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Contact Lens Prescribing Pattern in Korean During 2010 to 2013 (대한민국의 최근 4년간(2010-2013) 콘택트렌즈 처방 추세)

  • Lee, Jong-Ha;Lee, Ki-Seok;Chu, Byoung-Sun
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.323-329
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: To understand the pattern of prescribing contact lenses in Korea from 2010 to 2013. Methods: Four hundred survey questionnaires were randomly posted to Korean Optometric clinics for 4 years. The questionnaire was the same form as a form used for International Contact Lens Prescribing Trend. It was also designed to collect information about the contact lenses prescribed to the first 10 patients after its receipt. Results: 1937 fits were used for the analysis among the four hundred survey questionnaires. The average patient age was $26.2{\pm}7.0$ in 2010, $26.1{\pm}7.6$ in 2011, $24.7{\pm}6.6$ in 2012 and $24.8{\pm}7.2$ in 2013. The patients were mainly women (75%). Of all the soft contact lenses, silicon hydrogel lenses were 18% of fits (17% in 2010, 10% in 2011, 20% in 2012, 24% in 2013). By degine, the percentage of toric design lenses accounted for 17% of soft lenses fits and had increased during 4 years (10% in 2010, 18% in 2011, 16% in 2012, 22% in 2013), and cosmetic contact lens made up for 29% (15% in 2010, 20% in 2011, 40% in 2012, 41% in 2013). Conclusions: The contact lenses wearers were mostly women and the average patient age becomes slightly younger. In relation to the increase in the mumber of younger female contact lens wearers,the percentage of cosmetic lenses prescription was much higher (29%) than the global average (7%), and it has gradually increased for last 4 years. This trend could be related to the growth of beauty market in Korea. By emphasizing on toric lens marketing in manufactures, the prescription rate has been gradually increased.

A study on the employment preparation cost and attitude of college student for Job-seeking (국내 대학생의 취업태도 및 취업준비 비용에 관한 연구)

  • Chung, Bhum-Suk;Jeong, Hwa-Min
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.1-19
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    • 2014
  • This Study focuses on the university students' job attitude and cost of employment preparation. Nowadays, many university and college students spend a big money improving their employment preparation such as studying on foreign language, getting various kinds of certificates and tooth correction, clothing etc. for employment interview. This study investigated the cost of employment preparation and Job attitude of the 484 students of universities and colleges, the analysis of the collected data was conducted with SPSS 12.0 program by using frequency analysis, factor analysis, reliability assessment, correlation test, t-test, one way ANOVA. The university students paid more costs of employment preparation such as a language training abroad, a private training, and clothing than the college students. Also, Allied social science students paid more costs of the language training abroad, and clothing than allied computer science and allied design students. The female students paid more money than male students for tooth correction. The costs of language training abroad, private training and clothing are affected the students' socioeconomic background of a home. Regarding the job attitude of students, the university students are feeling more positive than the college students of the employment efficacy and cognition of the education environment. As result, the differences in the cost of employment preparation by the university type, faculty major course, their sex, and socioeconomic background of a home. The student's employment-efficacy and cognition of the education environment are also differences between the university and the college students. So, to improve the job attitude, developing their ability for employment preparation, educational programs should be arranged in school and continuous researches are needed.

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Case report: Application of Implant Supported Removable Partial Denture due to Multiple Dental Implant Loss of the Fixed Implant Supported Prosthesis (다수의 임플란트발거로 임플란트 고정성 보철이 실패한 환자에서의 잔존 임플란트를 이용한 부분 가철성 국소의치 수복증례)

  • Kang, Jeong Kyung;Nam, Gi Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Esthetic Dentistry
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2014
  • There are several treatment options for rehabilitation of partial edentulism including the use of conventional or implant-retained fixed prostheses. However, such prosthetic options cannot always be possible because of compromised general and oral health (i.e. loss of supporting tissues, medical reasons, extensive surgical protocol and osseointegration failure of dental implant) as well as the affordability of patients. In some cases, removable partial denture provides easier access for oral hygiene procedures and the ability to correct discrepancies in dental arch relationships than implant fixed prosthesis. Recently, Implant Supported Removable Partial Denture (ISRPD) where to place dental implant in strategic position has been suggested to improve the limitation and shortcomings of conventional RPD. ISPRD can overcome mechanical limition of conventional RPD by placing implant in a favorable position and can be cost-effective, prosthetic solution for partially edentulous patients who are not immediate candidates for extensive, fixed implant supported restorations. Incorporation of dental implants to improve the RPD support and retention and to enhance patient acceptance should be considered when treatment planning for RPD. In this case, 59 years old male patient who received dental treatment of implant fixed prosthesis on both side of the upper jaw and implant overdenture on lower jaw showed implant abutment screw fracture on #15i and osseointegration failure on multiple number of implants. After removing failed implants, we planned ISRPD using #15i,24i,25i,26i and #23 natural tooth for RPD abutment. We fabricated #23 surveyed crown,#24i=25i=26i surveyed bridge and #15i gold coping for support,retention and stability for RPD. Periodic follow up check for 2years has been performed since the ISRPD delivery to the patient. No sign of screw loosening, fracture or bone resorption around abutment implants were detected.

