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Development of Estimation Models for Parking Units -Focused on Gwangju Metropolitan City Condominium Apartments- (주차원단위 산정 모형 개발에 관한 연구 -광주광역시 공동 주택 아파트를 대상으로-)

  • Kwon, Sung-Dae;Ko, Dong-Bong;Park, Je-Jin;Ha, Tae-Jun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.549-559
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    • 2014
  • The rapid expansion of cities led to the shortage of housing in urban areas. The government compensated for this shortage through large scale residential developments that increased the housing supply. The supply of condominium apartments remains above 83% of the entire housing supply, and the proportion of apartments are at a steady increase, at about 50%. Due to the increase, illegally parked cars resulting from the shortage of parking spaces within the apartment complex have become increasingly problematic as they block the transit of emergency vehicles, and heighten the tension among neighboring residents in obtaining a parking space. Especially, the future residents are considered to plan the parking based on the estimated demand for parking. However, the parking unit method utilized to estimate the parking demand accounts for the exclusive use of space, which is believed to be far from the parking demands in reality. The reason for this discrepancy is that, as the number of households decrease, and area of exclusive space is expanded, the planned parking increases. On the other hand, when the number of households increase, and the area of exclusive space is reduced, the planned parking decreases, thus methods to recalculate the parking units based on estimated parking demand is an urgent concern. To estimate the parking units based on condominium apartments, this study first examined the existing research literature, and appointed the field of investigation to collect the necessary data. In addition, field study data and surveys collected and analyzed, in order to identify the problems underlying parking units, and problems regarding the current traffic impact assessment parking unit calculation method were deduced. Through identifying the influential factors on parking demand estimates, and performing a factorial analysis based on the collected data, the variables were selected in relation to the parking demand estimates, to develop the parking unit estimate model. Finally, through comparing and verifying the existing traffic impact assessment parking unit estimate against the newly developed model using collected data, a far more realistic parking unite estimate was suggested, reflecting the characteristics of the residents. The parking unit estimate model developed in this study is anticipated to serve as the guidelines for future parking lot legislature, as wel as the basis to provide a more realistic estimate of parking demands based on the resident characteristics of an apartment complex.

The Relation between Mother's LOHAS Propensity and Healthy Dietary Life Attitude perceived by Chinese University Students (대학생 자녀가 지각한 어머니의 로하스(LOHAS) 성향과 건강식생활 태도와의 관련성 연구 - 중국대학생을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Yeon-Jung;Ahn, Gee-Jung
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.101-120
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to examine the relation between a mother's LOHAS lifestyle propensity, healthy dietary life, and nutrient intake perceived by Chinese university students. The subjects consisted of 376 Chinese university students. The research results are summarized below. The mother's LOHAS attitude index was 76.02 points out of a perfect score of 100 points. High LOHAS attitude factors of mothers were 'health', whereas 'social welfare' scored low. The highest LOHAS attitude items of mothers that Chinese university students perceived was 'My mother uses health food, organic food, clean food'(4.26 points). Males who lived on their own in a large city and have normal BMI ($18.5{\sim}22.9kg/m^2$) perceived a high mother's LOHAS score. The highest food habit variables are 'eating without spilling food' 'cleaning up after meals around' and 'washing my hands before meals'. The highest healthy dietary life item is 'I try to maintain a pleasant and enjoyable life'(3.83 points). The highest nutrient intake attitude score is 'I tend to eat yellowish-green vegetables every day.'(3.92 points). According to mother's LOHAS lifestyle score, it was verified that the higher mother's LOHAS lifestyle score, the higher children's food habit, healthy dietary life, and nutrient intake score are. Mother's environment-friendly LOHAS attitude index has a meaningful impact on the child's food habits, healthy dietary life, and nutrient intake.

Warm Season Hydro-Meteorological Variability in South Korea Due to SSTA Pattern Changes in the Tropical Pacific Ocean Region (열대 태평양 SSTA 패턴 변화에 따른 우리나라 여름철 수문 변동 분석)

