• Title/Summary/Keyword: 도뇨관

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Incidence and Procedure-Related Risk Factors of Delirium in Patients Admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (중환자실 입원 환자의 섬망 발생과 처치 관련 위험인자)

  • Ahn, Jee Seon;Oh, Jooyoung;Park, Jaesub;Kim, Jae-Jin;Park, Jin Young
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2019
  • Objectives : Although delirium is a common complication among patients hospitalized in intensive care units(ICUs), little is known about the roles that diagnostic and therapeutic procedures play in its development. This study investigates the procedure-related risk factors of delirium in ICU patients. Methods : All the consecutive patients admitted to the ICU between June 2016 and May 2017 were routinely evaluated for delirium by psychiatrists. In total, 1156 patients met the inclusion criteria and were retrospectively analyzed. A multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to investigate independent risk factors of delirium development while adjusting for other characteristics. Results : The age, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score, proportion of patients who had undergone an operation, and proportion of patients who were foley catheterized, mechanically ventilated, and physically restrained were higher in the delirium group. The multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed that the use of restraint was an independent risk factor of delirium (odds ratio : 10.006 ; 95% confidence interval : 6.120-16.360 ; p<0.001). The patient factors independently associated with delirium were an advanced age and a higher APACHE II score. The incidence of delirium was 15.3%. Conclusions : There is a high prevalence of delirium influenced by potentially harmful procedures in patients in ICU settings. The use of physical restraint had the strongest association with the development of delirium. These findings advocate the need to target procedure-related risk factors such as the use of restraints as preventive intervention measures for ICU delirium.

A study on evaluation of the image with washed-out artifact after applying scatter limitation correction algorithm in PET/CT exam (PET/CT 검사에서 냉소 인공물 발생 시 산란 제한 보정 알고리즘 적용에 따른 영상 평가)

  • Ko, Hyun-Soo;Ryu, Jae-kwang
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.55-66
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    • 2018
  • Purpose In PET/CT exam, washed-out artifact could occur due to severe motion of the patient and high specific activity, it results in lowering not only qualitative reading but also quantitative analysis. Scatter limitation correction by GE is an algorism to correct washed-out artifact and recover the images in PET scan. The purpose of this study is to measure the threshold of specific activity which can recovers to original uptake values on the image shown with washed-out artifact from phantom experiment and to compare the quantitative analysis of the clinical patient's data before and after correction. Materials and Methods PET and CT images were acquired in having no misalignment(D0) and in 1, 2, 3, 4 cm distance of misalignment(D1, D2, D3, D4) respectively, with 20 steps of each specific activity from 20 to 20,000 kBq/ml on $^{68}Ge$ cylinder phantom. Also, we measured the distance of misalignment of foley catheter line between CT and PET images, the specific activity which makes washed-out artifact, $SUV_{mean}$ of muscle in artifact slice and $SUV_{max}$ of lesion in artifact slice and $SUV_{max}$ of the other lesion out of artifact slice before and after correction respectively from 34 patients who underwent $^{18}F-FDG$ Fusion Whole Body PET/CT exam. SPSS 21 was used to analyze the difference in the SUV between before and after scatter limitation correction by paired t-test. Results In phantom experiment, $SUV_{mean}$ of $^{68}Ge$ cylinder decreased as specific activity of $^{18}F$ increased. $SUV_{mean}$ more and more decreased as the distance of misalignment between CT and PET more increased. On the other hand, the effect of correction increased as the distance more increased. From phantom experiments, there was no washed-out artifact below 50 kBq/ml and $SUV_{mean}$ was same from origin. On D0 and D1, $SUV_{mean}$ recovered to origin(0.95) below 120 kBq/ml when applying scatter limitation correction. On D2 and D3, $SUV_{mean}$ recovered to origin below 100 kBq/ml. On D4, $SUV_{mean}$ recovered to origin below 80 kBq/ml. From 34 clinical patient's data, the average distance of misalignment was 2.02 cm and the average specific activity which makes washed-out artifact was 490.15 kBq/ml. The average $SUV_{mean}$ of muscles and the average $SUV_{max}$ of lesions in artifact slice before and after the correction show a significant difference according to a paired t-test respectively(t=-13.805, p=0.000)(t=-2.851, p=0.012), but the average $SUV_{max}$ of lesions out of artifact slice show a no significant difference (t=-1.173, p=0.250). Conclusion Scatter limitation correction algorism by GE PET/CT scanner helps to correct washed-out artifact from motion of a patient or high specific activity and to recover the PET images. When we read the image occurred with washed-out artifact by measuring the distance of misalignment between CT and PET image, specific activity after applying scatter limitation algorism, we can analyze the images more accurately without repeating scan.

