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A Study on the Space Organization and Garden Language of Mongsimjae in Namwon (남원 몽심재(夢心齋)의 정원구성과 조형언어 해석)

  • Rho, Jae-hyun;Choi, Yung-hyun;Shin, Sang-sup
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.32-45
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    • 2014
  • In this study, the characteristics of Mongsimjae in Namwon-si, Jeollabuk-do have been researched focusing on the writings engraved in huge stones and rocks of pavilion standing beside a lotus pond and its formative languages in the garden has been interpreted as follows. Name of pavilion(堂號) Mongsimjae(夢心齋) includes a classical scholar's spirit, refusing to serve two kings and homecoming after resignation from a government office(歸去來) of Songam(松菴) Park Moonsu(朴門壽), an ancestor who has brought to the Juksan(竹山) Park's family again. A pavilion standing beside a lotus pond(蓮塘) built in the reception garden is a gardening facility symbolizing 'Yeondang(蓮堂)' Park Dongsik(朴東式) who built Mongsimjae. The bamboo hill connected to the backyard seems to be relevant to 'Juksan', the family clan of Mongsimjae's owner and this kinds of intention can be found in the bamboos in the outer garden naturally led to inside the garden through the flower beds. The purpose for the western arrangement of the main building and gate contrary to the 'chukjwamihyaug'(丑坐未向; a direction toward to the south-southwest) of the prospect of Sarangchae(guesthouse) is interpreted to naturally attract people's eyes to the pavilion standing beside a lotus pond and to mitigate the sense of closure resulting from the huge stones located in the reception garden. Also the writing engraved in the three huge stones, 'Jonsimdae(存心臺)', implies that it is a place where was selected with heart by Juksan Park family who settled down in Homsil, Namwon after 'Haengchon(杏村) Park Jaryang(朴子良)' in Yiphyangjo(入鄕祖), Namwon and 'Jeongwa(靖窩)' is interpreted as a signature representing that it is the most comfortable house where Jeongwa Park Haechang(朴海昌: 1876~1933), the third owner of Mongsimjae, has lived. The pavilion standing beside a lotus pond of the 'Bangjibangdo(方池方島; square pond and square island)' type has no lotus for now and waterside cornerstones roughly piled with broken stones naturally mitigate the slope. There are two water inflows gathering rainwater in the reception garden other than the water inflow of valley and the upper-side water inflow was built using a high waterfall method. The middle island cut into a square was designed to use in two ways, as 'island' or 'steppingstone', according to the water level and the old name of the pavilion standing beside a lotus pond was revealed as 'Cheonundam(天雲潭)' from the engraved writing located in the side of the middle island. In addition, 'Imni(臨履)', engraved writing in the finishing stone of waterside by citing a line of 'Sigyeong(詩經)', implies 'Be a upright classical scholar who pays close attention to one's own behaviors' and 'Jeongchuk(渟?)' is interpreted as a message that desires the eternal staying of the Juksan Park family's wealth. Ultimately, the writings engraved in the huge stones and rocks of the pavilion standing beside a lotus pond are interpreted as a symbol language that wishes the heaven protects and maintains the wealth of the Juksan Park family who is the owner of Mongsimjae.

Types of Scenic Sites of State-Designated Cultural Property and Relationship between Pal-Kyung and Doncheon-Gugok (국가 지정 문화재 '명승'의 유형과 팔경(八景), 동천구곡(洞天九曲)과의 연관성)

