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Effective Combination of Resistance Genes against Rice Bacterial Blight Pathogen (벼흰잎마름병 저항성 증진을 위한 유전자 조합)

  • Kim, Ki-Young;Shin, Mun-Sik;Kim, Woo-Jae;Mo, Young-Jun;Nam, Jeong-Kwon;Noh, Tae-Hwan;Kim, Bo-Kyeong;Ko, Jae-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.244-251
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to identify useful single gene and gene combination resistant to K1, K2, K3 and 24 bacterial blight(BB) isolates (including K3a, HB01009) breaking down Xa3 gene. Xa3, Xa4, xa5 and Xa7 genes were resistant to K1, K2, K3 of bacterial blight pathogen. Against 24 BB isolates breaking down Xa3 gene, Xa1, Xa2, xa8, Xa10, Xa11, xa13 genes were susceptible, whereas Xa4 gene was moderately resistant and xa5 and Xa21 genes were resistant. IRBB7 having Xa7 gene showed resistance responding to 24 BB isolates, whereas IRBB107 carrying Xa7 gene was susceptible to 10 BB isolates and moderately resistant to 14 BB isolates. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) of Toyonishiki and IR24, both possessing Xa7 gene, showed different resistance response against 24 BB isolates according to genetic background. Xa3+xa5, Xa4+xa5, Xa4+xa13, Xa4+Xa21, xa5+xa13, xa5+Xa21, xa13+Xa21, Xa4+xa5+xa13, Xa4+xa5+Xa21, Xa4+xa13+Xa21, xa5+xa13+Xa21, and Xa4+xa5+xa13+Xa21 were resistant to K1, K2, K3 and 24 isolates breaking down Xa3 gene. When Xa3 and xa13 genes were combined with xa5, Xa4, Xa21, resistance response was enhanced compared with single gene lines containg only Xa3 or xa13. Similarly, when Xa4 gene was combined with xa5 and Xa21, resistance response was improved by the gene combination effect.

The Cultural Landscapes of Wuyi-Gugok of China as seen from the 「Landscape of the Jiuqu River in the Wuyi Mountain」 in British Library (대영도서관 소장 「무이산구곡계전도(武夷山九曲溪全圖)」로 본 중국 무이구곡의 문화경관상)

  • Cheng, Zhao-Xia;Rho, Jae-Hyun;Jiang, Cheng
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.11-31
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    • 2019
  • Taking the painting, 「Landscape of the Jiuqu River in the Wuyi Mountain」 as the study object, which was produced in the middle of Qing Dinasty and collected by the British Library, this paper analyzes the scenery names recorded in the painting, and describes the landscape of the mountain, port and ships, architectural elements, civil elements, character, stone inscription and other scenery in the painting. The investigation results of the cultural landscape properties of each Gok are as follows: According to statistics, there are 28 architectural elements in the painting, including 7 pavilions (25%), 4 temples (14.3%), 3 Colleges and Taoist temple (10.7%), 2 Dowon(道院) and villages (7.1%); 29 civil elements, including 9 holes (31%), 6 Historical Sites (20.7%), 3 Stations(臺) (10.3%), 2 Ferries, 2 Bridges, and 2 Ponds (6.9%), 1 Garden, 1 Gate, 1 Mine(坑), 1 Well and 1 Remains(3.4%). These physical factors and civil factors are the important relics reflected the cultural landscape attributes of Wuyi-Gugok in the middle of the 18th century. Among the shape element in each Gok, the 1st Gok have 12 shape elements(21.1%), the 5th Gok 11(19.3%), the 4th Gok 9(15.8%), the 9th Gok 8(14%), the 3rd Gok 7(12.3%), the 6th Gok 4(7%), the 2nd Gok 3(5.3%), the 7th Gok 2(3.5%), and the 8th Gok 1(2%). Through collation, it is found that the 1st Gok, 5th Gok and 4th Gok have more prominent cultural landscape characteristics. In addition, according to the description of scenic spot types in 『Muisanji(武夷山志)』, there are 38 types of scenery description in the painting, of which, the three scenery of big rock, peak, small rock occupy the vast majority. This reflects the Danxia(丹霞) landform characteristics of Wuyi-Gugok. The cultural connotation of Wuyi Mountain expressed and contained in the painting is analyzed and interpreted, and it is found that the Jiuqu(九曲) River in the Wuyi Mountain has Neo-confucianism culture, Taoism culture, Buddhism culture, Tea culture and so on. In addition, among the 171 scenery names shown in the painting, there are altogether 7 stone inscriptions that are consistent with or have the same meaning as the rock inscriptions site, including 3 for inscriptions praising the landscape, 3 for philosophical inscription and 1 for auspicious language inscription, which is considered as the important basis for the mutual textuality between the pictures and the stone inscriptions.