A Clinical Study of Hospitalized Infants 28 to 90 Days of Age with Fever without Source (원인 없는 열로 입원한 생후 28일에서 90일 사이 영아들에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Rye, Min Hyuk;Noh, Yn Il;Lee, Seong Hun;Lee, Sun Young;Hur, Nam Jin;Lee, Dong Jin
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical features of hospitalized infants 28~90 days of age with fever without source and to analyze those of young febrile infants using risk criteria for serious bacterial infection. Methods : The clinical features of 131 infants 28~90 days of age admitted to the Ulsan Dong-Kang General Hospital Pediatric Department because of fever(temperature ${\geq}38^{\circ}C$ rectally) without source, from January 2000 to December 2000, were investigated by retrospective chart review. The clinical features of 131 febrile infants were analyzed using Rochester criteria. Results : Among 131 cases, there were 60 cases(45.8%) of urinary tract infection, 33 cases (25.2%) of aseptic meningitis, 2 cases(1.5%) of bacteremia and 36 cases(27.5%) of no specific diagnosis. Among 131 cases, there were 57 cases(43.5%) in low risk group and 74 cases(56.5%) in not low risk one by Rochester criteria. A significant difference in the incidence of urinary tract infection, aseptic meningitis and no specific diagnosis was not found between both groups. Male to female ratio was 1.8 : 1. Sex ratio between both groups was not significantly different. Most febrile infant were noted in spring(35.1%) and the summer(36.7%). The peak incidence of aseptic meningitis was noted in May and June. The fever subsided mostly within 48~72 hours after administering antimicrobial agents(61.8~83.2%). A significant difference in duration of fever after administering antimicrobial agents was not found between both groups. Conclusion : A selected group of low risk infants 28~90 days of age with fever without source can be managed as outpatients provided that a thorough initial evaluation is performed, that parents can reliably monitor their infant closely at home and that careful follow up can be assured. Because bag collected specimens were more likely to yield indeterminate urine culture result, a suprapubic or catheter obtained urine specimen for culture is a necessary part of the evaluation of all febrile infants 28~90 days of age. The further prospective study on evaluation and management of young febrile infant should be performed in our hospital.

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Removal of Urinary Calculi by Laparoscopic-Assisted Cystoscopy in Five Dogs (다섯 마리의 개에서 복강경 보조 방광경을 이용한 요로결석 제거)

  • Lee, Seung-Yong;Park, Se-Jin;Jin, So-Young;Kim, Min-Hyang;Seok, Seong-Hoon;Kim, Young-Ki;Lee, Hee-Chun;Yeon, Seong-Chan
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.371-375
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    • 2014
  • This article describes the use of laparoscopic-assisted cystoscopy for removal of urinary calculi in five dogs. All dogs had micturition disorder due to urinary calculi. The surgical technique used was same in all cases. A urethral catheter passed into the urinary bladder through the urethra preoperatively. A 5-mm diameter cannula was placed in the ventral midline, 1 to 2 cm cranial to the umbilicus, and the 5-mm laparoscope was introduced via the cannula. A 10-mm diameter cannula was placed adjacent to the apex of the bladder under the visual guidance of laparoscopy. The bladder was then partially exteriorized through the 10-mm portal site, and a stab incision was performed on the bladder wall. The incisional margin of the bladder was sutured to the skin of the second portal site in $360^{\circ}$ simple continuous suture. A 2.7-mm diameter cystoscope with a sheath was introduced into the bladder lumen. The cystic and urethral calculi were removed under the visual guidance of cystoscopy with continuous fluid flushing. No major postoperative complications were identified. During the follow up period (range 7 to 21 months), no episodes of urinary dysfunction or recurrence of clinical signs were observed.

