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Effects of Maltogenic Amylase on Textural Properties of Dough and Quality Characteristics of White Pan Bread (Maltogenic Amylase가 식빵반죽의 물성과 식빵의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Seongjun;Cho, Namji;Lee, Soo-Jeong;Moon, Sung-Won;Jeong, Yoonhwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.752-760
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    • 2015
  • Effects of maltogenic amylase on textural properties of dough and quality characteristics of white pan bread were investigated. White pan bread was prepared with four different levels of maltogenic amylase contents (M-1: 0.048 U/g, M-2: 0.060 U/g, M-3: 0.072 U/g, M-4: 0.084 U/g). The setback by amylograph for the control was $480.0{\pm}12.25$ Brabender Unit (B.U.) while M-4 showed the a setback of $215.0{\pm}5.00B.U.$ The absorption, mixing tolerance index, and stability by farinogram were not significantly different (P>0.05) for across all treatments. The area under the curve (135 min) by extensogram was higher than all samples. The texture profile analysis results showed that there was significant decreasing in hardness for the maltogenic amylase infused bread (P<0.05). M-3 and M-4 showed higher springiness and cohesiveness but lower hardness than control over 1 to 3 days, indicating possibly extended shelf-life. Imaging scan showed that air cell size less than $0.4mm^2$ for the control and M-4 were at rates of 94.90% and 95.70%, respectively. For sensory evaluation, M-3 and M-4 showed higher intensities than the control for taste, flavor, texture, mouthfeel, and moistness quality. These results imply that the quality of white pan bread could be improved by adding maltogenic amylase without the use of chemical additives.

Development of an Official Analytical Method for Determination of Phorate and its Metabolites in Livestock Using LC-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS를 이용한 축산물 중 Phorate 및 대사산물 5종 동시분석법 개발)

  • Ko, Ah-Young;Kim, Heejung;Jang, Jin;Lee, Eun Hyang;Ju, Yunji;Noh, Mijung;Kim, Seongcheol;Park, Sung-Won;Chang, Moon-Ik;Rhee, Gyu-Seek
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.272-280
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    • 2015
  • A simultaneous official method was developed for the determination of phorate and its metabolites (phorate sulfoxide, phorate sulfone, phorate oxon, phorate oxon sulfoxide, phorate oxon sulfone) in livestock samples. The analytes were quantified and confirmed via liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) in positive ion mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Phorate and its metabolites were extracted from beef and milk samples with acidified acetonitrile (containing 1% acetic acid) and partitioned with anhydrous magnesium sulfate. Then, the extract was purified through primary secondary amine (PSA) and C18 dispersive sorbent. Matrix matched calibration curves were linear over the calibration ranges (0.005-0.5 mg/L) for all the analytes into blank extract with $r^2$ > 0.996. For validation purposes, recovery studies were carried out at three different concentration levels (beef 0.004, 0.04 and 0.2 mg/kg; milk 0.008, 0.04 and 0.2 mg/kg, n = 5). The recoveries were within 79.2-113.9% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 19.2% for all analytes. All values were consistent with the criteria ranges requested in the Codex guidelines. The limit of quantification was quite lower than the maximum residue limit (MRL) set by the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (0.05 mg/kg). The proposed analytical method was accurate, effective and sensitive for phorate and its metabolites determination and it will be used to as an official analytical method in Korea.

A Study on the Status and Management Plan of Naturalized Plant in Area of Scenic Site at Mt. Maisan, Jinan (진안 마이산 명승구역 내 귀화식물 현황 및 관리방안)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Oh, Hyun-Kyung;Han, Sang-Yub;Choi, Yung-Hyun;Kim, Eun-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.100-114
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    • 2018
  • Nationally designated Cultural Properties 'Scenic site No.12 Maisan Mountain, Jinan' designated areas and some protected areas, and taking into account the dynamics of naturalized plants causing problems, we will restore the original vegetation scenery of Mt. Maisan. The results of this study are as follows. A total of 76 families, 192 genera, 286 taxa, and inland and inhabited areas, 76 and 138 genera and 163 taxa were identified in the areas of Ammaibong. The total number of naturalized plants identified in this study area is 28 taxa total, which corresponds to 7.1% naturalization rate(NR) among the vascular plants of all 395 taxa, and the urbanization index(UI) corresponds to 8.4% of the 333 taxa of Korean naturalized plants. Ecosystem disturbance plants identified in the survey area were Ambrosia artemisiifolia 1 taxa. The naturalized plants controlled and managed by separate anthropogenic vegetation management within the designation and protection area of Maisan scenic place are three species of herbaceous Rumex acetosella, A. artemisiifolia and Festuca arundinacea. It was identified as a breed. Indigofera bungeana and F. arundinacea communities around the stairway and Amorpha fruticosa, I. bungeana, A. artemisiifolia and Amaranthus patulus of the top of Am-Maibong were selected as the first priority sites for exclusion of exotic species in Maisan area and target naturalized plants species to the Ammaibong peak. In addition, R. acetosella community around the temple was suggested to be removed first to preserve endemic species. For the restoration of vegetation, we suggest that Stephanandra incisa, Spiraea blumei, Weigela subsessilis, etc. should be planted after removal of I. bungeana, and F. arundinacea, C. lanceolata, Carex callitrichos var. nana.

