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.23-31
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    • 2013
  • Microwave remote sensing can help monitor the land surface water cycle and crop growth. This type of remote sensing has great potential over conventional remote sensing using the visible and infrared regions due to its all-weather day-and-night imaging capabilities. In this paper, a ground-based multi-frequency (L-, C-, and X-band) polarimetric scatterometer system capable of making observations every 10 min was developed. This system was used to monitor the wheat over an entire growth cycle. The polarimetric scatterometer components were installed inside an air-conditioned shelter to maintain constant temperature and humidity during the data acquisition period. Backscattering coefficients for the crop growing season were compared with biophysical measurements. Backscattering coefficients for all frequencies and polarizations increased until dat of year 137 and then decreased along with fresh weight, dry weight, plant height, and vegetation water content (VWC). The range of backscatter for X-band was lower than for L- and C-band. We examined the relationship between the backscattering coefficients of each band (frequency/polarization) and the various wheat growth parameters. The correlation between the different vegetation parameters and backscatter decreased with increasing frequency. L-band HH-polarization (L-HH) is best suited for the monitoring of fresh weight (r=0.98), dry weight (r=0.96), VWC (r=0.98), and plant height (r=0.96). The correlation coefficients were highest for L-band observations and lowest for X-band. Also, HH-polarization had the highest correlations among the polarization channels (HH, VV and HV). Based on the correlation analysis between backscattering coefficients in each band and wheat growth parameters, we developed prediction equations using the L-HH based on the observed relationships between L-HH and fresh weight, dry weight, VWC and plant height. The results of these analyses will be useful in determining the optimum microwave frequency and polarizations necessary for estimating vegetation parameters in the wheat.

Validation of Sea Surface Wind Speeds from Satellite Altimeters and Relation to Sea State Bias - Focus on Wind Measurements at Ieodo, Marado, Oeyeondo Stations (인공위성 고도계 해상풍 검증과 해상상태편차와의 관련성 - 이어도, 마라도, 외연도 해상풍 관측치를 중심으로 -)

  • Choi, Do-Young;Woo, Hye-Jin;Park, Kyung-Ae;Byun, Do-Seong;Lee, Eunil
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.139-153
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    • 2018
  • The sea surface wind field has long been obtained from satellite scatterometers or passive microwave radiometers. However, the importance of satellite altimeter-derived wind speed has seldom been addressed because of the outstanding capability of the scatterometers. Satellite altimeter requires the accurate wind speed data, measured simultaneously with sea surface height observations, to enhance the accuracy of sea surface height through the correction of sea state bias. This study validates the wind speeds from the satellite altimeters (GFO, Jason-1, Envisat, Jason-2, Cryosat-2, SARAL) and analyzes characteristics of errors. In total, 1504 matchup points were produced using the wind speed data of Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS) and of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) buoys at Marado and Oeyeondo stations for 10 years from December 2007 to May 2016. The altimeter wind speed showed a root mean square error (RMSE) of about $1.59m\;s^{-1}$ and a negative bias of $-0.35m\;s^{-1}$ with respect to the in-situ wind speed. Altimeter wind speeds showed characteristic biases that they were higher (lower) than in-situ wind speeds at low (high) wind speed ranges. Some tendency was found that the difference between the maximum and minimum value gradually increased with distance from the buoy stations. For the improvement of the accuracy of altimeter wind speed, an equation for correction was derived based on the characteristics of errors. In addition, the significance of altimeter wind speed on the estimation of sea surface height was addressed by presenting the effect of the corrected wind speeds on the sea state bias values of Jason-1.

Oceanic Application of Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar - Focused on Sea Surface Wind Retrieval - (인공위성 합성개구레이더 영상 자료의 해양 활용 - 해상풍 산출을 중심으로 -)

  • Jang, Jae-Cheol;Park, Kyung-Ae
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.447-463
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    • 2019
  • Sea surface wind is a fundamental element for understanding the oceanic phenomena and for analyzing changes of the Earth environment caused by global warming. Global research institutes have developed and operated scatterometers to accurately and continuously observe the sea surface wind, with the accuracy of approximately ${\pm}20^{\circ}$ for wind direction and ${\pm}2m\;s^{-1}$ for wind speed. Given that the spatial resolution of the scatterometer is 12.5-25.0 km, the applicability of the data to the coastal area is limited due to complicated coastal lines and many islands around the Korean Peninsula. In contrast, Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), one of microwave sensors, is an all-weather instrument, which enables us to retrieve sea surface wind with high resolution (<1 km) and compensate the sparse resolution of the scatterometer. In this study, we investigated the Geophysical Model Functions (GMF), which are the algorithms for retrieval of sea surface wind speed from the SAR data depending on each band such as C-, L-, or X-band radar. We reviewed in the simulation of the backscattering coefficients for relative wind direction, incidence angle, and wind speed by applying LMOD, CMOD, and XMOD model functions, and analyzed the characteristics of each GMF. We investigated previous studies about the validation of wind speed from the SAR data using these GMFs. The accuracy of sea surface wind from SAR data changed with respect to observation mode, GMF type, reference data for validation, preprocessing method, and the method for calculation of relative wind direction. It is expected that this study contributes to the potential users of SAR images who retrieve wind speeds from SAR data at the coastal region around the Korean Peninsula.

Measurement of Backscattering Coefficients of Rice Canopy Using a Ground Polarimetric Scatterometer System (지상관측 레이다 산란계를 이용한 벼 군락의 후방산란계수 측정)

  • Hong, Jin-Young;Kim, Yi-Hyun;Oh, Yi-Sok;Hong, Suk-Young
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 2007
  • The polarimetric backscattering coefficients of a wet-land rice field which is an experimental plot belong to National Institute of Agricultural Science and Technology in Suwon are measured using ground-based polarimetric scatterometers at 1.8 and 5.3 GHz throughout a growth year from transplanting period to harvest period (May to October in 2006). The polarimetric scatterometers consist of a vector network analyzer with time-gating function and polarimetric antenna set, and are well calibrated to get VV-, HV-, VH-, HH-polarized backscattering coefficients from the measurements, based on single target calibration technique using a trihedral corner reflector. The polarimetric backscattering coefficients are measured at $30^{\circ},\;40^{\circ},\;50^{\circ}\;and\;60^{\circ}$ with 30 independent samples for each incidence angle at each frequency. In the measurement periods the ground truth data including fresh and dry biomass, plant height, stem density, leaf area, specific leaf area, and moisture contents are also collected for each measurement. The temporal variations of the measured backscattering coefficients as well as the measured plant height, LAI (leaf area index) and biomass are analyzed. Then, the measured polarimetric backscattering coefficients are compared with the rice growth parameters. The measured plant height increases monotonically while the measured LAI increases only till the ripening period and decreases after the ripening period. The measured backscattering coefficientsare fitted with polynomial expressions as functions of growth age, plant LAI and plant height for each polarization, frequency, and incidence angle. As the incidence angle is bigger, correlations of L band signature to the rice growth was higher than that of C band signatures. It is found that the HH-polarized backscattering coefficients are more sensitive than the VV-polarized backscattering coefficients to growth age and other input parameters. It is necessary to divide the data according to the growth period which shows the qualitative changes of growth such as panicale initiation, flowering or heading to derive functions to estimate rice growth.