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A Study on Rationalization of National Forest Management in Korea (국유림경영(國有林經營)의 합리화(合理化)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Choi, Kyu-Ryun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-44
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    • 1973
  • Needless to say, the management of national forest in all countries is very important in view of the national mission and management purposes. Korean national forest is also in particular significant in promoting national economy for the continuous increasing of the demand for wood, conservation of the land and social welfare. But there's no denying the fact that the leading aim of the Korean forest policy has been based upon the conservation of forest resources and recovery of land conservation function instead of improvement of the forest productive capacity. Therefore, the management of national forest should be aimed as an industry in the chain of the Korean national economy. And the increment of the forest productive capacity based on rationalized forest management is also urgently needed. Not only the increment of the timber production but also the establishment of the good forest in quality and quantity are to bring naturally many functions of conservation and other public benefits. In 1908 Korean national forest was historically established for the first time as a result of the notification for ownership, and was divided into two kinds in 1911-1924, such as indisposable national forest for land conservation, forest management, scientific research and public welfare, and the other national forest to be disposed. Indisposable forest is mostly under the jurisdiction of national forest stations (Chungbu, Tongbu, Nambu), and the tother national forests are under custody of respective cities and provinces, and under custody of the other government authorities. As of the end of 1971, national forest land is 19.5% (1,297,708 ha) of the total forest land area, but growing stock is 50.1% ($35,406,079m^3$) of the total forest growing stock, and timber production of national forest is 23.6% ($205,959m^3$) of the year production of total timber in Korea. Accordingly, it is the important fact that national forest occupies the major part of Korean forestry. The author positively affirms that success or failure of the management of national forest controls rise or fall of forestry in Korea. All functions of forest are very important, but among others the function of timber production is most important especially in Korea, that unavoidably imports a large quantity of foreign wood every year (in 1971 import of foreign wood-$3,756,000m^3$, 160,995,000 dollars). So, Korea urgently needs the improvement of forest productive capacity in national forest. But it is difficult that wood production meets the rapid increase of demand for wood to the development of economy, because production term of forestry is long, so national forest management should be rationalized by the effective investment and development of forestry techniques in the long view. Although Korean national forest business has many difficulties in the budget, techniques and the lack of labour due to outflow of rural village labour by development of national economy, and the increase of labour wages and administrative expenses etc. the development of national forest depends on adoption of the suitable forest techniques and management adapted for social and economical development. In this view point the writer has investigated and analyzed the status of the management of national forest in Korea to examine the irrational problems and suggest an improvement plan. The national forestry statistics cited in this study is based on the basic statistics and the statistics of the forest business as of the end of 1971 published by Office of Forestry, Republic of Korea, and the other depended on the data presented by the national forest stations. The writer wants to propose as follows (seemed to be helpful in improvement of Korean national forest management). 1) In the organization of national forest management, more national forest stations should be established to manage intensively, and the staff of working plan officials should be strengthened because of the importance of working plan. 2) By increasing the staff of protection officials, forest area assigned for each protection official should be decreased to 1,000-2,000 ha. 3) The frequent personnel changes of supervisor of national forest station(the responsible person on-the-spot) obstructs to accomplish the consistent management plan. 4) In the working plan drafting for national forest, basic investigations should be carefully practiced with sufficient expenditure and staff not to draft unreal working plan. 5) The area of working-unit should be decreased to less than 2,000 ha on the average for intensive management and the principle of a working-unit in a forest station should be realized as soon as possible. 6) Reforestation on open land should be completed in a short time with a debt of the special fund(a long term loan), and the land on which growing hardwood stands should be changed with conifers to increase productivity per unit area, and at the same time techical utilization method of hardwood should be developed. 7) Expenses of reforestation should be saved by mechanization and use of chemicals for reforestation and tree nursery operation providing against the lack of labour in future. 8) In forest protection, forest fire damage is enormous in comparison with foreign countries, accordingly prevention system and equipment should be improved, and also the minimum necessary budget should be counted up for establishment and manintenance of fire-lines. 9) Manufacture production should be enlarged to systematize protection, processing and circulation of forest business, and, by doing this, mich benefit is naturally given for rural people. 10) Establishment and arrangement of forest road networks and erosion control work are indispensable for the future development of national forest itself and local development. Therefore, these works should be promoted by the responsibility of general accounting instead of special accounting. 11) Mechanization of forest works should be realized for exploiting hinterlands to meet the demand for timber increased and for solving lack of labour, consequently it should promote import of forest machines, home production, training for operaters and careful adminitration. 12) Situation of labour in future will grow worse. Therefore, the countermeasure to maintain forest labourers and pay attention to public welfare facilities and works should be considered. 13) Although the condition of income and expenditure grows worse because of economical change, the regular expenditure should be fixed. So part of the surplus fund, as of the end of 1971, should be established for the fund, and used for enlarging reforestation and forest road networks(preceding investment in national forest).