A Study on the Characteristics of Oddly Shaped Stone's Arrangement at Donggwoldo (동궐도(東闕圖)에 나타난 괴석(怪石)의 배치특성에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Woo-Jin;Kim, Hwa-Ok;Park, Yool-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.12-26
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    • 2014
  • This study has researched the forms of arrangement and use of the oddly shaped stones which were used at palaces during Joseon Dynasty based on arrangements of stones as shown in Donggwoldo(東闕圖), and tried to identify its special features. The sorts of stone's arrangements which set formal patterns by assisting an axis in Donggwoldo can be classified as the single type using one stone, the symmetrical type using 2 stones symmetrically and the parallel type using 3 or more stones. The single type was used to endow a focal point and to accent centrality by arranging a stone on the axis performed from formal shaped buildings. The symmetrical type was used to show order and hierarchy by placing two odd-shaped stones on either side of a building. And the parallel type which is arranged three stones side by side, is put a middle stone on the central axis line to determine strong directional and frontality. Also similarity to method of arrangement of stones can be found from planting trees in a prominent way for scenery or planting trees symmetrically. Stones and trees can be chosen according to nature and scale of places and basically their effects of formation of axis and creating typical space is same. Based on these respect, the characteristics of arrangement of stones shown in Donggwoldo can be briefly summarized as follows. First, the oddly shaped stones were used by creating a centripetal space in order to show a grade of rank. Second, the distances among stones could be adjusted to the sizes of the architecture which was at the center. The aim was to provide stability through the balanced composition between the central axis and symmetrical structures. Third, the form of regularity was added by using stone vase in consideration of irregular shape of stone causing interference in forming regular symmetry. Fourth, a centrality was emphasized by adding change to central stones in the parallel type used 3 erect stones. Fifth, the sizes of stone were limited in order to make smooth for the mix and adjustment of its position with the types of other garden ornaments, so the oddly shaped stones in palace have portability. Sixth, the oddly shaped stones in palace which were appreciated as inspirational object basically were a sculpture of the same quality with suiseki (壽石), and the appreciative method, the composition and shape had developed in the same texture. Finally, the even number of stones by parallel type were arranged by equal partition. But odd number of stones followed the method with symmetrical arrangement on its center stone. These principles of stone arrangement are judged as distinguishing methods which oddly shaped stones was made and used in Joseon palaces.

