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Development of New Functional Dairy Products Containing Probiotics for Improving Human Health: A Review (Probiotics를 이용한 새로운 건강 증진 기능성 유제품 개발에 관한 연구: 총설)

  • Kim, Dong-Hyeon;Chon, Jung-Whan;Kim, Hyun-Sook;Kim, Hong-Seok;Song, Kwang-Young;Kim, Soo-Ki;Jeong, Dong-Gwan;Seo, Kun-Ho
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 2015
  • Recently, much attention has been paid to the development of a value-added food category containing probiotics so as to improve human health and prevent diseases. Among various foods, the health benefits of milk and dairy products are known to humanity, and could be attributed to the bioactive components present in milk. In fermented milk products, the health benefits could be due to suitable modulation activities produced by the action of probiotic bacteria. Besides the modification of various milk components, probiotics might also act directly as preventive and therapeutic agents against some severe diseases. Probiotics promote health via their positive effects on the immune response, stimulation of natural immunity, and modulation of the production of antimicrobial peptides, cytokines, and so on. Whey proteins, a byproduct of cheese production could also have anticarcinogenic, immunostimulatory, antimicrobial, and health-promoting activities such as improving insulin sensitivity and reducing fat deposition. Therefore, milk and dairy products containing probiotics could provide various opportunities in the field of functional foods. Additionally, these functional foods may be important in the human diet and may help improve human health and prevent diseases.

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The Structure of Plant Community in Jungdaesa-Birobong Area, Odaesan National Park (오대산국립공원 중대사-비로봉 구간 식물군집구조)

  • Han, Bong-ho;Choi, Jin-woo;Noh, Tai-hwan;Kim, Dong-wook
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.764-776
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    • 2015
  • This study aims to identify the structure of the plant community, and the ecological succession sere and the change in the forest ecosystem in Jungdaesa-Birobong area, Odaesan National Park_(i._e., located at high altitudes(over 1,000m)). It seeks to offer the basic data for the planning of vegetation management. In order to verify the status of the forest vegetation between Jungdaesa-Birobong, seventeen plots(size is $20m{\times}20m$) were set up as research sites at high altitudes. Importance value, distribution by diameter at breast height(DBH), the growth volume and age of the sample trees, similarity index and species diversity index of each survey plot were analysed. According to the results of DCA(Detrended Correspondence Analysis), one of the multivariate statistical techniques. It was found that the plant communities were classified into five groups: community I_(Quercus mongolica-Tilia amurensis community), community II_(Q. mongolica-Deciduous broad-leaved community), community III_(Q. mongolica-Pinus koraiensis community), community IV_(Abies holophylla-Q. mongolica community) and community V_(A. holophylla-Deciduous broad-leaved community). Community I which is dominated by Quercus mongolica and Deciduous broad-leaved communities is located at an altitude of over 1,300 meters(ranging from 1,335m to 1,495m), the community IV and V which are dominated by Abies holophylla are located at an altitude of under 1,200 meters(ranging from 1,115m to 1,175m) and the community II and III which include the main species of Quercus mongolica, Pinus koraiensis and Abies holophylla are located at an altitude of between 1,160 meters and 1,300 meters. The results showed that Quercus mongolica tends to have a higher importance value of woody species at a higher altitude while Abies holophylla tends to have higher importance value at a lower altitude. For the importance value woody species and -DBH class distribution, the communites I, II and III are expected to continuously maintain the present status. Whereas, for the influence of communities IV and V, Q. mongolica is predicted to be weakened. The age of sample trees was between 85 and 161; the average age was 123. The index of Shannon's Species diversity (H') showed heterogeneity was found among community I_(i._e., located at high altitude) and communities IV and V_(i._e., located at low altitude). As a results of analysing the index of Shannon's Species diversity (H': unit: $400m^2$), community III showed the highest diversity intex with 1.1109 followed by community II with 1.0475, community I with 1.0125, community IV with 0.9918 and community V with 0.8686. This study verified that the index of Shannon's species was significantly different by plant communities. For instance, when comparing the index of Shannon's species diversity in Quercus mongolica communities of this study and that of past relevant research, the value of index is very similar. However, the diversity index for the community which is dominated by Abies holophylla showed lower value when compared to the results from past relevant research.

