• Title, Summary, Keyword: 논픽션

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Animation and Machines: designing expressive robot-human interactions (애니메이션과 기계: 감정 표현 로봇과 인간과의 상호작용 연구)

  • Schlittler, Joao Paulo Amaral
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.677-696
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    • 2017
  • Cartoons and consequently animation are an effective way of visualizing futuristic scenarios. Here we look at how animation is becoming ubiquitous and an integral part of this future today: the cybernetic and mediated society that we are being transformed into. Animation therefore becomes a form of speech between humans and this networked reality, either as an interface or as representation that gives temporal form to objects. Animation or specifically animated films usually are associated with character based short and feature films, fiction or nonfiction. However animation is not constricted to traditional cinematic formats and language, the same way that design and communication have become treated as separate fields, however according to $Vil{\acute{e}}m$ Flusser they aren't. The same premise can be applied to animation in a networked culture: Animation has become an intrinsic to design processes and products - as in motion graphics, interface design and three-dimensional visualization. Video-games, virtual reality, map based apps and social networks constitute layers of an expanded universe that embodies our network based culture. They are products of design and media disciplines that are increasingly relying on animation as a universal language suited to multi-cultural interactions carried in digital ambients. In this sense animation becomes a discourse, the same way as Roland Barthes describes myth as a type of speech. With the objective of exploring the role of animation as a design tool, the proposed research intends to develop transmedia creative visual strategies using animation both as narrative and as an user interface.

The Narrative Discourse of the Novel and the Film L'Espoir (소설과 영화 『희망 L'Espoir』의 서사담론)

  • Oh, Se-Jung
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.48
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    • pp.289-323
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    • 2017
  • L'Espoir, a novel by Andre Malraux, contains traits of the genre of literacy reportage that depicts the full account of the Spanish Civil War as non-fiction based on his personal experience of participating in war; the novel has been dramatized into a semi-documentary film that corresponds to reportage literature. A semi-documentary film is the genre of film that pursues realistic illustration of social incidents or phenomenon. Despite difference in types of genre of the novel and the film L'Espoir, such creative activities deserve close relevance and considerable narrative connectivity. Therefore, $G{\acute{e}}rard$ Genette's narrative discourse of novel and film based on narrative theory carries value of research. Every kind of story, in a narrative message, has duplicate times in which story time and discourse time are different. This is because, in a narrative message, one event may occur before or later than another, told lengthily or concisely, and aroused once or repeatedly. Accordingly, analyzing differing timeliness of the actual event occurring and of recording that event is in terms of order, duration, and frequency. Since timeliness of order, duration, and frequency indicates dramatic pace that controls the passage of a story, it appears as an editorial notion in the novel and the film L'Espoir. It is an aesthetic discourse raising curiosity and shock, the correspondence of time in arranging, summarizing, deleting the story. In addition, Genette mentions notions of speech and voice to clearly distinguish position and focalization of a narrator or a speaker in text. The necessity to discriminate 'who speaks' and 'who sees' comes from difference in views of the narrator of text and the text. The matter of 'who speaks' is about who portrays narrator of the story. However, 'who sees' is related to from whose stance the story is being narrated. In the novel L'Espoir, change of focalization was ushered through zero focalization and internal focalization, and pertains to the multicamera in the film. Also, the frame story was commonly taken as metadiegetic type of voice in both film and novel of L'Espoir. In sum, narrative discourse in the novel and the film L'Espoir is the dimension of story communication among text, the narrator, and recipient.