• Title, Summary, Keyword: 마음이론

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The Pathway Linking Childhood Trauma and Stress Perception: Mediating Role of Theory of Mind (아동기 외상과 마음이론이 스트레스 지각에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Eun-young
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.17-28
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    • 2018
  • This study investigated the differential effects of childhood trauma, especially neglect, emotional abuse, and physical abuse on stress perception in relation to the ToM (theory of mind), among one-hundred and fifty five college students. For this purpose, self-reported childhood neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, and stress levels during the previous week were measured. Social cognition was measured using a ToM questionnaire which asked respondents to guess the intentions of the person in each vignette by providing additional hints. In order to examine the predicting role of childhood trauma and mediating role of ToM, two distinct structural models assuming full (Model 1) and partial (Model 2) mediational effects were compared using structural equation modeling. The partial mediational model was supported and the main results were as follows. First, childhood neglect indirectly predicted stress perception through the effect of the ToM. Second, childhood emotional abuse directly predicted stress perception. Third, childhood physical abuse had no distinct effect on stress perception. Finally, the limitations of this study and the implications for future studies are discussed.

Children as psychologists: The development of folk psychology (심리학자로서의 아동: 심리지식의 발달)

  • Ghim Hei-Rhee
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.29-52
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to examine whether children had the naive psychological knowledge that the mental states ate requited to understand the intentional actions, whether their psychological knowledge was organized as a theory, and in what aspects the knowledge changed as children get older. Three- to 11-year-olds were presented with two types of tasks. In action explanation tasks, children were presented with simple descriptions of two characters engaging in specific actions and then asked to explain the characters' action. In action prediction tasks, they were told stories depicting a character's desire and belief and then asked to predict the action of the character. Three-year-olds explained the action in terms of abstract construct such as emotion, intention, and desire, and they predicted the character's action on the basis of her/his desire and explicit belief but not on the basis of inferred false belief and traits. In addition when they were asked to explain one mental state, they explained in terms of other mental states, suggesting the coherence of their knowledge. The present results suggested that even 3-year-olds' psychological knowledge was organized as a theory, in that it was used as a causal device in explaining and predicting human actions, and it had abstractness and coherence. Older children's knowledge was different from 3-year-olds' in that older children explained the action in terms of more complicated mental states such as beliefs and traits. The nature of the developmental change in psychological knowledge was discussed.

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Children's Inferring Word Meaning From Understanding of the Speaker's Mind (단어의미 추론에서 나타나는 아동의 마음이론)

  • Song, Young Joo
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.167-180
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    • 2006
  • This study investigated how children rely on the mind of the speaker to infer unfamiliar words. Sixty 3 to 5-year-old children were interviewed individually with word inference and false belief tasks. Children's sensitivity to the speakers' intentions and prior experiences increased with age. Unexpectedly, their performance was not different with the condition of mind construct. Children's inferring word meanings were positively, but not significantly, correlated with understanding others' false beliefs.

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Loving or Eating?: Eating Meat and Mind Perception toward Animals and Sexually Objectified Women (사랑할까, 먹을까?: 동물과 성적 객체화된 여성에 대한 마음지각과 고기를 먹는 행동의 관계)

  • Shin, Hong-Im
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.69-82
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    • 2019
  • Do animals have a mind? Our understanding about whether animals have minds depends on our relationship with animals, as we cannot determine animals' actual minds. These two studies presented here thus examined the meat paradox, that is, an inconsistency between love for animals and the act of enjoying eating meat in the context of mind perception. Study 1 examined whether mind perceptions toward various animals are classified on the basis of experience-related capacities, such as feeling pain, and agency-related capacities, such as having self-control. In Study 2, mind perceptions toward cows and sexually objectified women were classified on the basis of food condition and non-food condition. In the food condition (experimental condition), cows were portrayed as products for meat consumption, whereas in the control condition, they were described as animals living on a farm, eating grass. The results of Study 2 demonstrated revealed that mind perception was positively associated with how morally incorrect it was to eat animals. Study 2 thus demonstrated that the scores of mind perception toward cows and sexually objectified women in the experimental condition were significantly lower than those in the control condition. These reduced mind attribution in the experimental condition implied that people may be motivated to reduce cognitive dissonance between their attitudes toward animals, such as loving them, and their behaviors, such as, eating meat. In addition, these results suggest that objectification toward animals may impact the objectification and mind perception toward human beings as well. These findings highlight the role of dissonance reduction in the meat paradox and objectification theory so as to understand basic psychological processes involved while making moral choices in everyday life.

Neural Correlates of Faux Pas Detection: An fMRI Study (헛디딤 탐지의 신경 상관: 기능적 자기공명 영상 연구)

  • Park, Min;Lee, Seung-Bok;Yoon, Hyo-Woon;Ghim, Hei-Rhee
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.77-93
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    • 2010
  • The aim of this study was to identify neural correlates underlying the detection of faux pas, a test of theory of mind (ToM), in Korean healthy adults. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we compared the brain activities associated with faux pas stories and the activities associated with control stories. Faux pas stories compared with the control stories produced activations bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus (BA 9) and in the precuneus (BA 7). The left medial frontal gyrus (BA 9), the left superior temporal gyrus (BA 38), the left inferior temporal gyrus (BA 20) and the right inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), the right postcentral gyrus (BA 1), the right lingual gyrus (BA 18), the right transverse temporal gyrus (BA 41) were also activated. The orbitofrontal cortex and the amygdala were not found to be involved in the detection of faux pas. This result suggests that brain activations associated with ToM are dependent on the type of mental state drawn by the task.