An Experimental Study on the Occurence of Bacteriuria according to Duration of Insertion, Frequency of Bladder Irrigation & Perineal Care, & Administration of Antibiotics in Patients with Indwelling Catheter (수직도뇨관환자의 요로감염발생요인에 관한 실험적 연구 -요관삽입기간, 삽입방법, 세척횟수, 회음부소독유무, 항생제사용유무를 중심으로 -)

  • 임난영;김분한
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.19-27
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    • 1981
  • This Study was conducted at Intensive Care Unit of H & S Hospitals from Jan 4 to April 7, 1981 on 14mail & 26female adult patients. Each patient was screened and found to have nonbacteriuria in clean catch specimen before catheterization. Clean catch apecimen through Foley catheter were obtained after 24hours, 48hours and 72hours from catheterization. The result of this study is reviewed in a statistical analysis of percentage & Chi Square test to obtain the following findings. 1) The occurenc of bacteriuria in patients according to duration of indwelling catheter. a. 9.1% of the patient showed evidence of bacteriuria 24hours post catheterization specimen and 60% showed 48hours post cathetreization, while 68.4% of the patient showed evidence of bacteriuria 72hours post catheterization specimen. The occurence of bacteriuria in patients were significant differences at 1% level between duration of indwelling catheter. b. Mail patients had no infection 24hours post catheterization, 50% displayed bacteriuria 48hours post catheterization & 62.5% displayed bacteriuria 71hours post catheterization. 11.1% of femail patients displayed infection 24hours post catheterization 66.7% displayed infection 48hours post catheterization and 72.7% displayed infection 72hours post catheterization. There were significant differences at 1% level between bacteriuria occurence of mail & femail patients and the duration of insertion. 2) 56% of those patient who have altered mental state developed bacteriuria, while 40% of those patient who have alear mental state developed bacteriuria. But there was without statistically any significant difference between patient's mental status. 3) The occurence of bacteriuria with the administration of antibiotics in 36 patient was in 50%. The occurence of bacteriuria without the administration of antibiotics in 4 patients was in 50%. But there was without statistically any significant difference between the administration of antibiotics. 4) The occurence of bacteriuria in patients according to frequency of bladder irrigation. 50% of those patient who irrigated twice a day developed bacteriuria, 63.6% of those patient who irrigated once a day developed bacteriuria. The occurence of bacteriuria in patients were significant differences at 1% level between frequency of bladder irrigation. 5) The occurence of bacteriuria in patients who did perineal care once a day was 58.1%, 22.6% of those patient who did perineal care twice a day developed bacteriuria. But there was without statistically any signiticant differences between frequency of perineal care. 6) Most frequent bacteria of all bacterial strains isolated by culture of the urine was E. coli(45%). Enterococci & Staphylococcus were 15% respectively.

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The Effectiveness of Bladder Training on Self Voiding after Removal of Catheter in Female Patients with Craniotomy (개두술 여성환자에게 시행한 방광훈련이 유치도뇨관제거후 자가배뇨에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Jung-Lim;Kim, Keum-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Rehabilitation Nursing
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.72-84
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the effectiveness of bladder training on self voiding after removal of catheter in female patients with craniotomy, finally to develop a bladder rehabilitation program for cognitive impaired patients. Nonequivalent control group posttest design was used. The population of this study consisted of 34 hospitalized neurosurgical patients, all patients have been received craniotomy. 17 patients were assigned to the experimental group and another 17 patients to the control group. The homogeneity of general characteristics of the subjects was no significant difference. Bladder training program consisted of pre-training education, the bladder training, positive verbal reinforcement. The experimental group has been received bladder training and the control group has been received gravity drainage. The dependent variable, the frequency of voiding trial untill self voiding achieves, the frequency of urinary retention, the amount of residual urine, the occurrence, of urinary incontinence, were measured during 3 days after catheter removed. The data analyzed with SPSSWIN ; frequency, percentage, t-test and $X^2$-test were used to analyze homogeneity of general characteristics of subjects between the experimental and the control group. T-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and $X^2$-test were used to determine the effect of bladder training. The result of the study were as follows : There was significant difference in the frequency of voiding trial untill self voiding achieves between the experimental group and the control group. There was no significant difference in the frequency of urinary retention between the experimental group and the control group. There was no significant difference in the amount of residual urine between the experimental group and the control group. However, there was significant difference in the amount of residual urine in urinary retention patients. There was significant difference in the occurrence of urinary incontinence between the experimental group and the control group. In conclusion, bladder training program as a nursing intervention was effective in conclusion, bladder self voiding ability after removal of catheter for craniotomy patients. Therefore, it is recommended to use the bladder training program clinically for the bladder management of cognitive impaired patients.