  • Rho, Jae Hyun;Shin, Sang Sup
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.128-159
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    • 2010
  • In this study, the progress of domestic cultural properties designation, the changes and problems in classification were examined, and the relationship among Traditional Pal-kyung, Dongcheon-gukok, and Modern Pal-kyung were investigated targeting total of 68 cases of state-designated cultural properties of scenic sites in order to show that the traditional significance and value are being inherited today. The major results of this study are as follows. First, increase in scenic site designations with historical, cultural, and scenic characteristics can be viewed as an active intent to embrace the concepts such as cultural utilities, historical characteristics, literary value, and ideological backgrounds, which were specified as the basis for designation in the early Cultural Property Protection Law. Accordingly, it is very encouraging that the concept of cultural attractions such as traditional gardens and observatory points are regarded as an important standard for designation of scenic sites. Second, as for the classification of scenic sites per type, it was found that 'places with excellent natural scenery' were 44.16%(30 cases), followed by 'famous buildings or gardens and places with important legend' occupying 30.9%(21 cases), 'places with famous scenery' occupying 13.2%(9 cases), 'places with outstanding historical cultural and scenic value' that occupying 10.3%(7 cases), and 'animal and vegetation habitat with beautiful scenery' (1 case). Third, according to the current classification standards for scenic sites, there were only 7 cases which could be classified into Pal-kyungs(Famous 8 Sceneries) and 3 cases classified into Dongcheon(beautiful scenery surrounded by mountains and rivers), but there was no Gugok(beautiful valleys). Consequently, in terms of external appearance, the scenic sites among the total scenic sites that could be classified into Palkyung and Gugok were only 14.7%(10 cases). Fourth, the traditional scenic sites based on literal references and Internet analysis occupied 67.7%(46 cases), which were found to be scenic sites related to the traditional Pal-kyung among which 38 cases(55.9% of 46 cases) were included based on the scenery and 8 cases(11.8% of 46 cases) were included due to the scenery at the time. Fifth, there were 8(11.8%) scenic sites which were related to Dongcheon, and 4 cases(5.9%) related to Gugok. Also, it was found that total of 40(48.9%) scenic sites designated as modern scenic sites were playing the role of local scenic sites, and they were used as the tourism advertising contents. Sixth, it was identified that there were 62 cases(91.2%) of scenic sites in total related to traditional and modern Pal-kyung or Dongcheon-gugok, and unlike explicit classifications, most of the designated scenic sites were found to be deeply connected with the historical and cultural significance contained in the scenaries.

A Study on Nam Nyeong-wie Yun Uiseon's Gwanbok Described in the List of Wedding Gifts in 1837 (남녕위(南寧尉) 윤의선(尹宜善)의 1837년 「혼수발기」 속 관복(冠服) 고찰)

  • Lee, Eunjoo
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.200-221
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    • 2019
  • The National Hangeul Museum houses a document list of the wedding gifts that Queen Sunwon granted her royal son-in-law, Nam Nyeong-wie, in August 1837. A total of 55 items were recorded in Hangeul Gungseo style on yellow paper. This list included four types of government officials' uniforms, casual wear, accessories, etc. The results of studying the 19th-century male officials' uniforms through this historic record were as follows. The clothing record in the List of Wedding Gifts was more accurate than that in the Dukongongju Garyedeungrok. The four types of government official uniforms for Nam Nyeong-wie included jeobok, sangbok, sibok, and gongbok. For the joebok, there was geumkwan, daehong-hangrah joebok, baeksam, ahole, seodae, gakpae, peseul, paeok, husu, and mokhwa. The record of the List confirms that baeksam was used as jungdan for joebok. For the gongbok, there was daehong-hangrah gongbok, blue seolhancho duhgre, blue saenggyeonggwangju changui, and green waehangrah kurimae. The record of the List shows that the lining of the gongbok was duhgre, and confirms, for the first time, that changui and kurimae were worn inside the gongbok. For the sangbok, there was samo, ssanghakhyungbae embroidered with golden thread, dark green cloud patterned gapsa gwandae, blue cloud patterned gapsa duhgre, blue ssangmuncho changui, and Chinese purple hwamunsa kurimae. For the sibok, there was pink gwangsa gwandae, and blue gwangcho duhgre. For the lining, blue duhgre was used. Lastly, the fabrics used for those costumes were all suitable for the climate in August.

