• Title, Summary, Keyword: 마애불

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Conservation of the Seosanmaaesamjonbulsang (Rock-carved Triad Buddha in Seosan), Korea (서산 용현리 마애여래삼존상의 보존처리)

  • Min, Won Geun;Jong, Hee Su;Yang, Hee Jae
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 2014
  • The Seosanmaaesamjonbulsang (national treasure 84) is carved has a quite developed tectonic line in a precipitous wall of stratified rock to the vertical and horizontal directions. The main buddha and the left part of it have got the biological weathering and the efflorescence has been detected on the shoulder part of the right buddha. It has been caused by the raindrops from upper rock after the dismantling of the protection shelter in 2007. Two proper measures have been taken in order to reduce the weathering and protect it from some damages. The one is removing the contaminant by dry/wet cleaning not to get any damage on the rock. The other is the isolation by the construction of a new waterway used L-30 on the upper part of the rock not to contaminate the surface of Rock-carved triad buddha with the raindrops from upper rock. Moreover, the sunlight for buddha has been increased and good ventilation has been made by cutting down the trees around the Rock-carved triad buddha.

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Geophysical Explorations for Safety Analysis of Bangeosan-Maaebul(Stone Relief Bhaisajyaguru triad at Mt. Bangeosan) (방어산 마애여래입상의 안전진단을 위한 지구물리탐사)

  • O, Seon-Hwan;Seo, Man-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Geophysical Society
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2001
  • Seismic refraction and electrical resistivity surveys were conducted in Bangeosan Maaebul site located in Haman, Kyungnam, in order to present geophysical safety analysis method for masonry cultural properties. Seismic refraction exploration revealed that the ground was composed of three layers in term of seismic wave velocity; the upper, medium, and lower layers. The low velocity ranging from 308 to 366 m/sec in upper layer suggests weathered soil, the intermediate velocity from 1906 to 2090 m/sec in the medium layer indicates weathered rocks, and the high velocity from 5061 to 5650 m/sec in the lower layer implies extremely hard rocks. Our seismic result suggests that the upper and medium layer around the Maaebul should be reinforced to support the construct. The result of electric resistivity survey shows that there exists a low resistivity zone, ranging from 131 to 226 Ohm-m, at the right side of the Maaebul with the direction of NE-NNE. This area is the weakness zone as it plays role of the underground water passage in rainy season.

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Precisely Nondestructive Diagnosis and Slope Stability of the Bonghwa Bukjiri Maaeyeoraejwasang (Rock-Carved Seated Buddha Statue), Korea (봉화 북지리마애여래좌상의 비파괴 정밀진단과 사면안정성 분석)

  • Cho, Ji-Hyun;Jo, Young-Hoon;Chun, Yu-Gun;Choi, Joon-Hyun;Lee, Chan-Hee
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.121-132
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    • 2010
  • The Bukjiri Maaeyeoraejwasang (National Treasure No. 201) consists of two-mica granite in medium size, which was the simbol of power in the region of the Silla period. Magnetic susceptibility of the host rock was measured as 0.41(${\times}10^{-3}$ SI unit), which has the similar range with surrounding outcrop. The Buddha developed parallel discontinuous plane of NE to SW strike and damaged seriously by exfoliation, granular disintegration and brown discoloration as 41.5%, 16.7% and 40.0%, respectively. As a result of the ultrasonic velocity, which was relatively weak values as 1,629m/s (Buddha area) and 1,549m/s (surrounding outcrop), improved about 900m/s compared to last treatment. From the results of the evaluation for slope stability, identified the possibility of toppling failure in the Buddha, and planar and wedge failure in host rock. Therefore, we suggest for the safely conservation of the Buddha, continuance monitoring for understand behavior of discontinuity system of the surface, and necessitate foundation reinforcement method for the rock which has the danger of collapse.