  • Yoon, Sun-kwon;Kim, Jong-Suk;Lee, Tae-Sam;Moon, Young-IL
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.49-63
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we analyzed the effects of regional hydrologic variability during warm season (June-September) in South Korea due to ENSO (El $Ni{\tilde{n}}o$-Southern Oscillation) pattern changes over the Tropical Pacific Ocean (TPO). We performed composite analysis (CA) and statistical significance test by Student's t-test using observed hydrologic data (such as, precipitation and streamflow) in the 113 sub-watershed areas over the 5-Major River basin, in South Korea. As a result of this study, during the warm-pool (WP) El $Ni{\tilde{n}}o$ year shows a significant increasing tendency than normal years. Particularly, during the cold-tongue (CT) El $Ni{\tilde{n}}o$ decaying years clearly decreasing tendency compared to the normal years was appeared. In addition, the La $Ni{\tilde{n}}a$ years tended to show a slightly increasing tendency and maintain the average year state. In addition, from the result of scatter plot of the percentage anomaly of hydrologic variables during warm season, it is possible to identify the linear increasing tendency. Also the center of the scatter plot shows during the WP El $Ni{\tilde{n}}o$ year (+17.93%, +26.99%), the CT El $Ni{\tilde{n}}a$ year (-8.20%, -15.73%), and the La $Ni{\tilde{n}}a$ year (+8.89%, +15.85%), respectively. This result shows a methodology of the tele-connection based long-range water resources prediction for reducing climate forecasting uncertainty, when occurs the abnormal SSTA (such as, El $Ni{\tilde{n}}o$ and La $Ni{\tilde{n}}a$) phenomenon in the TPO region. Furthermore, it can be a useful data for water managers and end-users to support long-range water-related policy making.

Distribution and Species Prediction of Epilithic Diatom in the Geum River Basin, South Korea (금강권역 주요 하천의 돌 부착돌말류 분포 및 출현예측)

  • Cho, In-Hwan;Kim, Ha-Kyung;Choi, Man-Young;Kwon, Yong-Su;Hwang, Soon-Jin;Kim, Sang-Hoon;Kim, Baik-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.153-167
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    • 2015
  • In order to understand the relationship between the distribution of epilithic diatoms and the habitual environments, land-use, water qualities, and epilithic diatoms were studied at 141 sampling sites in the midwestern stream of Korean peninsula (Geum river, Mangyeong river, Dongjin river, and Sapgyo river). The total 183 diatom taxa was appeared in the study, while the dominant species were found to be Nitzschia palea (10.9%) and Achnanthes convergens (8.4%). Based on the abundance of epilithic diatoms, a cluster analysis results indicate that the sampling sites divided the sampling sites into 4 groups (G) at the 25% level. In term of geographic and aquatic environments, G-I and -II accounted for the upper and mid streams of the Geum river, and had large forest areas and good in water quality. G-III accounted for farmland and urban, and high concentration nutrient levels (TN and TP) and electric conductivity. G-IV accounted for mostly farmland, and high levels in turbidity, BOD, nutrient and electric conductivity. CCA results showed that the saproxenous taxa Meridion circulare was the indicator species of G-I, which strongly influenced by altitude and forests. In G-II, the indifferent taxa Navicula cryptocephala was influenced by Chl-a, AFDM, and DO. In G-III and -IV, the indifferent taxa Fragilaria elliptica and saprophilous taxa Aulacoseira ambigua were influenced by electric conductivity, turbidity, and nutrient counts. Meanwhile, random forest results showed that the predicting factor of indicator species appearance in G-I, -II, and -III was found to be electric conductivity whereas in G-IV it was found to be turbidity. Collectively, the distribution of diatoms in the midwestern of Korean peninsula was found to depend more on the land-use and its subsequent water qualities than the inherent characteristics of the aquatic environment.

Parents' Perception and Satisfaction of School Food Materials and Supplier -Performance in Mokpo, Korea- (학교급식 식재료 및 공급업체에 대한 학부모들의 인식 및 만족도 -목포지역 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Seok-In;Kang, Pyong-Yon;Jung, Hyun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.11
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    • pp.1741-1749
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate parents' perception and satisfaction of school food materials and supplier performance in Mokpo. To achieve these research objectives, a questionnaire was distributed to parents at 66 schools, and a total of 589 were used in the final analysis. The results of this study were as follows. First, satisfaction of school foodservice, showed the following scores: overall was 3.75, quality of food materials was 3.84, reliability of food suppliers was 3.80, education was 3.53, and information was 3.50. Second, 38.5% of parents participated in receiving school materials. Exactly 80.6% of parents showed intentions to participate. The most difficult thing for receiving materials was comparing quality of food materials (46.3%). Third, the most important factor cited for school food supplier was quality (62.3%) and sanitation and safety (24.1%). Forth, most parents were positive about the possibility of replacing foods used at school with environment friendly products. Local foods were cited for use in school foodservice (92.2%). The reasons were good quality (39.9%) and contribution to the local community (28.5%). In conclusion, parent's perception of school foodservice should increase to improve food material quality of school foodservice. Institutions for certifying are needed to offer high quality food materials at school foodservice and improved communication and education tool between the school and parents.