A Study on the Acculturation of Guǐmok(槐木) Plantings through the Remaining Species of Guǐjeong(槐亭) (괴정(槐亭)의 잔존 수종을 통해 본 괴목(槐木) 식재의 문화변용)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Han, Sang-Yub;Choe, Seung-Heuy
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.81-97
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to examine what people in Korea recognize the cultural symbolism and the planting patterns of 'Guǐmok', pagoda tree(Sophora japonica). The species planted in the 'Guǐjeong' was empirically investigated and analyzed to determine which species of pagoda tree or Zelkova tree(Zelkova serrata) was taken through literature surveys, field surveys, and interviews with persons. This 'Guǐjeong' was combined to track how the culture of the 'Guǐmok' planting introduced in China was ultimately accepted and transformed in Korea. In this study, we tried to analyze the meaning implicit in the mystery while checking the distribution of the mystery and the form of the mystery, the name of the pavilion and its relevance to the contrast medium. Essentially, the trees that govern the characterization of the nectar plant, regardless of the region, are considered to be a pagoda tree, which is considered an internal factor in which the pagoda tree culture was not completely transformed into a zelkova tree. It was recognized throughout the Joseon Dynasty that the species representing 'Prime ministers(三公)' was judged from all the Joseon Dynasty periods, based on the builder of Guǐjeong's Aho(雅號) and Dangho(堂號). It was confirmed that the tree was very likely to be planted in place of the painting tree. But now is selectively zelkova tree is in accordance with the preparation of planting site conditions and areas on behalf of the Change is very high probability that is planted. Cultural variables that led to the cultural transformation of the 'Guǐmok' seem to have been deeply involved in the geographical space of China and Korea, Confucian practices of the Choson society, comings and goings and letter bridge, and network strength with China through the book spread. In addition, the culture of 'Guǐmok' is presumed to have led to cultural custom of the upper class, not the whole class, in the Yeongnam region, it can be said that the independent adaptation to act to recognize 'Guǐmok' as a pagoda tree, that is a Sophora japonica, has occurred very strongly. The difference between the cultural areas of Yeongnam and non-Yeongnam is also considered to be an internal factor that has played a major role in the cultural transformation of planting of 'Guǐmok'.

Investigation of O4 Air Mass Factor Sensitivity to Aerosol Peak Height Using UV-VIS Hyperspectral Synthetic Radiance in Various Measurement Conditions (UV-VIS 초분광 위성센서 모의복사휘도를 활용한 다양한 관측환경에서의 에어로솔 유효고도에 대한 O4 대기질량인자 민감도 조사)

  • Choi, Wonei;Lee, Hanlim;Choi, Chuluong;Lee, Yangwon;Noh, Youngmin
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.36 no.2_1
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    • pp.155-165
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    • 2020
  • In this present study, the sensitivity of O4 Air Mass Factor (AMF) to Aerosol Peak Height (APH) has been investigated using radiative transfer model according to various parameters(wavelength (340 nm and 477 nm), aerosol type (smoke, dust, sulfate), aerosol optical depth (AOD), surface reflectance, solar zenith angle, and viewing zenith angle). In general, it was found that O4 AMF at 477 nm is more sensitive to APH than that at 340 nm and is stably retrieved with low spectral fitting error in Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) analysis. In high AOD condition, sensitivity of O4 AMF on APH tends to increase. O4 AMF at 340 nm decreased with increasing solar zenith angle. This dependency isthought to be induced by the decrease in length of the light path where O4 absorption occurs due to the shielding effect caused by Rayleigh and Mie scattering at high solar zenith angles above 40°. At 477 nm, as the solar zenith angle increased, multiple scattering caused by Rayleigh and Mie scattering partly leads to the increase of O4 AMF in nonlinear function. Based on synthetic radiance, APHs have been retrieved using O4 AMF. Additionally, the effect of AOD uncertainty on APH retrieval error has been investigated. Among three aerosol types, APH retrieval for sulfate type is found to have the largest APH retrieval error due to uncertainty of AOD. In the case of dust aerosol, it was found that the influence of AOD uncertainty is negligible. It indicates that aerosol types affect APH retrieval error since absorption scattering characteristics of each aerosol type are various.