Estimation of the Three-dimensional Vegetation Landscape of the Donhwamun Gate Area in Changdeokgung Palace through the Rubber Sheeting Transformation of (<동궐도(東闕圖)>의 러버쉬팅변환을 통한 창덕궁 돈화문 지역의 입체적 식생 경관 추정)

  • Lee, Jae-Yong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.138-153
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze , which was made in the late Joseon Dynasty to specify the vegetation landscape of the Donhwamun Gate area in Changdeokgung Palace. The study results can be summarized as below. First, based on "Jieziyuan Huazhuan(芥子園畵傳)", the introductory book of tree expression delivered from China in the 17th century, allowed the classification criteria of the trees described in the picture to be established and helped identify their types. As a result of the classification, there were 10 species and 50 trees in the Donhwamun Gate area of . Second, it was possible to measure the real size of the trees described in the picture through the elevated drawing scale of . The height of the trees ranged from a minimum of 4.37 m to a maximum of 22.37 m. According to the measurement results, compared to the old trees currently living in Changdeokgung Palace, the trees described in the picture were found to be produced in almost actual size without exaggeration. Thus, the measured height of the trees turned out to be appropriate as baseline data for reproduction of the vegetation landscape. Third, through the Rubber Sheeting Transformation of , it was possible to make a ground plan for the planting of on the current digital topographic map. In particular, as the transformed area of was departmentalized and control points were added, the precision of transformation improved. It was possible to grasp the changed position of planting as well as the change in planting density through a ground plan of planting of . Lastly, it was possible to produce a three-dimensional vegetation landscape model by using the information of the shape of the trees and the ground plan for the planting of . Based on the three-dimensional model, it was easy to examine the characteristics of the three-dimensional view of the current vegetation via the view axis, skyline, and openness to and cover from the adjacent regions at the level of the eyes. This study is differentiated from others in that it verified the realism of and suggested the possibility of ascertaining the original form of the vegetation landscape described in the painting.

Lateral Bud Suppression and Runner Plants Growth of 'Maehyang' Strawberry as Affected by Application Method and Concentration of IBA (IBA 처리방법과 농도에 따른 딸기 '매향'의 측아 발생 억제와 자묘 생육)

  • Hwang, Hee Sung;Jeong, Hyeon Woo;Lee, Hye Ri;Hwang, Seung Jae
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.80-88
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to examine the effect by application method and concentration of the indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), which is auxin-based plant growth regulator, on the growth and runner plants production of strawberry in the greenhouse. The seedlings of strawberry were transplanted in the pot (150 ×135 × 90 mm) filled with coir medium on April 12, 2019. The IBA was applied with a foliar spray or drench as 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg·L-1 (50 mL per plant), respectively. The treatment was started on April 29, 2019. The foliar spray and drench treatment of IBA were repeated at 2-week intervals for 9 weeks from the start date of treatment. At 9 weeks after treatment, the petiole length of mother plants was the shortest in the control. The number of runner plants showed a tendency to decreased in the foliar spray. The number of lateral buds showed a tendency to decreased in the IBA treatment, and the least in the foliar with 100 mg·L-1. There was not significantly difference in the fresh and dry weights of the first and second runner plants. However, in the third runner plants, the fresh and dry weights were the greatest in the drench with 100 mg·L-1. Therefore, when considering the growth of third runner plants and lateral bud suppression, the drench with the 100 mg·L-1 could be better application method and concentration of IBA treatment for growth of the third runner plants and runner plants production of strawberry, and the results can be used as a basic research of plant growth regulator application to save the labor force and enhance the seedling quality in strawberry seedling stage.