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A Study on the Space Formation and Garden Characteristics of Garden Remains, Gao-Byeoleop for Restoration Design (가오별업(嘉梧別業)의 복원 설계를 위한 공간구성 및 정원 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Soon-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.58-74
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to propose baseline data for designing restoration of Gaobyulup, researching space formation and characteristics of gardens of Gaobyulup, which located in the foot of Cheonmasan Mountain in Namyangju. Gaobyulup is a remain in retirement of Gyulsan Yu-Won Lee, a representative politician, administrator, and tea drinker in late Joseon Dynasty. The results of the research about the shape of Gaobyulup deducted through reference review, poetry and prose analysis, an on-the-spot survey and residents' interview are below: Lee, who used pseudonym as 'Gyulsan,' which menas Jongnamsan Mountain, yearned Mangcheonbyeoreop(輞川別業) by Yu Wang and retirement with a country house operation by Seogye Sedang Park. In the persuit of this ideal, he created and operated a country house in Gaogok of Yangju, which a family burial ground was located. Gaobyulup, which located in Gaogok in the lower part of Cheonmasan Mountain, was largely composed outer and inner gardens, and the area of house operation was started from a stone post of Gaobokji The inner garden of Gaobyulup was including major garden components like buildings, such as Sasihyanggwan, Obaekganjung, Imharyoe and Toesadam, and Chaewon near Haengrangchae, and Gwawon in an backyard. In addition, Younggwijung pavilion, which located 850m away from Gaobyulup, was the another country house inside the Byulup, thus Gaobyulup shows a duplex space formation. In the inner garden of Gaobyulup, there are Sasihyanggwan, which had functions of Sarangchae as library and depository of old paintings and calligraphic works, and Obaekganjung, a small Sarangchae which connected with Sasihyanggwan in the form of a transept. Yusanggoksuger located near Obaekganjung. Additionally, Imharyeo, a library with a tablet of Byeokryowon(??園), which located in the highest point in Byulup, has the functions of a reading room and a tea house. Many Taihu stones were located not only in Toesadam, a square-formed pond with lotus but also many places in the inner gardens. And rare garden plants were planted. These were closely related to the trend of horticulture for pleasure, wealth, and collecting old paintings and calligraphic works for pleasure of Lee. Meanwhile, the area of Younggwijung pavilion, located in Gaocheon stream fall from Byulup to Manhoiam, looks like Wooampok, a enjoying place of other personages, who use their pseudonym as "Oksan" or "Wooam" Lee identifies Wooampok as "Jesampok" and carved 'Gyulsan' s he declared this place is his operating area. Lee built Younggwijung pavilion and planted many peach trees for recreation of utopia. The stone letters of Byukpadongcheon, located in front of a bridge in the foreside of Younggwijung pavilion, seems another enchanted land created in Gaobokji inside. Lee carved Jeilsan in huge rock on the falls rear Manhoiam temple, which Lee did great role of foundation of the temple, so he identifies that this place was the end of the outer garden of Gaobyulup. This study tries to estimate traces of the country house in Gaogok through reference review and on-th-spot survey, and the results from this study are presumed based on site remains only conformed today. It needs to discover second scenary or stone carved letters between Jeilsan and Jesampok. Additionally, exact formation characteristics of Gaobyulup should be identified through excavation survey later. To do so, an interest and a major role of Namyangju-si must be equipped for future restoration of Gaobyulup.