Conservational Treatment and Deterioration Assessment of the Sculptured Standing Buddha Named Taehwa 4 Year in the Jincheon, Korea (진천태화4년명 마애불의 풍화훼손도 평가와 보존처리)

  • Lee, Chan Hee;Kim, Sun Duk;Han, Byeong Il;Kim, Yeong Taek;Lee, Myeong Seong
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.16
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    • pp.39-51
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    • 2004
  • The standing Buddha named Taehwa 4 yew in the Jincheon were sculptured with rock cliff of the dark grey shale. Front of the Buddha statue shows $N40^{\circ}W$ strike with nearly vertical dip toward the back side. Rock blocks of the Buddha statue well developed with bedding and laminations whereas rock surface distributed into the various irregular discontinuities. Sculptured lines of the Buddha were uncertain because of degradation and exfoliations on the rock surface. The surface near the Buddha statue is highly contaminated with lichen and mosses, and accelerate physical and biological weathering owing to the roots of weed and bush along the fracture systems. For the conservational treatment, we treated with primary wet cleaning by air gun and secondary cleaning treatment using distilled water. Separated rock surface and fractured parts fasten and/or fill up the boundaries of the rock blocks using epoxy resin for conservation of rock properties. Some brittle surface was treatment with water repellent consolidant of ethyl silicates, and heterogeneous surface carried out color matching by acrylic pigments. Upper part of the Buddha statue dig out small ditch for rain water drainage, and near surface of the Buddha statue treat removal works for lichen, weeds and bush. The duration capacity of the Buddha constituting rocks are degraded by various weathering factors, therefore we suggest that this Buddha statue have need to do long term monitoring and synthetic conservation researches.

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Petrological Studies of the Buddha Image Carved on Rock Surface at the Gyeongju Namsan Area, Korea - A Case Study of the Seated Buddha Image Carved on Rock Surface of Yuneulgok in Bae-ri, Gyeongju - (경주 남산 마애불 암석의 물리적 특성연구 - '경주배리윤을곡마애불좌'을 중심으로 -)

  • Song, Chi-young;Han, Min-su;Lee, Jang-jon;Jun, Byung-kyu
    • 보존과학연구
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    • pp.39-58
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    • 2007
  • The Seated Buddha image carved on rock surface of Yuneulgok in Bae-ri, Gyeongju constituted of alkali feldspar granite. There is surface weathering by abrasion, exfoliation and break out. As a result various experiment was carried out testing rock material property to quantitatively grade weathering. Besides, this study is focused on properties of rock and correlation between things. Additionally, comparison of chemical properties to nondestructive weathering grade in the buddha image carved on rock. This result utilized on important resource for scientific conservation system compared with weathering appearance.

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Lithological Characteristics and Deterioration Diagnosis of Dosolammaaebulsang (Rock-carved Buddha Statue of Dosolam) in the Seonunsa Temple, Gochang, Korea (고창 선운사 도솔암마애불의 암석학적 특성과 손상도 진단)

  • Park, Sung-Mi;Ryu, Keong-Seok;Choi, Hee-Soo;Lee, Chan-Hee
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.101-114
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    • 2011
  • The rock-carved Buddha statue at Dosolam (Korea Treasure No. 1200) of the Seonunsa temple in Gochang is unique style sculptured on natural rock cliff of 13.0m height. The Buddha statue is composed of volcanic complex with tuff, dacitic tuff breccia, tuff bereccia and lithic tuff. Especially, the Buddha statue is characterized by hydrothermal alteration and fragmentation on the upper and lower part. As a result of damage diagnosis, exfoliation and detachment of physical weathering are high of 11.3% and 9.3%, respectively. Infrared thermography analysis, exfoliation and micro-cracks occurred in the measuring parts that have not been confirmed by naked eyes. Chemical index of alteration and weathering potential index of host rock for the Buddha statue are 55.16 to 64.01 and 6.14 to 9.92 which are represented within highly weathering degree. In surface, dark black, reddish brown and white discoloration are observed prominently in the lower. Brown discoloration 6.9% is highest. According to the P-XRF measurements, high concentration of Fe in common, in part of dark black discoloration was Mn, white and brown discoloration in part of S and Ca content were higher. Biological weathering that yellowish brown and dark gray crustoes lichenes appeared by 20.8% and 13.3%, respectively. Therefore, comprehensive deterioration rate of Buddha statue show physical damage by 21.2%, discoloration for inorganic contaminants by 10.8% and biological damage by 39.4%. Ultrasonic velocity measurement carried out of Buddha statue on the surface by 555 points. Measured value of ultrasonic velocity was about 2,273m/s(1,067 to 3,215m/s, and weathering coefficient is 0.5(0.4 to 0.8) that progress on MW(moderately weathered) to HW(highly weathered) grade of rocks.