Industrial Policy as a Development Strategy: Cuba' s Experience and Policy Implications (개발전략으로서 산업정책: 쿠바의 경험과 정책적 시사점)

  • Cin, Beom Cheol
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.3-27
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    • 2018
  • This paper analyzes Cuba's market-oriented reforms to alleviate essential problems with socialist countries such as soft budget constraints and incentive problems. It also discuss about effectiveness of industrial policy as a development strategy. The soft budget constraints and incentive problems resulted in the collapse of Soviet bloc and COMECON in early 1990s. After the collapse, Cuban economy suffered a steep dive, and national income tumbling down rapidly. Cuban faced serious shortages of food, gasoline, and other basic necessities of life. To halt and partially reverse economic downturn and dire austerity in the 1990's, the Cuban government made some partial reforms to the inherited Soviet system of cental planningand faced severe shortage in food, energy, and daily necessities. In response to the economic crisis. Cuba introduced economic reforms and implemented industrial policy as a development strategy as long as Cuba maintained a strong socialist country. Cuban government established the economic free zone law and attempted to induce foreign direct investment by implementing export-led industrial policy. Fiedel Castro approved the Law No. 165 "Free Zones and Industrial Parks", in 1996. However, Cuba's ESZ strategy seems to have failed because of the U.S. sanctions, but also because of Cuba's own policies, which do not allow foreign investors to hire workers directly and impose a high implicit tax on wages. By limiting advanced techniques of personnel and organization management, indirect employment can result in lowering work efforts and productivity of workers, and aggravating production efficiency in the ESZs. Another reason to fail comes from the double wage structure due to the double monetary-exchange rate system. Most of the high non-wage costs result from the double exchange rate system. Due to Cuba's imbalanced industry and production structures, concentrated labor force, and urbanization and centralization of agriculture production, the industrial transformation development model suggested by Lewis has not been successful unlike other Asian agriculture-led development model. Cuba has to overcome many difficulties in implementing industrial policy as a development strategy.

A study on 'audience participation' of contemporary theatre in 'Sleep No More" of Punchdrunk (동시대 공연에 나타나는 '관객 참여'방식 연구 - 런던 펀치드렁크(Punchdrunk)극단의 를 중심으로)

  • Jeon, Yunkyung
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.32
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    • pp.651-700
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    • 2016
  • The keyword of contemporary art in 21st is audience participation. London has emphasized the importance of audience participation since 2000. The National Theater of London is trying a new method, which is live performance to search new audiences. Also, they are trying to cross the boundaries between 'stage' and 'spectator'. This leads the other theaters to search new audiences and try new genre of performance. Therefore, they establish a new form of performance, which is that audience actively moves and find a new story in a theater. For example, "environmental theater" is the one. This theater escapes from the traditional stage, but it is based on "site-specific performance." Lots of new forms of theater have emerged. In this study, I focused on one of these new forms of theater, which is "Punchdrunk." "Punchdrunk" was founded by few students graduated from London University's Laban Center in 1999. They started at an empty stage in small school with only three audiences. 7 years after, it became one of major theaters in London. 10 years after, it showed their performances in the United state. Since then, their performances in New York have never been stopped. More strikingly, for last decades, this theater has been always full. In this study, I reasoned that the key of "Punchdrunk" success is audience participation. Therefore, I investigated the features of Punchdrunk theater and how they engage their audience in this performance. In this study, I focused on one of their performances, . Also, I categorized the audiences in three different ways: narrative visitor, walking visitor, and engaging visitor with mask. Three-part transition of Disney Theme Park from Louis Marin was applied to study "narrative visitor." For "walking visitor", Normadism from Gilles Deleuze was applied. For "engaging visitor with mask", Voyeurism was applied.