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Reliability of Standardized Patients as Raters in Objective Structured Clinical Examination (객관 구조화 절차 기술 평가에서 채점자로서의 표준화환자의 신뢰도)

  • Son, Hee-Jeong;Moon, Joong-Bum;Lee, Hyang-Ah;Roh, Hye-Rin
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.318-326
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate whether standardized patient(SP) can be used as a reliable examiner in Objective Structured Clinical Examination(OSCE). 4 SPs and 4 faculties who have more than 2 years experience of OSCE scoring were selected. For 1 assignment 2 members of faculty and 2 SPs were designated as raters. SPs were educated for assessing 2 technical skills, male Foley catheter insertion and wound dressing, for 8 hours (4 hours / day, each topic). The definition, method, cautions and complications for each of procedural skills were covered in the education. Theoretical lectures, video learning, faculty demonstration and practical training on mannequins were employed. The 8 raters were standardized for an hour with simulated OSCE scoring using previous videos on the day before the OSCE. Each assessment was composed of 14 checklists and 1 global rate. The allotted time for each assignment was 5minutes and for evaluation time 2 minutes per student. The evaluation from the faculty and SPs were compared and analyzed with the GENOVA program. The overall generalizability coefficient (G coefficient) was 0.839 from two cases of OASTS. The reliability of the raters was high, 0.946. The inter-rater agreement between faculty group and SP group was 0.949 for checklist and 0.908 for global rating. Therefore SPs can play a role of raters in OSCE for procedural skills, if they are given the appropriate training.

Non-hemolytic, Mucinous, Coagulase Negative MRSA Isolated from Urine (소변에서 분리된 비용혈성, 점액성, 응고효소 음성 MRSA)

  • Kim, Jae Soo;Choi, Qute;Jung, Bo Kyeung;Kim, Jong Wan;Kim, Ga Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.260-264
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    • 2019
  • An 84-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of pressure sores of the anus. She had a urine catheter when she showed pyuria three times but had no fever. A microscopic examination revealed many grapevine-like Gram positive strains and neutrophils. After 24 hours of urine culture on blood agar, non-hemolytic mucous colonies were found and further enlarged after 48 hours of culture. The capsules were identified after India ink stain. The catalase was positive, but the tube coagulase and latex coagulase were both negative. The S. aureus was identified by Vitek-2 and mass spectrometer Vitek MS V-3 IVD. The strain was confirmed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). The phenotypically atypical MRSA found in the tube coagulase and latex coagulase were both negative. MRSA often show no beta hemolysis as in this case but are rarely latex coagulase-negative. We report a woman whose urine culture showed non-hemolytic, tube coagulase-negative, and latex coagulase-negative MRSA.