Individualized Determination of Lower Margin in Pelvic Radiation Field after Low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer Resulted in Equivalent Local Control and Radiation Volume Reduction Compared with Traditional Method (하전방 절제술을 시행한 직장암 환자에서 방사선조사 영역 하연의 개별화)

  • Park Suk Won;Ahn Yong Chan;Huh Seung Jae;Chun Ho Kyung;Kang Won Ki;Kim Dae Yong;Lim Do Hoon;Noh Young Ju;Lee Jung Eun
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.194-199
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    • 2000
  • Purpose : Then determining the lower margin of post-operative pelvic radiation therapy field according to the traditional method (recommended by Gunderson), the organs located in the low pelvic cavity and the perineum are vulnerable to unnecessary radiation. This study evaluated the effect of individualized determination of the lower margin at 2 cm to 3 cm below the anastomotic site on the failure patterns. Materials and Methods . Authors included ぉ patients with modified Astler-Coiler (MAC) stages from B2 through C3, who received low anterior resection and post-operative pelvic radiation therapy from Sept. 1994 to May 1998 at Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University. The numbers of male and female patients were 44 and 44, and the median age was 57 years (range: 32-81 years). Three field technique (posterior-anterior and bilateral portals) by 6, 10, 15 MV X-rays was used to deliver 4,500 cGy to the whole pelvis followed by Sn cGy's small field boost to the tumor bed over 5.5 weeks. Sixteen patients received radiation therapy by traditional field margin determination, and the lower margin was set either at the low margin of the obturator foramen or at 2 cm to 3 cm below the anastomotic site, whichever is lower. In 72 patients, the lower margin was set at 2 cm to 3 cm below the anastomotic site, irrespectively of the obturator foramen, by which the reduction of radiation volume was possible in 55 patients ($76\%$). Authors evaluated and compared survival, local control, and disease-free survival rates of these two groups. Results : The median follow-up period was 27 months (range : 7-58 months). MAC stages B2 in 32($36\%$), B3 in 2 ($2\%$), Cl in 2 ($2\%$), C2 in 50 ($57\%$), and C3 in 2 ($2\%$) Patients, respectively. The entire patients' overall survival rates at 2 and 4 years were $94\%$ and $68\%$, respectively, and disease-free survival rates at 2 and 4 years were $86\%$ and $58\%$, respectively. The first failure sites were local only in 4, distant only in 14, and combined local and distant in 1 patient, respectively. There was no significant difference with respect to local control and disease-free survival rates ( p=0.42, p=0.68) between two groups of different lower margin determination policies. Conclusion : The new concept in the individualized determination of the lower margin depending on the anastomotic site has led to the equivalent local control and disease-free survival rates, and is expected to contribute to the reduction of unnecessary radiation-related morbidity by reduction of radiation volume, compared with the traditional method of lower margin determination.

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Expression of TIMP1, TIMP2 Genes by Ionizing Radiation (이온화 방사선에 의한 TIMP1, TIMP2 유전자 발현 측정)

  • Park Kun-Koo;Jin Jung Sun;Park Ki Yong;Lee Yun Hee;Kim Sang Yoon;Noh Young Ju;Ahn Seung Do;Kim Jong Hoon;Choi Eun Kyung;Chang Hyesook
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.171-180
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : Expression of TIMP, intrinsic inhibitor of MMP, is regulated by signal transduction in response to genotoxins and is likely to be an important step in metastasis, angiogenesis and wound healing after ionizing radiation. Therefore, we studied radiation mediated TIMP expression and its mechanism in head and neck cancer cell lines. Materials and Methods : Human head and neck cancer cell lines established at Asan Medical Center were used and radiosensitivity $(D_0)$, radiation cytotoxicity and metastatic potential were measured by clonogenic assay, n assay and invasion assay, respectively. The conditioned medium was prepared at 24 hours and 48 hours after 2 Gy and 10 Gy irradiation and expression of TIMP protein was measured by Elisa assay with specific antibodies against human TIMP. hTIMP1 promoter region was cloned and TIMP1 luciferase reporter vector was constructed. The reporter vector was transfected to AMC-HN-1 and -HN-9 cells with or without expression vector Ras, then the cells were exposed to radiation or PMA, PKC activator. EMSA was peformed with oligonucleotide (-59/-53 element and SP1) of TIMP1 promoter. Results : $D_0$ of HN-1, -2, -3, -5 and -9 cell lines were 1.55 Gy, 1.8 Gy, 1.5 Gt, 1.55 Gy and 2.45 Gy respectively. n assay confirmed cell viability, over $94\%$ at 24hrs, 48hrs after 2 Gy irradiation and over 73% after 10 Gy irradiation. Elisa assay confirmed that cells secreted TIMP1, 2 proteins continuously. After 2 Gy irradiation, TIMP2 secretion was decreased at 24hrs in HN-1 and HN-9 cell lines but after 10 Gy irradiation, it was increased in all cell lines. At 48hrs after irradiation, it was increased in HN-1 but decreased in HN-9 cells. But the change in TIMP secretion by RT was mild. The transcription of TIMP1 gene in HN-1 was induced by PMA but in HN-9 cell lines, it was suppressed. Wild type Ras induced the TIMP-1 transcription by 20 fold and 4 fold in HN-1 and HN-9 respectively. The binding activity to -59/-53, AP1 motif was increased by RT, but not to SP1 motif in both cell lines. Conclusions : We observed the difference of expression and activity of TIMPs between radiosensitive and radioresistant cell line and the different signal transduction pathway between in these cell lines may contribute the different radiosensitivity. Further research to investigate the radiation response and its signal pathway of TIMPs is needed.