Application Strategies of Eye-tracking Method in Nightscape Evaluation (야간경관 평가에서의 아이트래킹 분석 적용 연구)

  • Kang, Youngeun;Kim, Mintai
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.87-97
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    • 2015
  • There's a trend towards vitalization of nightscape planning businesses nationally and locally as well for city image making and activation of regional economy, but there is still no systematic nightscape planning going on for lack of relevant researches and objective evaluations. This study aims to suggest the guideline for nightscape planning by conducting an eye tracking experiment and survey for recognizing the characteristics of a nightscape. Furthermore, the authors intended to verify the eye-tracking method as a tool for landscape evaluation. The research site was restricted in the campus of Virginia Tech, VA, and those were selected by experts' survey among various types of nightscape images. The variables for analyzing the characteristics of nightscape images selected were 'preference', 'safety(fear)' and 'clearness'. 'Fixation duration', 'saccade duration', 'scan path length', and 'pupil size' were selected as the eye movement measurements. The results of this study are as follows: The first outcome found was that there were significant differences among the characteristics(preference, safety and clearness) of a nightscape by MANOVA, and these variables were correlated positively by Pearson's correlation. Secondly, there were differences on fixation duration, saccade duration and scan path depending on the nightscape setting statistically. Also, the eye tracking measurement in an open setting was recorded lower than enclosed settings. In the result of a heat map, we found the meaning of the fixated areas on both viewing without intention and viewing intentionally. It turned out that the fixated areas were consistent with the areas the subjects felt preferred and clarity in all of the nightscape images, which means people usually focus on what they prefer and see clearly in a certain nightscape. Based on this result and previous studies, the authors could make a conclusion that eye tracking method can apply to evaluate nightscape settings in terms of analyzing the whole characteristics and finding specific points for the detailed analysis as well. Therefore, these results can contribute by suggesting nightscape planning, implication of the landscape evaluation, and implication of the eye tracking study.

Mechanical Properties of Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag on Blended Activator of Sulfate and Alkali (황산염 및 알칼리계의 혼합 활성화제에 대한 고로슬래그미분말의 역학적 특성)

  • Kim, Tae-Wan;Jun, Yu-Bin;Eom, Jang-Sub
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.104-111
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    • 2015
  • This study shows the mechanical properties of alkali-activated slag cement (AASC) synthesized using sulfate with NaOH solution. The used sulfates were calcium sulfate ($CaSO_4$, denoted CS) and sodium sulfate ($Na_2SO_4$, denoted SS). The replacement ratio of sulfates was 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0% by weight of slag. NaOH solution of 2M and 4M concentration was used. A sample was activated with sulfate and activated with blended activator (blending NaOH solution with sulfate) respectively. 24 mix ratios were used and the water-binder weight ratio for the test was set 0.5. This research carried out the compressive strength, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV), absorption and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In the case of samples with CS, sample with 7.5% CS, sample with 2M NaOH+5.0% CS and sample with 4M NaOH+5.0% CS showed the good performance in the strength development. In the case of samples with SS, sample with 10.0% SS, sample with 2M NaOH+7.5% SS and sample with 4M NaOH+2.5% SS obtained good performance in strength. The results of UPV and water absorption showed a similar tendency to the strength properties. The XRD analysis of samples indicated that the hydration products formed in samples were ettringite, CSH and silicate phases. In this study, it is indicated that when compared to the use of sulfate only, the use of both sulfate and NaOH solution makes mechanical properties of AASC better.

Application Plan of Goods Information in the Public Procurement Service for Enhancing U-City Plans (U-City계획 고도화를 위한 조달청 물품정보 활용 방안 : CCTV 사례를 중심으로)