In-House Subcontracting and Industrial Relations in Japanes Steel Industry (일본 철강산업의 사내하청과 노사관계)

  • Oh, Haksoo
    • Korean Journal of Labor Studies
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.107-156
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    • 2018
  • This article examines the history of the in - house subcontracting and the stabilization of labor - management relations in the steel industry in Japan. The ratio of in-house subcontract workers among steel workers has increased steadily until the mid-2000s, and about 70% in case of the largest company. In-house subcontracting was used as a strategy of the company to increase the quantity flexibility of employment and to save labor costs. The in-house subcontracting company needed company-specialized skills, and the internal labor market was formed because the rate of full-time workers was high and the turnover rate was low. The in-house subcontractor introduced long-term business relationship with the steel factory by introducing the equipment and materials necessary for the performance of the work, and the factory implemented the productivity improvement policy of the in-house subcontractor, and the win-win relationship between the factory and in-house subcontractor was developed. The trade union did not oppose the idea that the expansion of in-house subcontracting contributed to corporate profits, the stability of employment of the members and maintenance of their working conditions. Since 2000, the steel factory has pursued the transformation of in - house subcontractors into subsidiaries, which has been supported by capital relations. By the way, since the mid-2000s, there has been an increase in the number of regular workers' employment. The major factors are as follows: more strengthened compliance with laws and regulations, the higher quality request of customers, stricter keeping of deadlines, and problem in recruiting of workers at in-house subcontract companies. The wage gap between the factory and in - house subcontracting was less at company B than at company S, and the wage level of in - house subcontracting was about 90% of the factory at company B. The relatively small gap at company B seems to be due to the union's movement of narrowing the gap, low market dominance and unfavorable labor market. The internal labor market has been formed in the in-house subcontracting, and the wage gap is not large, and the possibility of labor disputes is low. Industrial relations are stable in the in-house subcontract company as well as the factory. The stabilization of labor-management relations in the steel industry in Korea is required to reduce the wage gap between the factory and in-house subcontract enterprises by raising productivity and expanding the internal labor market at in-house subcontract enterprises.

The Actual Use of Non-regular Workers and the Strategies of Social Partners in Sweden: with a Special Reference to Temporary Workers (스웨덴 비정규직의 사용 실태와 행위주체들의 전략: 임시직 사용 방식을 중심으로)

  • Cho, Don-Moon
    • Korean Journal of Labor Studies
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.47-83
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    • 2017
  • The Swedish labor market secures flexibility in the use of labor force by means of non-regular workers such as temporary workers among others instead of regular workers' layoffs. Although the labor law reform in the late 2000s made it easier to use temporary workers and the outbreak of the economic crisis strengthened the power of user firms against labor unions, the size of temporary workers was scaled down. It is the aim of this study to analyze the change in the use of temporary workers, to examine the effect of the labor law reform and that of economic crisis in that regard, and to explain how, over the use of temporary workers, user firms' strategy to secure flexibility and labor unions' strategy to regulate flexibility interact with each other so as to establish a new equilibrium through conflicts and compromises. The labor law reform to enhance the flexibility in the use of temporary workers failed to entail amendments of collective contracts. Besides, out of the economic crisis, user firms adopted a new policy to use third party workers more, refraining from employing temporary workers. That's why the number of temporary workers has declined eventually. User firms prefer to use third party workers because they could avoid their own responsibility as an employer and they could rely on 'permanent temporary' workers without any time limit. Labor unions, however, responded with a strategy to lay more strict regulations on the use of third party workers, so that third party workers could be used only for limited cause for external numerical flexibility. As a result, the managed flexibility thesis comes to prevail to the usage of non-regular workers in general beyond the category of agency workers. Korea with severe abuse of third party workers should learn from Swedish labor unions' strategy to provide third party workers with stronger employment security and higher wages so as to prevent user firms from abusing third party workers.