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A Clinical Study of Hospitalized Infants 28 to 90 Days of Age with Fever without Source (원인 없는 열로 입원한 생후 28일에서 90일 사이 영아들에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Rye, Min Hyuk;Noh, Yn Il;Lee, Seong Hun;Lee, Sun Young;Hur, Nam Jin;Lee, Dong Jin
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical features of hospitalized infants 28~90 days of age with fever without source and to analyze those of young febrile infants using risk criteria for serious bacterial infection. Methods : The clinical features of 131 infants 28~90 days of age admitted to the Ulsan Dong-Kang General Hospital Pediatric Department because of fever(temperature ${\geq}38^{\circ}C$ rectally) without source, from January 2000 to December 2000, were investigated by retrospective chart review. The clinical features of 131 febrile infants were analyzed using Rochester criteria. Results : Among 131 cases, there were 60 cases(45.8%) of urinary tract infection, 33 cases (25.2%) of aseptic meningitis, 2 cases(1.5%) of bacteremia and 36 cases(27.5%) of no specific diagnosis. Among 131 cases, there were 57 cases(43.5%) in low risk group and 74 cases(56.5%) in not low risk one by Rochester criteria. A significant difference in the incidence of urinary tract infection, aseptic meningitis and no specific diagnosis was not found between both groups. Male to female ratio was 1.8 : 1. Sex ratio between both groups was not significantly different. Most febrile infant were noted in spring(35.1%) and the summer(36.7%). The peak incidence of aseptic meningitis was noted in May and June. The fever subsided mostly within 48~72 hours after administering antimicrobial agents(61.8~83.2%). A significant difference in duration of fever after administering antimicrobial agents was not found between both groups. Conclusion : A selected group of low risk infants 28~90 days of age with fever without source can be managed as outpatients provided that a thorough initial evaluation is performed, that parents can reliably monitor their infant closely at home and that careful follow up can be assured. Because bag collected specimens were more likely to yield indeterminate urine culture result, a suprapubic or catheter obtained urine specimen for culture is a necessary part of the evaluation of all febrile infants 28~90 days of age. The further prospective study on evaluation and management of young febrile infant should be performed in our hospital.

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Prevalence of Drug-resistances in Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Its Association with Clinical Characteristics at One Tertiary Referral Hospital in Pusan, Korea (부산지역 한 3차 병원으로 내원한 폐결핵 환자에서 약제 내성률과 예측인자간의 연관성)