A Study on the Effects of Risk Factors and Protection Factors of Care givers on Job Change Intention: Focused on the Mediation Effect of Occupational Adaptation (요양보호사의 위험요인과 보호요인이 이직의도에 미치는 영향 연구: 직업적응의 매개효과 중심으로)

  • Park, Su Jan;Kim, Youn Jae
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.159-175
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that could overcome the crisis and adversity of the nursing care provider through understanding the effect of job adaptation on the turnover intention of the nursing care provider and to contribute to the various problems of the nursing care provider in the long term. In order to confirm this as an empirical research task, risk factors and protection factors, general characteristics of the survey subjects, job adaptation and turnover intention were selected, and the risk factors and protective factors of caregivers' As a mediator. So Seoul. The results of the questionnaire survey were as follows: 291 caregivers in the elderly medical welfare facilities in Gyeonggi area. First, as the relationship between the risk factors and protective factors of occupational caregivers and occupational adaptation were more severe, the higher the maladjustment of the workplace culture, the more the job satisfaction and organizational commitment were adversely affected. The emotional support, The higher the information support, the more satisfied and satisfied the job. Second, the relationship between the risk factors of the caregiver and the protective factors and the turnover intention, the higher the conflict of caregivers, the more unstable the workplace, the more difficult it is to adapt to work culture, Respectively. Finally, as a result of verifying the mediating effect of occupational adaptation on the relationship between risk factors and protective factors and turnover intention of caregivers, job satisfaction, which is a sub-factor of job adaptation, It is shown that they play mediating roles only in the relationship between stress and turnover intention, and do not play a mediating role in the relationship between protective factor self - efficacy and social support and turnover intention. In other words, if caregivers feel satisfaction about their job, they can be less stressed on their jobs, improve their self-efficacy, and have a positive attitude toward social support. Also, it was found that the more the caregiver 's immersion into the organization, the less job stress and turnover intention decreased, but the self - efficacy and social support perception were not influenced. Based on this, the director of the facility should strive to stabilize the operation of the facility and provide high-quality services by seeking ways to improve conflict resolution and adaptation to the workplace culture so that nursing care workers can adapt to their work. And it is required to develop active management strategies and institutional support for improving job satisfaction and organizational commitment of caregivers.

Association of Periodontitis with Serum Vitamin D Level among Korean Adults (한국 성인의 비타민 D와 치주질환의 관계)

  • Kim, Jaemin;Hwang, Hee-jin
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 2018
  • Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease that affects quality of life and nutrition. Several studies have demonstrated a link between periodontal disease and low bone density, and vitamin D is expected to have a beneficial effect on periodontal disease as well as on bone mineral density and anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between periodontal disease and vitamin D because the results are different in some studies and there is a lack of research in Korea. In this study, we conducted a multiple linear regression analysis of 8,783 subjects among 23,626 subjects who were older than 20 years of age, who had serum vitamin D levels and periodontal disease, who had three years of the National Health and Nutrition Survey that was conducted in Korea from 2012 to 2014. We examined the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and periodontal disease. Tooth loss and vitamin D levels were negatively correlated (${\beta}=-0.028$, p=0.008). In addition, the prevalence of periodontal disease was found to be higher in men younger than 50 years of age with lower vitamin D levels (Q1: 1.769 [1.125~2.782], Q2: 1.182 [0.743~1.881], Q3: 0.676 [0.400~1.881]; p=0.001). Low vitamin D levels and periodontal disease are common diseases in primary care. Vitamin D supplementation is expected to have favorable effect on periodontal disease and falls, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and cancer. Therefore, patients with periodontal disease may benefit from periodic vitamin D management to improve quality of life as well as to manage periodontal disease. In addition, as shown in this study, not only elderly individuals, but also men younger than 50 years of age are related to periodontal disease, so there should be interest in controlling the levels of vitamin D in adults.