A New Medium-Maturing, "Gangbaek" with Resistance to Bacterial Blight (벼 중생 흰잎마름병 저항성 신품종 "강백")

  • Kim, Ki Young;Shin, Mun Sik;Kim, Woo Jae;Ko, Jong Cheol;Baek, Man Gee;Ha, Ki Yong;Kim, Bo Kyeong;Ko, Jae Kwon;Nam, Jeong Kwon;Noh, Gwang Il;Park, Hyun Su;Noh, Tae Hwan;Noh, Jae-Hwan;Cheong, Jin Il;Kim, Young Doo;Mo, Young Jun;Kim, Chung Kon
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.443-446
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    • 2008
  • 'Gangbaek' is a japonica rice variety developed and registered by the rice breeding team of Department of Rice and Winter Cereal Crop, NICS, RDA in 2006. 'Gangbaek' was derived from a cross between 'Suweon345' with good grain quality and 'DV85' resistant to bacterial blight, $K_{3a}$. $F_1$ plants were grown in the greenhouse in winter of 1992/1993 and backcrossed with 'Suweon345' as the recurrent parent. Plants resistant to $K_{3a}$ race of bacterial blight (BB) were selected from $BC_1F_1$ to $BC_4F_1$ and used as parents in the backcrossing processes. This variety has about 120 days growth duration from transplanting to harvesting in west-southern coast and Honam plain of Korea. It is about 69 cm in culm length and tolerance to lodging. In reaction to biotic and abiotic stresses, it shows moderately resistance to blast, and resistance to bacterial blight pathogen, $K_1$, $K_2$, $K_3$ and $K_{3a}$, but susceptible to other major diseases and insect pests. The milled rice of 'Gangbaek' exhibits translucent, relatively clear non-glutinous endosperm and midium short grain. It has lower amylose content of 18.6% and protein content of 6.4% compared with 'Nampyeongbyeo'. The milled rice yield performance of this variety is about 5.28 MT/ha in local adaptability test for three years. This cultivar would be adaptable to the bacterial blight-prone area in the south-western coastal and Honam plain of Korea.

Quality Characteristics of Dough and Bread Added With Extruded Chestnut Shell Powder Under Various Conditions (압출성형 공정변수에 따른 율피분말 첨가 반죽의 물성과 식빵의 품질특성)

  • Lee, Jeong Sug;Yoon, Seong Jun;Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.351-359
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    • 2017
  • This study investigates the quality characteristics of dough and bread added with 6% chestnut shell powder and extruded chestnut shell powder at various conditions. As extrusion process variables, melt temperature ($110^{\circ}C$, $130^{\circ}C$, $150^{\circ}C$) and moisture (25% and 30%) were controlled. Total dietary fiber content was slightly increased in extruded chestnut shell powder group. In the farinogram, absorption was significantly increased in the group of 25% moisture content and 30% moisture content (p<0.05). After 2 hours and 3 hours, the leavening heights of dough for control showed a similar tendency to that of dough with extruded chestnut shell at a melt temperature $150^{\circ}C$ and with moisture content of 25% and 30%. Specific volume was the highest at a control of $3.74{\pm}0.08cc/g$ and extruded chestnut shell powder group was slightly higher than the chestnut shell powder group. Firmness after 1 day on control of $107.42{\pm}14.52g$ was similar to that of the bread with extruded chestnut shell at a temperature of $150^{\circ}C$ and moisture content of 25% for $113.33{\pm}6.17g$. In conclusion, the extrusion-cooking of chestnut shell powder improved the quality characteristics of dough and bread. The optimum combinations of conditions in tested range were melt temperature at $150^{\circ}C$ and moisture content at 25%, and melt temperature at $130^{\circ}C$ and moisture content at 30%.