  • Son, Choon-Hee;Yang, Doo-Kyung;Rho, Mee-Sook;Jeong, Jin-Sook;Lee, Hyuck;Lee, Ki-Nam;Choi, Pil-Jo;Lee, Soo-Keol;Chang, Kwang-Yul;Choi, Ik-Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.51 no.5
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    • pp.416-425
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    • 2001
  • Background : The incidence of drug-resistant tuberculosis has recently decreased in Korea. However, it is still one of the major obstacles in treating pulmonary tuberculosis. This study was performed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics associated with drug-resistance in pulmonary tuberculosis at the tertiary referral hospital in Pusan, Korea. Methods : The medical records of 138 patients, who had been diagnosed as active pulmonary tuberculosis were retrospectively reviewed, and results of drug susceptibility from May 1997 to June 2000. The relationships among those with a history of previous tuberculosis treatment, the extent of lung involvement, the presence of cavities on the initial chest X-ray films and patterns of drug resistance were analyzed. Results : The total number of patients who had drug resistance to at least one drug was 55(39.9%). Among them 34(24.6%) had resistance to isoniazid(INH) and rifampin(RFP). There was drug resistance in 20(22%) of 91 patients without previous tuberculosis therapy, and among them 9(9.9%) were multi-drug resistant. Thirty-two(74.5%) out of 47 patients with previous therapy were drug-resistant and 25(53.2%) were multidrug resistant. For all 138 patients, resistance to INH was the most common(34.1%), followed by RFP(26.1%) and ethambutol(EMB)(14.5%). Drug resistance to INH, RFP, PZA and streptomycin(SM) were independently associated with a history of previous treatment(odds ratio; 9.43, 9.09, 8.93 and 21.6 respectively, p<0.01). The extent of lung involvement on the chest films was significantly associated with the drug resistance to INH and RFP(odds ratio; 2.12 and 2.40 respectively, p<0.01). The prevalence of drug resistance to RFP, INH and RFP was significantly more common in patients with a cavitary lesion on the chest films by multivariate analysis(odds ratio; 4.17 and 4.81 respectively, p<0.05). Conclusion : This study revealed that patients with a prior treatment history for pulmonary tuberculosis, and the presence of a cavitary lesion on chest films had a higher prevalence of anti-tuberculosis drug resistance. A very careful clinical and microbiological examination is needed for patients with such characteristics.

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Expression of Phospholipase C Isozymes in Human Lung Cancer Tissues (인체 폐암조직에서 Phospholipase C 동위효소의 발현양상)

  • Hwang, Sung-Chul;Mah, Kyung-Ae;Choi, So-Yeon;Oh, Yoon-Jung;Choi, Young-In;Kim, Deog-Ki;Lee, Hyung-Noh;Choi, Young-Hwa;Park, Kwang-Ju;Lee, Yi-Hyeong;Lee, Kyi-Beom;Ha, Mahn-Joon;Bae, Yoon-Su
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.310-322
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    • 2000
  • Background : Phospholipase C(PLC) plays an important role in cellular signal transduction and is thought to be critical in cellular growth, differentiation and transformation of certain malignancies. Two second messengers produced from the enzymatic action of PLC are diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3). These two second messengers are important in down stream signal activation of protein kinase C and intracellular calcium elevation. In addition, functional domains of the PLC isozymes, such as Src homology 2 (SH2) domain, Src homology 3 (SH3) domain, and pleckstrin homology (PH) domain play crucial roles in protein translocation, lipid membrane modificailon and intracellular memrane trafficking which occur during various mitogenic processes. We have previously reported the presence of PLC-${\gamma}1$, ${\gamma}2$, ${\beta}1$, ${\beta}3$, and ${\delta}1$ isozymes in normal human lung tissue and tyrosine-kinase-independent activation of phospholipase C-${\gamma}$ isozymes by tau protein and AHNAK. We had also found that the expression of AHNAK protein was markedly increased in various mstologic types of lung can∞r tissues as compared to the normallungs. However, the report concerning expression of various PLC isozymes in lung canærs and other lung diseases is lacking. Therefore, in this study we examined the expression of PLC isozymes in the paired surgical specimens taken from lung cancer patients. Methods : Surgically resected lung cancer tissue samples taken from thirty seven patients and their paired normal control lungs from the same patients, The expression of various PLC isozymes were studied. Western blot analysis of the tissue extracts for the PLC isozymes and immunohistochemistry was performed on typical samples for localization of the isozyme. Results : In 16 of 18 squamous cell carcinomas, the expression of PLC-${\gamma}1$ was increased. PLC-${\gamma}1$ was also found to be increased in all of 15 adenocarcinoma patients. In most of the non-small cell lung cancer tissues we had examined, expression of PLC-${\delta}1$ was decreased. However, the expression of PLC-${\delta}1$ was markedly increased in 3 adenocarcinomas and 3 squamous carcinomas. Although the numbers were small, in all 4 cases of small cell lung cancer tissues, the expression of PLC-${\delta}1$ was nearly absent. Conclusion : We found increased expression of PLC-${\gamma}1$ isozyme in lung cancer tissues. Results of this study, taken together with our earlier findings of AHNAK protein-a putative PLD-${\gamma}$, activator-over-expression, and the changes observed in PLC-${\delta}1$ in primary human lung cancers may provide a possible insight into the derranged calcium-inositol signaling pathways leading to the lung malignancies.