Effect of Heat-Killed Enterococcus faecalis, EF-2001 on C2C12 Myoblast Damage Induced by Oxidative Stress and Muscle Volume Decreased by Sciatic Denervation in C57BL/6 Mice (산화스트레스에 의해 유도된 C2C12 근세포 손상과, 신경절제에 의해 근감소가 유도된 C57BL/6 마우스에서 열처리 사균체 엔테로코커스 패칼리스 EF-2001의 효과)

  • Chang, Sang-Jin;Lee, Myung-Hun;Kim, Wan-Joong;Chae, Yuri;Iwasa, Masahiro;Han, Kwon-Il;Kim, Wan-Jae;Kim, Tack-Joong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 2019
  • Muscle dysfunction may arise from skeletal muscle atrophy caused by aging, injury, oxidative stress, and hereditary disease. Powdered heat-killed Enterococcus faecalis (EF-2001) has anti-allergy, anti-inflammatory, and anti-tumor effects. However, its antioxidant and anti-atrophy effects are poorly characterized. In this study, we examined the effects of EF-2001 on muscle atrophy. To determine the protective effect of EF-2001 on oxidative stress, C2C12 myoblasts were treated with $H_2O_2$ to induce oxidative stress. This induced cell damage, which was reduced by treatment with EF-2001. The mechanism of EF-2001's effect was examined in response to oxidative stress. Treatment with EF-2001 reversed the expression of HSP70 and SOD1 proteins. Also, mRNA levels of Atrogin-1/MAFbx and MuRF1 increased under oxidative stress conditions but decreased following EF-2001 treatment. To evaluate muscle volume, two and three dimensional models of the muscles were analyzed using micro-CT. As expected, muscle volume decreased after sciatic denervation and recovered after oral administration of EF-2001. Therefore, EF-2001 is a candidate for the treatment of muscular atrophy, and future discovery of the additional effects of EF-2001 may yield further applications as a functional food with useful activities in various fields.

Protective Effect of the Ethyl Acetate-fraction of Methanol Extract of Ophiophogon japonicus on Amyloid beta Peptide-induced Cytotoxicity in PC12 Cells (소엽맥문동-에틸아세테이트 분획물의 아밀로이드 베타단백질-유발 세포독성에 대한 억제 효능)

  • Moon, Ja-Young;Kim, Eun-Sook;Choi, Soo-Jin;Kim, Jin-Ik;Choi, Nack-Shik;Lee, Kyoung;Park, Woo-Jin;Choi, Young-Whan
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 2019
  • Amyloid ${\beta}$-protein ($A{\beta}$) is the principal component of senile plaques characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and elicits a toxic effect on neurons in vitro and in vivo. Many environmental factors, including antioxidants and proteoglycans, modify $A{\beta}$ toxicity. It is worthwhile to isolate novel natural compounds that could prove therapeutic for patients with AD without causing detrimental side effects. In this study, we investigated the in vitro neuroprotective effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of Ophiophogon japonicas (OJEA fraction). We used an MTT reduction assay to detect protective effects of the OJEA fraction on $A{\beta}_{25-35}$-induced cytotoxicity to PC12 cells. We also used a cell-based ${\beta}$-secretase assay system to investigate the inhibitory effect of the OJEA fraction on ${\beta}$-secretase activity. In addition, we performed an in vitro lipid peroxidation assay to evaluate the protective effect of the OJEA fraction against oxidative stress induced by $A{\beta}_{25-35}$ in PC12 cells. The OJEA fraction had strong protective effects against $A{\beta}_{25-35}$-induced cytotoxicity to PC12 cells and was strongly inhibitory to ${\beta}$-secretase activity, which resulted in the attenuation of $A{\beta}$ generation. In addition, the OJEA fraction significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content, which is induced by the exposure of PC12 cells to $A{\beta}_{25-35}$. Our results suggested that the OJEA fraction contained active compounds exhibiting a neuroprotective effect on $A{\beta}$ toxicity.

Spatio-temporal Distribution Patterns of Lotic Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Namhan-River Weir Section (남한강 보 구간 유수성 저서성 대형무척추동물의 시·공간적 분포 특성)

  • Kim, Jin-Young;Lee, Seung-Hyun;Lee, Kyung-Lak;Noh, Seongyu;Shin, Yuna;Lee, Su-Woong;Lee, Jaekwan;Won, Doo-hee;Lim, Sung-ho;Kown, Yongju;Kong, Dongsoo
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.331-344
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    • 2018
  • Lotic organisms in streams are affected by natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as increase of heavy rainfall event caused by climate change and flow regime change caused by weir constructions. Based on domestic and foreign literature, 157 Korean benthic macroinvertebrate taxa were selected species as potential lotic candidates. Three shoreline sites (total 54 samples) were surveyed consecutively before ('08~'09), during ('10~'12) and after ('13~'16) the construction of the weirs (Gangcheon, Yeoju and Ipo weir) in the Namhan-River for tracing changes of lotic communities. As a result, water flow of the Ipo-wier and water quality variables such as T-N, T-P, BOD5, etc. of the weir section revealed no significant changes. Physical habitat conditions such as the flow velocity and streambed substrate evidently changed. Particulary, flow velocity measured at sampling points along with each microhabitat drastically decreased and particle size of streambed substrate steadily decreased after weir constructions. Lotic organisms also decreased after construction, especially Hydropsychidae (insecta: Trichoptera) acutely decreased from $3,526ind.\;m^{-2}$ to $2ind.\;m^{-2}$ As a result of CCA, lotic species such as Hydropsyche valvata, Hydropsyche kozhantschikovi, Cheumatopsyche brevilineata, Cheumatopsyche KUa, Macrostemum radiatum, etc. correlated with the flow velocity, streambed substrate. Therefore, the decrease of the flow velocity and substrate size after weir construction seemed to be closely related to the decrease of the individual abundances of the lotic organisms independently of water quality. In order to evaluate the influence of the ecosystem on the flow regime change more accurately, it is necessary to study the indicator species based on the resistance or preference of the flow.