Manufacturing process and food safety analysis of sous-vide production for small and medium sized manufacturing companies: Focusing on the Korean HMR market (중소규모 생산업체의 수비드 제품 생산을 위한 공정 및 안전성 분석: 한국 HMR 시장 중심으로)

  • Choi, Eugene;Shin, Weon Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2020
  • The present study identified the restrictions on the use of sous-vide products in the Korean HMR market for small and medium-sized manufacturing companies. A detailed literature review revealed that the HMR market in Korea is close to saturation. Notably, the technologically advanced products produced using sous-vide seem to display significant potential to overcome market saturation. The sous-vide method differs from conventional cooking techniques and is characterized by maintenance of food texture along with flavor enhancement. However, due to the unfamiliarity of the manufacturers with this method and the unclear food safety regulations, mass food manufacturing companies do not agree on using this method; hence, sous-vide production is usually undertaken by small/medium sized companies catering primarily through online marketing portals. This study highlights the various restrictions to the implementation of sous-vide production, and discusses several practical implications of sous-vide production that would help users of this technique enter the HMR market.

A Placeness and Identification on the Place Names of Geomorphological Landscape in Jukdo, Yangyang (양양 죽도의 장소성과 지형경관의 지명 고찰 및 비정)

  • Rho, Jae-hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.37-48
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    • 2019
  • This study, which starting from Yangyang Jukdo's topography formation and questioning revealed in landscape guide and landscape commentary board, is to sort out the characteristics of Jukdo natural landscape through literature research, field observation research and stakeholder interview as part of the proper recognition of Jokdo landscape and search for landscape resources, and pursued a review of nominations and criticism. The results of this study are summarized as follows. Yangyang Jukdo is an island named because it was full of blue bamboo. From before the first half of the 14th Century. to the middle of the 18th Century., there was a Gwanlan-pavilion to see the sea and the bamboo in the west. The time when the original island, the Jukdo, have been a land-tied island connected with the land by the tombolo formed by the erosion of the sand. It is located at the end of the 14th Century. and before the middle of the 18th Century. In Jukdo, colorful weathered terrains, coastal terrain, and structural terrain formed by long-time weathering are found. Among them, the type of weathering, the tafoni style and the gnamma style are the scenic landscapes with the key stories of legend and poetry that are brought to Jukdo. In addition, there are seven kinds of letters caved in the rocks in Jukdo. The rocks found on the coast, basketball cannons, shrines, and sutras are seen as shrouds based on a Taoist hermit motifs and style. In addition, it can be interred from the photography of "jeongssisejeog" that the souvenir of Jukdo was the family of Chogyejeong of mid 18th Century. In terms of observational geography and poetry, Jukdo has been handed down a great deal of missionary color with key motifs such as 'Jukdo-seongoo', 'Jukdo-Dolgooyoo', or 'Stone mortar of Taoist hermit' It is proved that the pearl which is called 'The stone of the Taoist hermit' is a porthole formed in a separate space rather than the topography of the geomorphology in terms of shape, size and function. Currently named Shun-tang is a product of the ridiculous 'naming' of interest. The present landscape guide and commentary is not only incompatible with the place of Jukdo, but also does not match the traditional cultural landscape. Future scenery information such as guide signs and commentary boards should be improved in the direction of positively highlighting the stories and motifs related to the present that are present in order to enhance the landscape identity of Yangyang Jukdo.