A Local Governments' Preferences in Selecting Modern Eight Scenic Landscapes (지자체가 선정한 현대팔경에 나타난 경관 선호 양상)

  • So, Hyun-Su
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.92-102
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    • 2020
  • The followings are the landscape preference aspects from the 816 landscapes(景, Kyung), which comprise the 78 modern Palkyungs, presented by the 78 local governments in Korea. First, the natural environment elements selected as Kyung(景), which are topographical landscapes, mostly consist of mountain elements such as mountains, terrace(臺), rocks and stones and water elements classified as rivers, oceans, and lakes. Natural elements also include old-growth and giant trees such as pines, ginkgos, Japanese cornels and fringe trees, tree-lined streets and forests, and plant elements such as azaleas, rhododendrons, lotuses, reeds, and silver grasses which provide seasonal landscapes. Second, more than half of Kyung, selected as human environment elements, are historical and cultural heritages such as graveyards, mountain fortresses, town fortresses, traditional villages, pavilion in villas, and temples. And it is followed by leisure tourism facilities such as traditional markets, exhibition halls, theme parks, beaches, and food streets, green-based structures such as trails, plazas, parks, and botanical gardens, and industrial heritages such as ranches, abandoned coal mines, stations, ports and bridges. Third, modern Palkyungs include objects not related to the views such as local representative facilities, regional products, and festivals. Fourth, although most of the modern Palkyungs consist of eight, some include 20, 38, or 100 in order to increase the number of objects of public relations. Fifth, a certain local government makes two modern Palkyungs with different subjects by introducing traditional Palkyung and modern Palkyung altogether. In this case, it presents several modern Palkyungs like by selecting Palkyungs in a limited area. Furthermore, one Palkyung includes numerous place names at a time in some cases. Sixth, Sosangjeonhyeong(瀟湘典型)-style modern Palkyung uses 'NakAn(落雁)' as the name of Kyung. Sosangyusahyeong(瀟湘類似型)-style modern Palkyung expresses 'Hyojong(曉鐘)' and landscape of glow of the setting sun, sunset, night view, dawn, sunrise and depicts cloud, sunset, moon, and snow. There are many Myeongsocheheomhyeong(名所體驗型)-style Palkyungs exhibiting the behavior of tourism and Myeongseunghyeong(名勝型)-style Palkyungs raising the awareness only by the names of the places. Seventh, modern Palkyung's naming styles are diverse, such as using only four letters instead of specifying Kyungmul(景物) or Kyungsaek(景色) in combination with Chinese characters or adding modifiers specializing in places.

Review of context & meaning of Jeongjeonje by Yi Hang-no (화서(華西) 이항노(李恒老)의 정전제(井田制) 주장과 그 함의(含意))

  • Park, Sung-soon
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.48
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    • pp.195-223
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    • 2012
  • Until now, I guess, many scholars misunderstood the characteristic of economic awareness of Yi Hang-no as if it was a modern nationalism or radicalism against Japanese anti-Korean insistences. But I think these opinions are out of historical attitude. So to understand Yi's economic awareness correctly, I think, We should focus on the traditional Confucian thought system at that time. As one method to reach the goal, I focused on the word, Jeong-jeon-je: Oriental equal land system. Yi Hang-no put the importance on Jeong-jeon-je to make utopia he dreamed of. Yi thought Jeong-jeon-je is the basis of equal society and strong state. Also Yi thought a moral society would be achieved by Jeong-jeon-je because the equal land system, so called Jeong-jeon-je provide peasants with equal lands, so it makes peasants stable in economic situation. Especially, Yi Hang-no put importance on that Jeong-jeon-je would raise moral consciousness of people because equal economic condition makes people wealthy, so people would be good men naturally. Yi Hang-no explain it in basis of Insim-Dosim-seol: a theory of two minds bad & good to be. Yi Hang-no thought equal economic condition is the basis of making people moral being. He thought Jeong-jeon-je was a basis of the condition. Reversely, Yi thought Western insists of trade was the beginning of making people fight for individual benefit, so it produces devil selfishness out of human mind. That was the reason that Yi Hang-no opposed the trade with Western Powers. Eventually Yi's assertion of embargo came out of his Insim-Dosim-seol. In this context, Yi's Jeong-jeon-je was insisted as a method to raise human moral consciousness.