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Recognition and Attitude to Implement at ion of Service Area Assigned System of Public Health Programs among the Health Officer (공공보건사업의 지역담당제 실시에 관한 보건기관 근무 공무원의 인식과 태도)

  • Kim, Mi-Soon;Lee, Moo-Sik;Kim, Nam-Song
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.15-41
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    • 2001
  • Since medical clients and the community they live in are expected to be center of future public health and medical care system, new service programs must be developed with patients focused on in line with widening public access of information and social participation. Patients- focused service shall mean the area- oriented provision of public health service. In this study, health officers working at public health centers, public health sub- centers and medical offices in Jeonbuk- do area were taken for population in order to investigate their attitudes toward and knowledge about the service area assigning system under the public health programs. Findings from the survey to 260 health officers, divided by general category, are as follows : Government officers at public health organizations appeared to have high grade of understanding to the service area assigning system and also great appreciation for the necessity of it. Regarding the timing for the system to be introduced, they support the gradual implementation and, as for the type of service to be provided, they preferred home nursing and treatment of chronic diseases. Highly positive responses were centered on the health classes under the health promotion projects, and as far as health projects for the old are concerned, services for home nursing, for the disabled and for home- alone people are favored most. On the other hand, budgeting, manpower and reorganization are rated as prerequisite to establishment of the service area assigning system. From the viewpoint of system side, the improvement of working conditions is rendered as most urgent, while the information system for establishing the service area assigning system is conceived far from satisfactory. Proper assignment of specialists was noted as mostly important to establish the delivery system for medical service through the service area assigning system by team. As merits of the service area assigning system, it is pointed out that, through the system, health clients can better be managed and the nursing quality will be improved thank to the enhanced specialization. It is also perceived that the district health service is not well prepared to respond to the increased and diversified needs of community people and, furthermore, service programs of health centers have not been fully developed. The most serious problem standing in the way to expansion of health projects is, it is noted, uniformity (formality) of the project. Based on the results of the survey which suggest time has ripen to introduce the service area assigning system, following strategies are proposed to anchor down the system as soon as possible: First, we should introduce the system gradually, starting from the area selected, and in consideration of area specialities, refraining from the hitherto stereotyped way of providing health service. Second, we should seek to properly assign the specialists and improve the working conditions of the assigned officers by securing sufficient budget, since it is a most urgent step to lay foundation for the service area assigning system. Third, best service program should be developed to meet the satisfaction of community people by responding to their needs and solidifying the management of medical clients. Fourth, wide scope of study should further be conducted in order to help this system take roots in the central living of community residents since pilot project on the experimental base attended by specialists only can not win popularity among the masses.

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Patient Satisfaction with Cancer Pain Management (암성통증관리 만족도)