Characteristics of the Main Fault Zone Developed Along Yangsan Fault : On the Outcrop of Cheonjeon-ri, Dudong-myeon, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, Korea (양산단층 주 단층대의 발달특성 : 울산광역시 울주군 두동면 천전리 일대의 노두를 중심으로)

  • Ryoo, Chung-Ryul;Cheon, Youngbeom
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.347-357
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    • 2019
  • The main fault zone of the Yangsan Fault, located in the southeastern part of the Korean peninsula, is newly found at the Cheonjin-ri, Dudong-myeon, Ulju-gun, Ulsan, Korea. About 100 wide fault zone exposed along the Guryangcheon stream strikes N-S and dips over 70° toward east. The main fault zone is composed of N-S-striking gouge and breccia layers and enclosed lenses. Striations on the subvertical fault surfaces mainly indicate dextral slip, but moderate-angle minor reverse faults showing top-tothe-west shearing transect the foliated high-angle gouge and breccia layers. These indicate that the dextral slip along the fault, which is interpreted as the main movement of the fault, was followed by reverse slip. The fault zone is composed of N-S-striking gouge layers and enclosed, fractured lenses. Locally distributed NE-SW- to E-W-striking fault gouge layers with fractured lenses show asymmetric folds, indicating progressive dextral movement. Therefore, the exposed fault zone has a high internal complexity due to the combined effects of NNE-SSW-trending dextral shearing and E-W-trending shortening by compression. In addition, around main boundary fault between the western volcanic rocks and eastern sedimentary rocks offsets the overlying Quaternary fluvial conglomerate. This is a good example that understanding of internal structures of main fault zone (or fault core), such as the Yangsan Fault, plays an important role to study the Quaternary activity and to find the active fault.

Proposals on How to Research Iron Manufacture Relics (제철유적 조사연구법 시론)

  • Kim, Kwon Il
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.144-179
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    • 2010
  • Investigation into iron manufacture relics has been active since 1970s, especially accelerated in 1990s across the country. Consideration of the importance of production site relics has lately attracted attention to iron manufacture relics. Methodological studies of the investigation into iron manufacture relics, however, were less made compared with those of the investigation into tomb, dwelling, or swampy place relics. It is because the process of iron manufacture is too complicated to understand and also requires professional knowledge of metal engineering. With the recognition of these problems this research is to form an opinion about how to excavate, to rearrange and classify, and to examine iron manufacture relics, based upon the understanding of the nature of iron, iron production process, and metal engineering features of related relics like slag, iron lumps and so on. This research classifies iron manufacture relics into seven types according to the production process; mining, smelting, refining, tempering, melting, steelmaking, and the others. Then it arranges methods to survey in each stage of field study, trial digging, and excavation. It also explains how to classify and examine excavated relics, what field of natural science to be used to know the features of relics, and what efforts have been made to reconstruct a furnace and what their problems were, making the best use of examples, drawings, and photos. It comes to the conclusion, in spite of the lack of in-depth discussion on application and development of various investigation methods, that iron manufacture relics can be classified according to the production process, that natural sciences should be applied to get comprehensive understanding of relics as well as archeological knowledge, and that efforts to reconstruct a furnace should be continued from the aspect of experimental archeology.

A Study on the Botany of New Natural Habitats of Abeliophyllum distichum Nakai in the Byeonsanbando National Park (변산반도국립공원 내 새로운 미선나무 자생지의 식물학적 연구)