A Mid-late Maturing Rice Cultivar with High-Quality and Bacterial Blight Resistance "Jinbaek" (벼 중만생 고품질 흰잎마름병 신균계(K3a) 저항성 품종 "진백")

  • Kim, Ki-Young;Shin, Mun-Sik;Kim, Bo-Kyeong;Ko, Jae-Kwon;Noh, Tae-Hwan;Ha, Ki-Yong;Ko, Jong-Cheol;Kim, Woo-Jae;Nam, Jeong-Kwon;Baek, Man-Gee;Noh, Gwang-Il;Park, Hyun-Su;Baek, So-Hyeon;Shin, Woon-Chul;Mo, Young-Jun;Choung, Jin-Il;Kim, Young-Doo;Kang, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Chung-Kon;Hwang, Hung-Goo;Kim, Je-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.314-318
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    • 2009
  • A new rice cultivar "Jinbaek" carrying Xa3 and xa5 was derived from the cross between 'HR15204-38-3' with xa5 gene resistant to bacterial blight K1, K2, K3 and K3a, and F1 plant derived from the cross between Junam and Sindongjin with Xa3 gene. "Jinbaek" has approximately 125 days of growth duration from transplanting to harvesting in the west-southern coastal and Honam plain of Korea. Culm length of "Jinbaek" is 71 cm. In reaction to biotic stresses, it shows moderate resistance to blast, and wide spectrum resistance to bacterial blight pathogen, K1, K2, K3, and K3a but susceptible to rice stripe virus and blast. The milled rice of "Jinbaek" exhibits translucent, relatively clear non-glutinous endosperm and midium short grain. It has lower amylose content (18.8%) and protein content (6.2%) compared with Nampyeong. The milled rice yield of this cultivar was 5.30 MT/ha in local adaptability test of three years from 2006 to 2008. This cultivar would be adaptable to the bacterial blight-prone area in the south-western coast and Honam plain of Korea.

Effective Combination of Resistance Genes against Rice Bacterial Blight Pathogen (벼흰잎마름병 저항성 증진을 위한 유전자 조합)

  • Kim, Ki-Young;Shin, Mun-Sik;Kim, Woo-Jae;Mo, Young-Jun;Nam, Jeong-Kwon;Noh, Tae-Hwan;Kim, Bo-Kyeong;Ko, Jae-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.244-251
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    • 2009
  • This study was carried out to identify useful single gene and gene combination resistant to K1, K2, K3 and 24 bacterial blight(BB) isolates (including K3a, HB01009) breaking down Xa3 gene. Xa3, Xa4, xa5 and Xa7 genes were resistant to K1, K2, K3 of bacterial blight pathogen. Against 24 BB isolates breaking down Xa3 gene, Xa1, Xa2, xa8, Xa10, Xa11, xa13 genes were susceptible, whereas Xa4 gene was moderately resistant and xa5 and Xa21 genes were resistant. IRBB7 having Xa7 gene showed resistance responding to 24 BB isolates, whereas IRBB107 carrying Xa7 gene was susceptible to 10 BB isolates and moderately resistant to 14 BB isolates. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) of Toyonishiki and IR24, both possessing Xa7 gene, showed different resistance response against 24 BB isolates according to genetic background. Xa3+xa5, Xa4+xa5, Xa4+xa13, Xa4+Xa21, xa5+xa13, xa5+Xa21, xa13+Xa21, Xa4+xa5+xa13, Xa4+xa5+Xa21, Xa4+xa13+Xa21, xa5+xa13+Xa21, and Xa4+xa5+xa13+Xa21 were resistant to K1, K2, K3 and 24 isolates breaking down Xa3 gene. When Xa3 and xa13 genes were combined with xa5, Xa4, Xa21, resistance response was enhanced compared with single gene lines containg only Xa3 or xa13. Similarly, when Xa4 gene was combined with xa5 and Xa21, resistance response was improved by the gene combination effect.