A Study on the Location and Landscaping Characteristics of Yonghogugok of Jiri Mountain Illuminated by Old Literatures and Letters Carved on the Rocks (고문헌과 바위글씨로 조명한 지리산 용호구곡(龍湖九曲)의 입지 및 경관특성)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Kahng, Byung-Seon
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.154-167
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    • 2014
  • The results of this study conducted to identify the substance, regional characteristics or landscaping of Namwon Yonghogugok, which is the only valley of Jiri Mountain, based on Kim Samun's 'Yonghokugok-Gyeongseungannae(龍湖九曲景勝案內)', 'Yongseongji(龍城誌)' and position, meaning of letters carved and projection technique by ArcGIS10.0 on the rocks are as below. The feature landscapes of the canyon of Yonghogugok, which is an incised meander and one of the Eight beautiful scenery of Namwon, ponds, cliffs and rocks generated with metamorphic rocks and granites weathered by rapids torrents. As a result of measuring the GPS coordinates of the letters carved on the rocks, excluding the 3 Gok Hakseoam and the distances based on the origin and destination of the letters carved on the rocks using the API(Application Programming Interface) function of Daum map, the total distance of Yonghogugok was 3.5km and the average distance between the each Gok was 436.5m. It is assumed that Yonghogugok was designated by Sarim(士林) of the Kiho School(畿湖學派) related to Wondong Hyangyak(元洞鄕約) which is the main agent of Yonghojeongsa(龍湖精舍), the forerunner of Yonghoseowon(龍湖書院), between the late Joseon Dynasty and the early Japanese colonial era, in 1927. Its grounds are the existence of Yonghoyeongdang mentioned on 'Yonghojeongsilgi'(龍湖亭實記), records of 'Haeunyugo(荷隱遺稿)', 'Yonghopumje(龍湖品題)' of Bulshindang(佛神堂), 'Yonghojeongsadonggu Gapjachun(龍湖精舍洞口 甲子春)' letters carved on the rocks and 'Yonghogugok-Shipyeong(龍湖九曲十詠)' posted on Mokgandang of Yonghoseowon. Comprehensively considering the numerous poetry society lists carved on the stone wall of Punghodae(風乎臺), the Sixth Gok Yuseondae, its stone mortar, 'Bangjangjeildongcheon(方丈第一洞天)' of Bulshindang and Gyoryongdam(交龍潭), the Yonghoseokmun(龍湖石門) letters carved on the rocks, Yeogungseok adjacent to the First Gok and Fengshui facilities, centered on Yonghoseowon and Yonghojeong, Yonghogugok can be understood as a unique valley culture formed with the thoughts of Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism and Fengshui. 'Yonghogugok-Gyeongseungannae' provides very useful information to understand the place name, called by locals and landscaping aspects of Yonghogugok in the late Joseon Dynasty. In addition, the meaning of "Nine dragons" and even though 12 chu(湫: pond) of Yonghogugok Yongchudong including Bulyeongchu, Guryongchu, Isuchu, Goieumchu and Daeyachu are mentioned on Yongseongji, a part of them cannot be confirmed now. Various place names and facilities relevant to Guryong adjacent to Yonghogugok are the core of the place identity. In addition, the accurate location identification and the delivery of the landscaping significance of the 12 ponds is expected to provide landscaping attractiveness of Yonghogugok and become very useful contents for landscaping storytelling and a keyword of storyboard.

Reconsideration on the Place Name of the Scenic Site No.1 「Myeongju Cheonghak-dong Sogumgang」 (명승 제1호 「명주 청학동 소금강」에 대한 지명 재고(再考))

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2014
  • As part of reconsideration on naming of the scenic site No.1 "Myeongju Cheonghak-dong Sogumgang," this study attempts to identify whether there is any mistake with reference to place naming of Korea's No.1 scenic site and if so, to correct the problem by examining the origin of the name and its transition progress through analysis and interpretation of old maps, ancient documents such as traditional geographic books, Yusangi(遊山記) and Letters Carved on the Rocks. The findings of this study are as follows: In traditional geographic books, a term of 'Mt. Cheonghak(靑鶴山)' was first found from "SinjungDonggookyeojisungram(新增東國輿地勝覽)" and after a place name, 'Sogumgang(小金剛)' first appeared in "Yeojidoseo(輿地圖書)" in the middle of the 17th century, it was reproduced in "Jungsuimyeongji(增修臨瀛誌)", which was published in the early 20th century. However, as a result of analyzing old maps, the place name, Sogumgang cannot be found in any local or national map except place names such as Cheonghak-dong, Mt. Cheonghak and Temple Cheonghak. Even though 'Biseonam,' 'Cheonyudong,' 'Gyeongdam' and 'Mt. Cheonghak' appear in Yulgok's "Yucheonghaksangi(遊靑鶴山記)", any part in which 'Sogumgang' was referred is not found. Later, Cheonghak-dong Sogumgang seemed to had been called 'Mt. Cheonghak' or 'Cheonghak-dong(靑鶴洞)' for more than three centuries as seen in Lee Sun-il's "Godamilgo(孤潭逸稿)", Heo Geun's farewell records, Heo Mok's "Cheonghak-dong Guryongyeongi(靑鶴洞九龍淵記)", Yoon Sun-geo(尹宣擧)'s "Padongilgi(巴東日記)" and Lee Won-jo's letters and a poem composed by Gang Jae-hang in the middle of the 18th century is the only record in which the place name, 'Sogumgang' is shown. Meanwhile, 'Sogumgang' carved on Inung Rock(二能巖) in front of Temple Gumgang is presumed to be carved by Inunggyeoone(二能契員) in the 1870s or in 1930s, considering the size of each character, calligraphy, overall layout, wear extent and records in Jiriji. Therefore, no evidence can be found to say that each character of 'Sogumgang' was written by Yulgok because 'Sogumgang' has strong evidences of the origin of its place name. To sum up the findings stated above, since Yulgok's "Yucheonghaksangi", this place seems to have been referred as 'Mt. Cheonghak Cheonghak-dong' and as it is confirmed that the place name, 'Sogumgang' first appeared in "Ohyeongosijo(五言古時調)" of "Ibjaeseonsangyugo(立齋先生遺稿)" and "Yeojidoseo" in the middle of the 18th century, it can be inferred that the place name, Sogumgang had been partly mingled as an another name of Mt. Cheonghak. Therefore, even though it is difficult to say the existing place name has a significant problem, it is thought that it will be better to name 'Mt. Cheonghak Cheonghak-dong' rather than 'Cheonghak-dong Sogumgang' in order to stress on this place's traditional identity as a scenic site related to Yulgok. In addition, as confirmed in this study process, it is said that each character of place names, 'Mt. Cheonghak' and 'Gyeongdam(鏡潭)' and name 'Yoon Sun-geo' carved in Rock Sikdang stated in Yoon Sun-geo's "Padongilgi" in 1964 is a pledge showing the influence of "Yucheonghaksangi" as an ancient travel literature as well as a mark of the Giho school scholars' respect and spirit to honor Yulgok.