A Study on the Spatial and Visual Composition of Yi Ung-Jae's Old House, Dundeok-ri (둔덕리 이웅재고가(李雄宰古家)의 공간 및 경관 구성적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Jung-Han
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.60-76
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the spatial and visual arrangement characteristics of Imsil Yi Ung-jae's old house's spatial and visual aspects in order to discover the value of landscape and traditional house garden. The results of this study are as follows. Dongchon-village in Dundeok-ri, where old house is located, is a typical form of with "Back to the mountain and facing the water(背山臨水)", and is located in the north of the three streams of water, forming a Jeonchaghugwan(前窄後寬). Dongchon Village, which has a traditional scenic spot between Danguidae(丹丘臺) and Samgyeseokmun(三溪石門), is understood to be the main street of Nojeokbong Peak and Gyegwanbong Peak, which is Ansan(案山), where the "A centipede flying in the sky(飛天蜈蚣形)". Yi Ung-jae's old house is the oldest existing high-priced house in the North Jeolla region and the closing price of a royal family of the Joseon Dynasty, which was arranged by Chunseongjeong(春城正), Yi Dam-son(李聃孫) in the mid-16C. The Japanese Invasion of Korea in 1592 and Japanese colonial era, the loyalty of the gate quarters, the filial piety of the gate quarters, and the faithfulness of the tablet(扁額) and Juryeons(柱聯) are enough to contribute to the rise of the value of a physical house. The men's quarters(Sarangchae), which are placed on a high-pocket or a layout without going against the sloping terrain, have the effect of making the distance as far as possible, enhancing its dignity and hierarchy as a royal building. In addition, the entrance to the main quarters(Anchae) through the four pillar gates(四柱門), the extensive support and the appropriation of the Chaewon(vegetable garden), and the official base for the Anchae are very unique compared to the general nobility. However, in the context of the postwar relationship, the shrine seeks to realize Confucian ideals while harmonizing with nature by arranging wide sponsorships around it. On the other hand, it is confirmed that there was a pond in the form of a circle in a square(方池圓島型) with a relatively large area, which is now disturbed and damaged. Written by the high priced planting species are sponsored pine trees, hackberry, persimmon trees, Japanese apricot flower, Ohmomiji, and plum tree in the side garden, as well as cotyledon trees in the outside garden. However, although flower bed(花階), which is built on the stone axis, is a place that clearly shows the expensive garden, it seems to have lost the texture of the plant due to the extremely high variety of species and the splendor that does not match the plant landscape of the flower world. Yi Ung-jae's old house is highly valuable as it is a portrait house of a prince of the blood in the mid-Joseon Dynasty. Based on these findings, this study proposed a plan to improve the management of high prices that could be met.

A Study on the Sensitivity of Human Rights and the Advocacy Activities of Korean Occupational Therapists (국내 작업치료사의 인권감수성이 옹호활동에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ji-Man;Hong, Ki-Hoon;Lee, Chun-Yeop;Kim, Hee-Jung
    • The Journal of Korean society of community based occupational therapy
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.11-24
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    • 2020
  • Objective : The Human Rights constitute one of the basic pillars of every work where persons are involved, such is the case of the occupational therapy field. Methods : In this study we investigate the human rights sensitivity and the advocacy activities of occupational therapists. The differences according to their characteristics, the relationship and the impact of the human rights sensitivity are examined and presented. Making use of online surveys 116 subjects participated in the study. Results : The measured average of human right sensitivity is 69.00 ± 17.67 point, being them distributed according to the following subcategories: to the perception of the situation corresponds 23.25±5.62 points, to the perception of the consequences 22.75±6.54 points and for the perception of the responsibility 23±6.54 points. In all the cases have been taken in account the equal rights, the right to education in disables, the right to pursue the happiness of the elderly, the right of the disables to have personal freedom, the privacy rights and the privacy rights for mental illness people. According to the working area the Human Right sensitiveness is higher in Seoul than in the Gyeongsang province meanwhile the advocacy activities is higher in Seoul and in Gyeonggi province than in Gyeongsang province. Depending of the type of service, general hospitals and rehabilitation/nursing hospitals showed higher human rights sensitivity than other service organizations According to the working field, occupational therapy group focused in elderly showed higher Human Right sensitivity than other fields. Professionals belonging groups of clinical experience from 3 to 5 years and from 6 to 10 years showed higher advocacy activities than professionals with more than 11 years of experience. A positive correlation was showed between the human rights sensitivity and the advocacy activities. For this situation, the human rights sensitiveness was divided in sub-categories in perception of the situation, perception of the consequences and perception of the responsibility. As showed by the result of multiple regression analyses the advocacy activities of human would grow up in accordance with the increase of the human rights sensitiveness of responsibility perception. Conclusion : Due to the actual lack of information, the collection and study of basic data is fundamental for the development of practical human rights educational programs and to emphasize the role of the defense of the human rights.