  • Oh, Hyun Kyung;Soh, Min Seok;Rho, Jae Hyun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.4-25
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed in 2010 to examine the flora and vegetation structure and chemical characteristics of soil in the growing community of Abeliophyllum distichum, located in the Byeonsanbando National Park. This Abeliophyllum distichum community has more individual numbers in Cheongrim-ni and Jungkye-ri, Byeonsan-myeon, and Buan-gun area, which is designated as a Natural Monument (No. 370), and also where the habitat conditions for Abeliophyllum distichum is more favorable. The authors recorded 100 taxa with 45 families, 82 genus, 93 species, 4 varieties, and 3 forms. Among them, species such as Abeliophyllum distichum (critically endangered), Asarum maculatum (near threatened) and Chionanthus retusa (near threatened), which are categorized as rare plants, were recorded. According to the list of Korean endemic plants, 4 taxa, particularly Philadelphus schrenckii, Abeliophyllum distichum, Weigela subsessilis, and Lonicera subsessili, were recorded. The community of Abeliophyllum distichum is located in the northwest slope of Baekcheon watershed and the community is comprised of healthy soil. The community structure was classified into three: the Castanea crenata community, Zelkova serrata community, and Quercus serrata community. The Castanea crenata community is composed of the Cornus walteri, Platycarya strobilacea, Zelkova serrata, Rhamnella frangulioides, arranged in terms of importance percentage. The Zelkova serrata community is composed of Celtis sinensis, Quercus aliena, Styrax japonica, and Acer pseudo-sieboldianum, also according to importance percentage. As for the Quercus serrata community, it is composed of Quercus variabilis, Castanea crenata, and Prunus sargentii, also arranged in terms of importance percentage. The importance percentage of Abeliophyllum distichum is 6.6% in the Castanea crenata community, 5.6% in the Zelkova serrata community and 5.1% in the Quercus serrata community. Moreover, in order of chemical characteristics of soil pH, electrical conductivity, available phosphoric, organic matter, and exchangeable cation (K, Ca, Mg) are analyzed. The No. 3 site was relatively higher than other districts of the same chemical characteristics of soil.

Comparative Study on the Essence and Features of Gabsagugok and Yongsangugok Wonlim(園林) in Mt. Gyeryong (계룡산 갑사구곡과 용산구곡 원림의 실체 및 특성)

  • Rho, Jae Hyun;Kim, Yeon
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.52-71
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    • 2011
  • This study was initiated with the intent to consider the features of Gugokwonlim and to compare Gabsagugok(甲寺九曲) to Yongsangugok(龍山九曲) against the backdrop of Mt. Gyeryong by revealing their nature and confirming the names and exact locations. A literature review, interviews with local people and field studies confirmed that Gabsagugok and Yongsangugok are each composed of 9 seasonal features. The former is made up of Yongyuso(龍遊沼) - Iilcheon(二一川) - Baengnyonggang(白龍岡) - Dalmuntaek(達門澤) - Geumgyeam(金鷄?) - Myeongwoldam(明月潭) - Gyemyeongam(鷄鳴巖) - Yongmunpok(龍門瀑) - Sujeongbong(水晶峰) while the latter is made up of Simyongmun(尋龍門) - Eunnyongdam(隱龍潭) - Waryonggang(臥龍剛) - Yuryongdae(遊龍臺) - Hwangnyongam(黃龍岩) - Hyeollyongso(見龍沼) - Ullyongtaek(雲龍澤) - Biryongchu(飛龍湫) - Sillyongyeon(神龍淵). Both Gabsagugok and Yongsangugok are part of Gugokwonlim built in the valleys of Mt. Gyeryong in the late Joseon Dynasty by Byeoksu Yun Deok-yeong (1927) and Chwieum Gwon Jun-myeon (1932), respectively, with a 5 year difference. Gabsagugok was supposedly designed to reflect an individual taste for the arts and to admire principles of Juyeok (ch. Zhouyi) and the beauty of nature. On the contrary, Yongsangugok appears to be the builder's expression of his longing for independence day, likened to the life of a dragon after receiving the sad news of Japan's annexation of Korea. Such differences show that these two builders had very different intentions from one another. The letters of Gabsagugok have a semi cursive style and were deeply engraved on the rock in a square shape. Consequently they have not been worn away except for those in Yongyuso, the first Gok. In contrast, the letters in Yongsangugok have an antiquated, cursive-Yija style but because they were engraved relatively lightly, serious wear and damage occurred. In terms of location, Gabsagugok was built around Ganseongjang adjacent to the 5th Gok while Yongsangugok was set up around the 5th Gok, Hwangnyongam. Meanwhile, the important motif which forms the background of Gabsagugok seemingly highlights the geographic identity of Mt. Gyeryong using the dragon and the chicken as themes. It also appears to symbolize the principles of Juyeok focusing on Kan of the Eight Trigrams for divination; this requires an in-depth study for confirmation. The main motif and theme of Yongsangugok is the dragon. It infuses the builder's intentions in Sangsinri Valley by communicating with nature through a story of a dragon's life from birth to ascension. It is assumed that he tried to use this story to express his hope for restoring the national spirit and reconstructing the country.