The Evolution of Cyber Singer Viewed from the Coevolution of Man and Machine (인간과 기계의 공진화적 관점에서 바라본 사이버가수의 진화과정)

  • Kim, Dae-Woo
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.261-295
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    • 2015
  • Cyber singer appeared in the late 1990s has disappeared briefly appeared. although a few attempts in the 2000s, it did not show significant successes. cyber singer was born thanks to the technical development of the IT industry and the emergence of an idol training system in the music industry. It was developed by Vocaloid 'Seeyou' starting from 'Adam'. cyber singer that differenatiated typical digital characters in a cartoon or game may be subject to idolize to the music as a medium. They also feature forming a plurality of fandom. therefore, such attempts and repeated failures, this could be considered a fashion, but it flew content creation and ongoing attempts to take advantage of the new media, such as Vocaloid can see that there are expectations for a true Cyber-born singer. Early-Cyber singer is made only resemble human appearance, but 'Sciart' and 'Seeyou' has been evolving to becoming more like the human capabilities. in this paper, stylized cyber singer had disappeared in the past in the process of developing the technology to evolve into own artificial life does not end in failure cases, gradually led to a change in public perceptions of the image look looking machine was an attempt in that sense. With the direction of the evolution of the mechanical function to obtain a human, fun and human exchanges and mutual feelings. And it is equipped with an artificial life form that evolved with it only in appearance and function. in order to support this logic, I refer to the study of the coevolution of man and machine at every Bruce Mazlish. And, I have analyzed the evolution of cyber singer Bruce research from the perspective of the development process since the late 1990s, the planning of the eight singers who have appeared and design of the cyber character and important voices to be evaluated as a singer (vocal). The machine has been evolving coevolution with humans. cyber singer ambivalent development targets are recognized, but strive to become the new artificial creatures of horror idea of human desire and death continues. therefore, the new Cyber-organisms are likely to be the same style as 'Seeyou'. because, cartoon forms and whirring voice may not be in the form of a signifier is the real human desires, but this is because the contemporary public's desire to be desired and the technical development of this type can be created at the point where the cross-signifier.

Analyses on Sound Effects for Soundscape Design of Healing Garden at Psychiatric Hospitals - Focused Psychological and Physiological Effects - (정신병원 치유정원의 음경관 디자인을 위한 소리효과 분석 - 심리적 및 생리적 효과를 중심으로 -)

  • Ahn, Deug-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.82-95
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    • 2015
  • This study is intended to obtain a guideline for creating a therapeutic garden soundscape in a psychiatric hospital by analyzing the psychological and physiological effects of auditory components on mental patients. The subjects were 27 inpatients at a psychiatric institute located in Jeollabuk-do. They were recommended by their doctors and had been diagnosed with mild cases of schizophrenia. The survey was carried out in October 2011. With regard to the study, the subjects listened to single sounds(the sound of flowing water, birdsong, wind chimes and music) and 4 sounds composed of some of these, and then Electroencephalography(EEG) and psychological effects were measured. The moving water sound was perceived as pleasing and revitalizing and the birdsong as sonorous and delightful. When designing a healing garden in a psychiatric hospital, the vitality of sound should be considered. In comparison to other single sounds, water sounds were highly preferred and had greater effects on psychological vitality. Music sounds had a significant effect on enhancing tranquility while water sounds affected on both psychological vitality and tranquillity. When comparing single sounds with combined sounds, single sounds such as running water for vitality and music for tranquility had a greater psychological effect than combined sounds. In terms of combined sound preferences, the combination of water and bird sounds had higher preference rates. Generally, combined sounds including water tended to have higher preference rates. The physiological effects of single sounds showed that music had a greater therapeutic effect than natural sounds such as water sounds and birdsong in promoting tranquility. As for combined sounds adopted to enhance physiological tranquility, it is most appropriate to combine music and birdsong or music and water sounds. However, a single music sound is more effective than combined sounds. Overall, analyses of both psychological and physiological reactions showed music and water sounds to be most calming while water sounds promoted the greatest vitality.