Exceptional Characteristics of Cross-border Production Networks in Dandong, North Korea-China Border Region (북중 접경지역 단둥의 대북 생산 네트워크의 예외적 성격)

  • Lee, Sung-Cheol;Kim, Boo-Heon;Chung, Su-Yeul;Kim, Minho;Chi, Sang-Hyun
    • Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.329-352
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    • 2017
  • Since the late 2000s Korean foreign direct investors in North Korea and China border regions have gone through the closure of outward processing trade(OPT) networks and changes in their location due to UN security council resolution and Korean independent sanctions against North Korea's nuclear and missile tests. However, the introduction of new Chinese OPT policy has led to the invigoration of domestic market-based OPT networks towards North Korea. The main aim of this paper is to identify the exceptional characteristics of Dandong in Liaoning province, a North Korea and China border region by analyzing OPT networks towards North Korea. Fundamentally the establishment of OPT networks towards North Korea is likely to be based on the utilization of a plenty of low wages in North Korea. The main reasons for this are fallen into two perspectives: geo-economics and geo-politics. The first perspective is geo-economics centering on the consolidation of economic exchange between North Korea and China, and North Korean economic development. For example, the introduction of Chinese OPT in border region has enabled Chinese local firms based on domestic market to access a plenty of low wage in North Korea in formal and institutional contexts. The second is geo-politics for the stability of North Korean regime based on the means of geo-economics. As the invigoration of domestic market-based OPT networks might make North Korea possible promoting foreign money earning, it enable North Korea to be sustainable as a buffering region between capitalist and socialist regime for China. It shows Chinese geo-strategic attempts to deal with the economic and regime stability of North Korean as a buffering state. In other words, OPT networks in North Korea should be concerned with the discourse practice of geo-economics and geo-politics which might lead to various and contingent spatial economies in border region. As a consequence, North Korea and China border regions could defined as a space in which is applicable to exceptional institutions and policies, and an exploitative space in which create surplus and rents by utilizing a plenty of low wages in North Korea through OPT networks.

Nutritional Adequacy of Target Pattern in Dietary Guidance System - Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans 2015 - (식사구성안 권장식사패턴의 영양 적정성 평가 - 2015 한국인 영양소 섭취기준 -)

  • Kim, Youngnam
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.77-88
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    • 2017
  • Nutritional adequacy of Target patterns in Dietary Guidance System were evaluated. Study subjects were 18 Target patterns designed for 2 children groups, 4 adolescent and 4 adult male and female groups in Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans 2015. Nutrients examined were 4 macro-nutrients(protein, fat, carbohydrate, and dietary fiber), 5 minerals(Ca, P, Fe, Na, and K), and 5 vitamins(vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C). Energy and nutrients contents were calculated based upon assigned multiples of single serving in Target pattern and Representative Food Composition Table by Excel program. Among the 18 Target patterns, only 5 were mean adequacy ratio(MAR) of 1.0, fulfilled the expectations of Dietary Guidance System. Protein and Na contents were more than dietary reference intakes(DRI) in all 18 Target patterns. Dietary fiber, Ca, and K were deficient nutrient in 15, 10, and 9 Target patterns, respectively. The units of vitamin A were not same in Target pattern and DRI, retinol equivalent(RE) in Target pattern and retinol activity equivalent(RAE) in DRI. When calculate RE content of vitamin A in Target pattern to RAE content, 15 Target patterns did not reach to DRI of vitamin A. The Target pattern of elderly women showed the lowest mean adequacy ratio(MAR), 7 nutrients were less than DRI, need to be revised. Average energy contribution ratio of protein, fat, and carbohydrate were 16.04%, 24.35%, and 60.91%, respectively, fulfilled the adequate acceptable macro-nutrient distribution range(AMDR). To improve the nutritional inadequacy of dietary fiber, Ca, K, and vitamin A in Target pattern, effective mean may be the increasing vegetable group assignment. Also decreasing the meat fish egg legume group assignment in some Target pattern may be the way of preventing of protein overconsumption. The energy in adequate amount for condiment use also need to be considered.