Results and Trends of Research on Japanese Traditional Theatre 'Noh' in Korea and China (한중에서의 일본 고전극 노(能) 연구의 성과와 경향)

  • Kang, Choonae
    • Journal of Korean Theatre Studies Association
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    • no.52
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    • pp.189-228
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this research was to summarize Korea and China's researches on Noh and to examine main domain in this field, by investigating the academic books and articles published in two countries. In 1960s, since Nohgaku has been introduced to China, academic articles on Zeami's theories and aesthetics have emphasized on aesthetic characteristics of Chinese plays and Japanese Nohgaku through the similarities of oriental plays. The number of researches on Kabuki is almost twice as that of researches on Noh in China. While most researches on Kabuki were compared with the styles and music of Pecking Opera and the theatrical theories of liyu[李漁], those on Noh has been highlighted the comparative studies on $Y{\bar{o}}kyoku$[謠曲], Chinese Noh plays. The main difference among the researches on $Y{\bar{o}}kyoku$ in Korea and China was the material regarding characters of Noh. Because song yuanzaju[宋 元雜劇]and Nohgaku in Chinese-Japanese plays were the mature form of the classic plays and those were representative of traditional nation plays, this researches tried to ascertain the cultural origins of two countries regarding the aesthetic characteristics by referencing lyrical and narrative features[曲詞] of yuanzaju[元雜劇]and the classic waka of Nohgaku. While the comparative studies on Noh and song yuanzaju and kunqu[昆劇] in China were prevalent, national researches have emphasized on the inner world of the main character and dramaturgy through the verbal description of Noh. Especially, this research tried to investigate the inner world of the main character and the intention of the writers through the verbal description of Noh authorized in the history of the works. Also, the researches on Buddhism in the Middle Ages and religious background were examined significantly. In addition, the $Y{\bar{o}}kyoku$ has influenced on European modern playwrights and the comparative studies between the materials of $Y{\bar{o}}kyoku$ and Western modern plays were concerned. In Korea, the comparative studies on Noh between Korea abd Japan has been most focused on the origin theory of Noh. The fact that appearance theory of Noh had originated from Sangaku was common opinion among Korean, Chinese, and Japanese scholars. However, they are agree with the opinion that according to the formation of the different genres, Noh's mainstream was different among three countries despite of the same origin. Yuan drama and Noh play have the same origin, but different branch. In relation to the Noh's origin theory, there are literature comparative studies in religious background, the studies presumed the origin of instrumental music related to those in mask plays, and the comparative studies between Korean mask plays and $ky{\bar{o}}gen$ of Nohgaku. Kyogen is the Comedy inserted among the stories in Nohgaku performed in just one day. Therefore, $ky{\bar{o}}gen$ must be discussed separately from the relations of 'shite[任手]'s inner action veiled with masks. This research figured out that the lacking points of the two countries' researches were the acting methods of Noh. Academic articles written by foreign scholars studying Korean and Chinese theatres should be included when this issue will be dealt with. In Korea and China, translation studies and writings regarding Nohgaku have studied by those who are major in Japanese literature or oriental literature. This case is the same in Korea in that scholars whose speciality is not theatre, but Japanese literature has studied. Therefore, this present study can give a good grasp of whole tendency on Nohgaku's research in theatre fields.