Structural Stability, Weathering and Conservation Method of Granite Standing Sculptured Buddha at Hwangsang-dong, Kumi (구미 황상동 마애여래입상의 구조적 안정성, 풍화 및 보존방안)

  • Lee, Chan Hee;Choi, Suck Won;Suh, Mancheol;Chae, Sang Jeong
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.21-32
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    • 2000
  • Rock composition of the Hwangsang-dong Granite Standing Sculptured Buddha (Treasure No. 1122) in the Kumi City is biotite-hornblende granodiorite which consists of about 30 pieces of individual rock blocks of same compositions. However, the cap rocks is pebble-bearing coarse sandstone. Rock blocks of the Standing Buddha and surrounding out crops occur well developed several joint systems of $N25^{\circ}$ to $45^{\circ}W$ strike and nearly vertical (70 to $85^{\circ}SE$) dipping. Rock blocks of the Standing Buddha showed vertical, horizontal and oblique joints, and those blocks are well supported by individual blocks. However, the junction part of the blocks are under dangerous situation due 10 seriously mechanical and chemical weathering. Host rock of the Standing Buddha belongs to the HW grade, therefore mostly rock-forming minerals of the granodiorite Standing Buddha altered with clay and iron hydroxide minerals by mineralogical and chemical weathering. Near surface of the Standing Buddha show spore and mycelium of green algaes, and a joint plane alive with weeds. We suggest that if structural stability for the Standing Buddha remove essentially a unstable rock blocks from the main body, and the main body necessitate supporting by rock bolting method because of repeated unstability and minimizing stress to the rock blocks. For the opened joint planes, fractured surface and alive weeds will attempt to fill in a petro-epoxy, petro-filler and biochemical treatments for the algaes, and ground water curtain and wall seems to be necessary for water flow and diminishing humidity of the Standing Buddha.

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Deterioration Diagnosis and Conservation Treatment of the Jincheon Sagongnimaaeyeoraeipsang (Stone Relief of Standing Buddha in Sagok-ri), Korea (진천 사곡리 마애여래입상의 훼손도 진단과 보존처리)

  • Kim, Sa-Dug;Lee, Myeong-Seong;Han, Byeong-Il;Lee, Jang-Jon;Song, Chi-Young
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.323-333
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    • 2009
  • The Jincheonsagongnimaaeyeoraeipsang is a great stone relief Buddha in Goryeo Dynasty, transmitting sculptural styles of the Silla Kingdom. The Buddha was carved on the biotite granite basement, and was undergone cleaning treatment in 2007. The basement rock was opened in plenty cracks bringing out structural instability. And the top of the basement rock was colonized by trees obstructing sunshine and raising humidity. As a result of failure analysis, the basement rock of the Buddha had a major possibility of wedge failure in the parts of the face, hands and cloths. Therefore, the cracks were filled up with epoxy resin L-50, and titanium bars and wire ropes were applied to bind cracked rock blocks. The surface of the crack filler was colored by granite and talc powder with inorganic pigment and L-30. The crack meters were installed on the stone relief Buddha to monitor further behavior, lastly.

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Petrographic Characteristics and Deterioration Evaluation of the Rock-carved Seated Buddha at Bugmireugam Hermitage in Daeheungsa Temple of Haenam, Korea (해남 대흥사 북미륵암 마애여래좌상의 암석기재적 특성과 손상도 평가)

  • Cho, Ji Hyun;Lee, Chan Hee
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.617-626
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we investigated the petrographic characteristics and physical property of the Rock-carved Seated Buddha at Bugmireugam hermitage of Daeheungsa temple in Haenam. The Buddha Statue was carved on micrographic granite, and the rock was composed of the fine quartz encircled by orthoclase. The results of diagnosis for deterioration evaluation have shown a highly damage rate of black contaminants (8.4%) and crack index (6.6). The ultrasonic velocity have detected SW (slightly weathered) grade of weathering coefficient (mean 0.18). Various weathering factor on the surface of the Buddha Statue was affected by precious shelter, and physical property with ultrasonic was directly influenced by the structural characteristics and fissure of host rock.