The treatment of an edentulous patient with DENTCA$^{TM}$ CAD/CAM Denture (CAD/CAM Denture를 이용한 완전 무치악 환자 수복 증례)

  • Park, Joon-Ho;Cho, In-Ho;Shin, Soo-Yeon;Choi, Yu-Sung
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2015
  • Nowadays, CAD/CAM is broadly used in dentistry for inlays, crowns, implant abutments and its spectrum is expanding to complete dentures. Utilizing CAD/CAM to fabricate complete dentures is expected to decrease chair time and the number of visits, thus decreasing total fabrication time, expenses and errors caused during fabrication processes. One of the systems using CAD/CAM, DENTCA$^{TM}$ CAD/CAM denture (DENTCA Inc. Los Angeles, USA) scans edentulous impressions, designs dentures digitally, fabricates try-in dentures by 3D printing and converts them into final dentures. Patients can wear final dentures after only 2 - 3 visits with satisfying adaptation. This case report introduces a 71-year-old male patient who visited to consult remaking of existing old dentures. Residual teeth with bad prognosis and root remnants were extracted and the patient used reformed existing mandibular denture for 2 months. And then DENTCA system started. One-step border molding was done using conventional tray of adequate size provided by DENTCA system and wash impression was taken. Gothic arch tracing was completed based on the vertical dimension of existing dentures. Both maxillary and mandibular trays were placed to the resultant centric relation and bite registration was taken. Then DENTCA scanned the bite registration, arranged the teeth, completed the festooning and fabricated the try-in dentures by 3D printing. The try-in dentures were positioned, occlusal plane and occlusal relations were evaluated. The try-in dentures were converted to final dentures. To create bilateral balanced occlusion, occlusal adjustment was done after clinical remounting using facebow transfer. The result was satisfactory and it was confirmed by patient and operator.

IPA Study of Landscape Potentiality of Agricultural and Fishery Heritages - A Focus on Cheongsando - (농어업유산의 경관 잠재력 파악을 위한 IPA 연구 - 청산도를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Dong-Chan;Choi, Woo-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.76-88
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to derive landscape characteristic elements of agricultural and fishery heritage and to classify landscape characteristic elements of Cheongsando designated as Korean agricultural and fishery heritage No.1 as well as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS). Additionally, this study was conducted to suggest priority for conservation and management of Cheongsando by grasping differences between factors which visitors deem as important and satisfying. To implement this study, the literature review was written, an on-site survey to derive landscape characteristic elements of Cheongsando and a survey on importance and satisfaction of landscape characteristic elements of Cheongsando were conducted, and reliability analysis, descriptive statistical analysis and IPA analysis were performed using SPSS 20.0. The results are as follows: The analysis showed the factors requiring persistent efforts in the first quadrant are the rape flower garden, the sea, green barley field, flat stone paddy field, breakwater and lighthouse, abalone farms, stone houses, thatched houses, a coastal road, the slow road, Stonewall Walkway of Seongseo Village, and residents' agricultural behaviors. The analysis showed the factors needing intensive management strategies in the second quadrant are the surrounding mountain area, dock, Docheong Harbor, vessels, fish market, Doksari stone wall, garish-roofed farm villages, excursion school to a slow island, pension and cafe, bus stop, shade trees, Raw Fish Street, the beach and the filming site. Analysis indicated that the factors needing management control in the third quadrant are the pine grove, the beach, tidal mudflat, the garlic fields, vinyl greenhouses, grain drying yard, sea mustard drying yard, heritage center, Choboon, Dangri exorcism, the market place, residents' fishery behaviors, residents' industrial behaviors, residents' ordinary behaviors, visitors' behaviors that visiting the dock, visitors' behaviors that walking the slow road, visitors' behaviors that eating and shopping for specialties, visitors' behaviors that experiencing agriculture and fishery. Excessive effort factors in the fourth quadrant were not derived.