  • Lee, So-Woo;Kim, Si-Young;Hong, Young-Seon;Kim, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Hyun-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.22-33
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate the present status of patients' satisfaction and the reasons for any satisfaction or dissatisfaction in cancer pain management Methods : A cross-sectional survey was used to obtain the feedback about pain management. The results of the survey were collected from 59 in- or out-patient who had cancer treatment at two of the teaching hospitals in Seoul from July, 2002 to November, 2002. The data was obtained by a structured questionnaire based on the American Cancer Society Patient Outcome Questionnaire(APS-POQ) and other previous research. The clinical information for all patients were compiled by reviewing their medical records. Resuts : 1) The subjects' mean score of the worst pain was 6.77, the average pain score was 3.80, and the pain score after management was 2.93 for the past 24 hours. The mean score of total pain interference was $25.03{\pm}12.82$. Many of the subjects had false beliefs about pain such as 'the experience of pain is a sign that the illness has gotten worse', 'pain medicine should be 'saved' in case the pain gets worse' and 'people get addicted to pain medicine easily'. 2) 66.1% of the subjects were properly medicated with analgesics. 33.9% of the subjects reported use of various methods in controlling pain other than the prescribed medication. Only 33.9% of the subjects had a chance to be educated about pain management by doctors or nurses. 3) The mean score of patients' satisfaction with pain management was $4.19{\pm}1.14$. 72.9% of the subjects answered 'satisfied' with pain management. The reasons for dissatisfaction were 'the pain was not relieved even after the pain management', 'I was not quickly and promptly treated when I complained of pain', 'doctors and nurses didn't pay much attention to my complaints of pain.', and 'there was no appropriate information given on the methods of administration, effect duration and side effects of pain medicine.' The reasons for satisfaction were: 'the pain was relieved after the pain management.', 'doctors and nurses quickly and promptly controlled my pain.', 'doctors and nurses paid enough attention to my complaints of pain.' and 'trust in my physician'. 4) In pain severity or pain interference, no significant difference was found between the satisfied group and dissatisfied group. On the belief 'good patients avoid talking about pain', a significant difference was found between the satisfied group and dissatisfied group. Conclusions : The patients' satisfaction with cancer pain management has increased over the years but still about 30% of patients reported to be 'not satisfied' for various reasons. The results of this study suggest that patients' education should be done to improve satisfaction in the pain management program.

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Rural Migration and Changes of Agricultural Population (농민이촌(農民離村)과 농업인구(農業人口)의 변화(變化))

  • Wu, Tsong-Shien;Kim, Kuong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.91-116
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    • 1974
  • Taiwan agricultural development in the last decade has not been changed much since the accomplishment of land reform program. This is mainly due to the rapid development taken place within industry that agricultural development can not keep pace with. The increasing gap of rural-urban income discrepancy has caused socio-psychological unstability among rural people and inspire wants of out-migration. From 1961 to 1970, population of the ten largest cities showed an annual growth rate of 4.05%, while the population of the remainder of Taiwan showed 2.06%. Assuming the natural increase rate of these two population sections are similar, the difference of rural and urban annual growth rate can be at tributed to the flow of people from rural to urban sectors. The main objective of this paper is to identify the amount of agricultural out-migration and its impact on agricultural development and agricultural extension programs. Specifically, the objectives are to examine (1) rural-urban population composition (2) rural out-migration estimation (3) changes of agricultural population, and (4) implications for agricultural development and extension programs Some of the important findings are listed below; (1) The average agricultural out migration of the period 1960-1969 is estimated at around 60,000 per year. Take Tainan prefecture for example, the Male-Female Migration Ratio is 0.39 for age 20-24, 0.55 for age 25-29, 0.90 for 30-34. It is understood between age 20 and 34, the rural female migration rate is higher than the rural male. (2) Based on the population growth rate of 1950-1969, agricultural population is projected for the period of 1953 to 1989. By 1978, the agricultural population will reach its peak and begin to dedaine from 1980. The projected agricultural population in 1989 is 5,847,566 which occupies 29% of the Taiwan total population. (3) Assuming area of cultivated land keep unchanged as 905,263 ha. in 1970, and tif we can eliminate all 72% of part-time farms, then the average farm acreage for hose full-time farms will be increased to 3.6 hactares. This is unlikely to happen before 1989 without the government interference. (4) Less than 10% of adult farmer s of age 25-64 in 1969 enrolled in Farm Discussion Club, only 5% of adult farm women enrolled in Home Economics Club, and 5% of rural youth enrolled in 4-H Club. These statistics show a fact that only few farmers are reached by extension workers. Based on findings in this paper, some important suggestions are listed for future agricultural development. (1) Improve agricultural structure by decreasing agricultural population (a) Encourage farmers with less than 0.5 ha. of land to seek jobs outside of agriculture (b) Encourage joint cultivation and farm mechanization (c) Discourage rural migrants to Keep farm land (d) Provide occupational guidance program through extension education programs (2) Establish future farmers settlement project to assure rural youth have enough resources for farming. (3) An optimum Population policy should be integrated into rural socio-economic development and national development programs.

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