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The combined system of consciousness and unconsciousness using Fuzzy Petri net and Neural Network (퍼지페트리네트와 신경망을 이용한 의식.무의식 통합 시스템)

  • 박경숙;박민용
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Cognitive Science Conference
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    • pp.311-321
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    • 2000
  • 본 논문에서는 정신분석과 두 종류의 정서이론, 인공지능과 신경회로망 그리고 퍼지 페트리 네트 등을 사용하여 사람의 인지과정을 모방한 인지모형시스템을 개발하였다. 먼저 프로이트의 정신분석을 사용하여 정신의 구조를 그래프로 표현한 후 이것을 '마음의 지도'라 명명하였다. 인지모형시스템을 구현하기 위한 첫 번째 작업으로 동적인 추론을 할 수 있는 지능 모델인 KNBN(Kohonen Network based Belief Network)을 제안하였다. KNBN으로 표현한 마음의 약도 내에서 연결강도 값으로 사용할 상대적 데이터를 만들기 위한 근거로서는 '정서'를 사용하였는데, 플라칙의 진화론에 근거한 정서이론과 오토니의 인지적 정서이론을 결합하여 데이터로 만든후 이 수치를 연결강도로 사용하였다. 이 두 개의 정서이론을 결합하는 알고리즘을 만들기 위해 페트리네트를 변형한 퍼지 페트리네트를 제안하였다. 또한 오토니가 주장하는 정서의 인지구조를 사람들이 그대로 이해하는지 여부를 알기 위해 대학생 100명을 대상으로 설문지를 사용해 정서의 인지구조에 대해 조사하였고 그 결과 값에 근거하여 두 개의 정서이론 결합 알고리즘을 만들었다. 이것으로 정서 발화에 대한 상대적인 수치가 산출되었고, 이것을 KNBN으로 표현한 마음의 약도에 결합하기 위해 0과 1사이의 수치로 정규화 하였다. 이렇게 정규화된 데이터를 이용해 인지 모형 시스템을 개발하였다.

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Equivalence of Mind and Information Processing Formal System: $G{\ddot{o}}del's$ Disjunctive Conclusion and Incompleteness Theorems (마음과 정보처리형식체계의 논리적 동치성: 괴델의 선언결론과 불완전성 정리를 중심으로)

  • Hyun, Woo-Sik
    • Annual Conference on Human and Language Technology
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    • pp.258-263
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    • 1995
  • 마음과 기계의 관계에 대한 $G{\ddot{o}}del's$의 선언결론(disjunctive conclusion)은 마음과 정보처리형식체계의 논리적 동치성을 함의하고 있다. 그리고 $G{\ddot{o}}del's$의 불완전성 정리(Incompleteness Theorems)에 따르면 마음과 정보처리형식체계의 논리적 동치성은 무모순이며, 동치성 반증의 이론은 그 모델을 가질 수 없다.

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Autopoiesis, Affordance, and Mimesis: Layout for Explication of Complexity of Cognitive Interaction between Environment and Human (오토포이에시스, 어포던스, 미메시스: 환경과 인간의 인지적 상호작용의 복잡성 해명을 위한 밑그림)

  • Shim, Kwang Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.343-384
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    • 2014
  • In order to unravel the problems of the mind, today's cognitive science has expanded its perspective from the narrow framework of the past computer model or neuronal network model to the wider frameworks of interaction with the brain in interaction with the body in interaction with their environments. The theories of 'the extended mind', 'embodied mind', or 'enactive mind' appeared through such processes are working on a way to move into the environments while the problem to unravel the complex process of interactions between the mind, the body and the environments are left alone. This problem can be traced back as far as to Gibson and Maturana & Varela who tried at first to unravel the problem of the mind in terms of interaction between the brain, the body and there environments in 1960~70s. It's because Gibson stressed the importance of the 'affordance' provided by the environment while Maturana & Varela emphasized the 'autonomy' of auto-poiesis of life. However, it will be proper to say that there are invariants in the affordances provided by the environment as well as the autonomy of life in the state of structural coupling of the environment's variants and life's openness toward the environment. In this case, the confrontational points between Gibson and Maturana & Varela will be resolved. In this article, I propose Benjamin's theory of mimesis as a mediator of both theories. Because Benjamin's concept of mimesis has the process of making a constellation of the embodiment of the affordance and the enaction of new affordance into the environment at the same time, Gibson's concept of the affordance and Maturana & Varela's concept of embodiment and enaction will be so smoothly interconnected to circulate through the medium of Benjamin's concept of mimesis.

Music and Imagery as a Method for Mindfulness: Exploration of Music Therapy Interns' Experiences (마음챙김의 방법으로서 음악심상: 예비음악치료사의 경험을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Young Shil
    • Journal of Music and Human Behavior
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.93-114
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    • 2018
  • This study aimed to investigate the use of music and imagery (MI) as a method for promoting mindfulness. A total of 11 music therapy interns participated in an MI group over 8 weeks. Statements from participants during the program were transcribed and analyzed using the method of modified grounded theory. The results showed that the participants' statements fell into three categories: awareness, acceptance, and distancing. For each category, subcategories were identified. For the category of awareness, the subcategories were emotion, sensation, and thoughts. For the acceptance category, the subcategories were facing and broadening viewpoints. For the distancing category, the subcategories were dissociation from emotions. Each subcategory was further analyzed. The results showed that the participants' experiences were similar to one another in terms of type but differed in terms of dimension varied. These results support the use of MI for increasing mindfulness and reducing burnout in music therapy interns. Further studies are recommended to investigate the factors for the experience of mindfulness induced by MI processes.