  • PARK, Jun-Ho;PARK, Jeong-Woo;NAM, Kwang-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.21-34
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    • 2015
  • In this study, a reference model is constructed that provides architects or designers with sufficient information on the intelligent service facility that is essential for U-City space configuration, and for the support of enhanced design, as well as for planning activities. At the core of the reference model is comprehensive information about the intelligent service facility that plans the content of services, and the latest related information that is regularly updated. A plan is presented to take advantage of the database of list information systems in the Public Procurement Service that handles intelligent service facilities. We suggest a number of improvements by analyzing the current status of, and issues with, the goods information in the Public Procurement Service, and by conducting a simulation for the proper placement of CCTV. As the design of U-City plan has evolved from IT technology-based to smart space-based, reviews of limitations such as the lack of standards, information about the installation, and the placement of the intelligent service facility that provides U-service have been carried out. Due to the absence of relevant legislation and guidelines, however, planning activities, such as the appropriate placement of the intelligent service facility are difficult when considering efficient service provision. In addition, with the lack of information about IT technology and intelligent service facilities that can be provided to U-City planners and designers, there are a number of difficulties when establishing an optimal plan with respect to service level and budget. To solve these problems, this study presents a plan in conjunction with the goods information from the Public Procurement Service. The Public Procurement Service has already built an industry-related database of around 260,000 cases, which has been continually updated. It can be a very useful source of information about the intelligent service facility, the ever-changing U-City industry's core, and the relevant technologies. However, since providing this information is insufficient in the application process and, due to the constraints in the information disclosure process, there have been some issues in its application. Therefore, this study, by presenting an improvement plan for the linkage and application of the goods information in the Public Procurement Service, has significance for the provision of the basic framework for future U-City enhancement plans, and multi-departments' common utilization of the goods information in the Public Procurement Service.

An Estimation of the Minimum Distance Between a Roundabout and Signal Crosswalk Using VISSIM (VISSIM분석을 통한 회전교차로 인접 신호횡단보도의 최소이격거리 산정)

  • KIM, Young Beom;LEE, Dongmin;Jun, Jin Woo;Cho, Hanseon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.337-347
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    • 2015
  • Since the application of roundabouts by 2010 have been started, more than 350 roundabouts were installed in Korea. Recently the types of constructed roundabouts become various, and the intersection conditions for installing roundabouts were also various. However, there were some difficulties to install roundabouts around school zone due to safety problems. In this study, appropriate distance from adjacent signal crosswalks to roundabouts were estimated for securing pedestrian safety and operation efficiency around school zone. With the analyses, the minimum distance standard was suggested to obtain operational effectiveness of roundabout according to traffic volume, traffic flow, pedestrian green time and secures pedestrian safety and convenience. In this paper, average delay of roundabout as various length of distances between an adjacent crosswalk and a roundabout as different pedestrian signal times, traffic volumes, traffic flow rates were analyzed. Through this study, it was found that about four times of delay in a roundabout was generated if there was adjacent signal crosswalk. However if there is enough distance between an adjacent crosswalk and a roundabout, the value of increasing delay on roundabouts with adjacent a signalized crosswalk can be considerably reduced. Critical value of the distance between a roundabout and a signal crosswalk in case of roundabouts within 200-500 vehicle/hour/lane entry traffic flow, 20-40% of left turn traffic, and over 15 seconds pedestrian green time was about 50 meters. In conclusion, if there is minimum 40 meter distance from roundabouts, adjacent signal crosswalks can be installed and operated for students' safety around school zone.

Exploring the Temporal Relationship Between Traffic Information Web/Mobile Application Access and Actual Traffic Volume on Expressways (웹/모바일-어플리케이션 접속 지표와 TCS 교통량의 상관관계 연구)

  • RYU, Ingon;LEE, Jaeyoung;CHOI, Keechoo;KIM, Junghwa;AHN, Soonwook
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2016
  • In the recent years, the internet has become accessible without limitation of time and location to anyone with smartphones. It resulted in more convenient travel information access both on the pre-trip and en-route phase. The main objective of this study is to conduct a stationary test for traffic information web/mobile application access indexes from TCS (Toll Collection System); and analyzing the relationship between the web/mobile application access indexes and actual traffic volume on expressways, in order to analyze searching behavior of expressway related travel information. The key findings of this study are as follows: first, the results of ADF-test and PP-test confirm that the web/mobile application access indexes by time periods satisfy stationary conditions even without log or differential transformation. Second, the Pearson correlation test showed that there is a strong and positive correlation between the web/mobile application access indexes and expressway entry and exit traffic volume. In contrast, truck entry traffic volume from TCS has no significant correlation with the web/mobile application access indexes. Third, the time gap relationship between time-series variables (i.e., concurrent, leading and lagging) was analyzed by cross-correlation tests. The results indicated that the mobile application access leads web access, and the number of mobile application execution is concurrent with all web access indexes. Lastly, there was no web/mobile application access indexes leading expressway entry traffic volumes on expressways, and the highest correlation was observed between webpage view/visitor/new visitor/repeat visitor/application execution counts and expressway entry volume with a lag of one hour. It is expected that specific individual travel behavior can be predicted such as route conversion time and ratio if the data are subdivided by time periods and areas and utilizing traffic information users' location.