Analysis of Postpneumonectomy Complication without Balanced Chest Bottle (흉관 삽입술 없이 시행한 전폐절제술 후 발생한 합병증에 대한 분석)

  • Kim, Tae-Gyun;Chung, Won-Sang;Kang, Jung-Ho;Kim, Young-Hak;Kim, Hyuck;Jee, Heng-Ok;Lee, Chul-Bum;Ham, Shi-Young
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.290-295
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    • 2002
  • Backgroud: Pneumonectomy carries the possibility of numerous dangerous complications as well as the vast effect the operation itself has on the cardiopulmonary function. Most of operations are done with the insertion of the chest tubes upon completion, but because of the high incidence of pyothorax as its complications, we have tried to analyze and compare the cases without inserting the chest tubes. Material and Method: During a 5 year period from January, 1996 to December 2000, 100 cases, which were operated at the Hanyang University Hospital, were selected using the patient's charts. The age, gender, indication of operation, associated diseases, and operation site(left or right) were classified accordingly and the postoperative complications and mortality were statistically analyzed using the $\chi$ 2-test. After resecting the lung, the intrathoracic pressure was set at -15 ~ -20cm $H_2O$ using the nelaton catheter, and the thoracotomy site was then closed. The gradual collection of the fluid and blood in the thorax of the operated side, as well as the mediastinum location, were observed carefully for 4~5 days postoperatively with the aid of the simple chest x-rays. Result: Of the 100 cases, 16 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis(16%), 81 cases of lung tumor(81%), 2 cases of bronchiectasis(2%), and 1 case of aspergilloma associated bronchiectasis were noted. There were 8 mortality cases(8%), and of the 34 cases(34%), 44 complications were noted. The age, sex, and operation site(left or right) were not statistically significant with the complications. 7 of the 16 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis(44%) and 27 of the 81 cases of lung tumor(33%) had complications, but they were found not to be statistically significant. The increase of the complication rate in the pulmonary tuberculosis patients was 3.86. The evidence of postoperative bleeding was observed in 6 cases with the 3 cases being the pulmonary tuberculosis patients and the 3 cases were others. This shows that the increase in postoperative bleeding in the pulmonary tuberculosis is statistically significant(p=0.019). Of the 100 cases, there were 8 mortality cases(8%), with 5 cases from the 81 cases of the lung tumor group(6.1%), 3 cases from the 16 cases of pulmonary tuberculoses group(18.7%).

Study of Patient's Position to Reduce Late Complications in High Dose Rate Intracavitary Radiation of the Uterine Cervix Cancer (자궁경부암의 고선량율 강내 방사선치료 시 부작용을 줄이기 위한 적정 치료 자세의 연구)

  • Yun, Hyong-Geun;Shin, Kyo-Chul
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.477-483
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : Radiation proctitis and radiation cystitis are frequent and problematic late complications in patients treated with radiation for the uterine cervix cancer. Authors tried to find out the better patient's position in high dose rate intracavitary radiation to reduce the radiation dose of bladder and rectum. Materials and Methods : In 13 patients, Foley Catheters were inserted to patient's bladder and rectum and were ballooned with radioopaque dye. After insertion of a tandem and two ovoids, semi-orthogonal anteroposterior and lateral films were taken in both lithotomy and supine position. The rectal point and bladder point were defined according to the criteria recommended in the ICRU Report 38 with modification. Using these films, all patients' bladder and rectal dose were calculated in both positions (the radiation dose of A point was set to 400 cGy). And also, the distance of bladder and rectum from uterine cervical os was calculated in both positions. Results : The average radiation dose of rectum was 240.7 cGy in lithotomy position and 278.3 cGy in supine position, and the average radiation dose of bladder was 303.5 cGy in lithotomy position and 255.8 cGy in supine position. After the paired t-test, the radiation dose of rectum in lithotomy position was marginally significantly lower than that in supine position, while the radiation dose of bladder in lithotomy position was significantly higher than that in supine position. On the other hand, the average distance between rectum and cervical os was 35.2 mm in lithotomy position and 32.3 mm in supine position. and the average distance between bladder and cervical os was 30.4 mm in lithotomy position and 34.0 mm in supine position. After the paired t-test. the distance between rectum and cervical os in lithotomy position was significantly longer than that in supine position, while the distance between bladder and cervical os in lithotomy position was significantly shorter than that in supine position. Conclusion : The radiation dose of bladder can be reduced in supine position and the radiation dose of rectum can be reduced in lithotomy position, so we can choose appropriate position in each patient.

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