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A Study on Integrated Visualization and Mapping Techniques using the Geophysical Results of the Coastal Area of the Dokdo in the East Sea (독도 연안 해저 지구물리 자료의 통합 중첩 주제도 작성 연구)

  • Lee, Myoung Hoon;Kim, Chang Hwan;Park, Chan Hong;Rho, Hyun Soo;Kim, Dae Choul
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.381-388
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to integrate and visualize using mapping techniques based on precise seabed geomorphology, seafloor backscattering images and high-resolution underwater images of the nearshore area around the Dokdo, in the East Sea. We have been obtained the precise topography map using multibeam echosounder system around the nearshore area(~50 m) of the southern part of the Seodo. Side scan sonar survey for analysis seafloor backscattering images was carried out in the same area of topography data. High-resolution underwater images(zone(a), zone(b), zone(c)) were taken in significant habitat scope of the nearshore area of the southern part of the Seodo. Using the results of bathymetry, seafloor backscattering images, high-resolution underwater images, we performed an integrated visualization about the nearshore area of the Dokdo. The integrated visualizing techniques are possible to make the seabed characteristic mapping results of the nearshore area of the Dokdo. The integrated visualization results present more complex and reliable information than separate geological products for seabed environmental mapping study and it is useful to understand the relation between seafloor characteristics and topographic environments of the study area. The integrated visualizing techniques and mapping analysis need to study sustainably and periodically, for effective monitoring of the nearshore ecosystem of the Dokdo.

Comparison of the Mechanical Properties between Bulk-fill and Conventional Composites (Bulk-fill 복합레진과 전통적 복합레진의 물성비교)

  • Noh, Taehwan;Song, Eunju;Park, Soyoung;Pyo, Aeri;Kwon, Yonghoon;Kim, Jiyeon;Kim, Shin;Jeong, Taesung
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.365-373
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    • 2016
  • Composites are the most useful restorative material. However, composites have some disadvantages such as polymerization shrinkage, long working time, and susceptibility to water and contamination, which are stood out more especially when treating children. To solve these problems, bulk-fill composites have been developed. The aim of this study is to compare mechanical properties of bulk-fill and conventional composites. Bulk-fill composites (SureFil SDR flow (SDR), Tetric N-Ceram bulk fill (TBF)) and conventional composites (Filtek Z-350 (Z-350), Unifil Flow (UF), Unifil Loflo Plus (UL)) were used. The Vickers hardness tester was used to measure the microhardness of materials, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to measure the degree of conversion. Polymerization shrinkage was measured by using a linometer. Flexural and compressive properties were measured by using the universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Scheffe's post hoc test. The level of significance was set to p < 0.05. Most conventional composites showed higher microhardness than bulk-fill composites. However, bulk-fill composites showed a higher top/bottom microhardness ratio than conventional composites. Bulk-fill composites showed a higher top/bottom degree of conversion ratio than conventional composites. The polymerization shrinkage was highest in UL and lowest in Z-350. The polymerization shrinkage of flowable composites was higher than that of non flowable composites. The compressive properties were highest in Z-350 and lowest in SDR and UL. In terms of flexural properties, Z-350 was the highest. However, none of the bulk-fill composites exhibited mechanical properties as good as those of conventional composites. Nonetheless, the ratio of microhardness and degree of conversion, which are important properties of bulk filling, were higher in bulk-fill composites. Therefore, the bulk-fill composites might be considered suitable restorative materials in pediatric dentistry.

Protective effects of Gastrodia rhizoma and steamed & fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma with anti-oxidant efficacy and suppression of NFκB signaling pathway on LPS-induced liver injury (LPS로 유발한 간손상 마우스에서 항산화 및 항염증 효능을 통한 천마와 증숙 발효 천마의 간보호 효과)

  • Kim, Hyoung-Jin;Kwon, O Jun;Lee, Ah Reum;Roh, Seong-Soo;Seo, Young-Bae
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 2016
  • This study is aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Gastrodiae rhizoma and steamed, dried & fermented Gastrodiae rhizoma on Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced hepatic injury in the mice model. Sample was selected to GR0F0 (not processed gastrodia rhizome) and GR6F4 (fermented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae before steamed and dried 6 times) based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, and High-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Mice were randomly divided into 4 groups - Normal group, vehicle group (LPS treated), GR0F0 group (fed GR0F0 before LPS treated) and GR6F4 group (fed GR6F4 before LPS treated) with 6 mice in each group. GR0F0 group and GR6F4 group were fed each extract 200 mg/kg/day during 8 days. LPS 20 mg/kg injected to the experimental groups as abdominal injection. We measured aspartate aminotransferase, alanine amino-transferase in serum. GR0F0 and GR6F4 showed a significant decrease compared to the vehicle group. As a result of measuring the ROS, GR6F4 group showed a significant reduction in both the serum and liver tissues compared to the vehicle group. GR0F0 group showed a significant reduction only in the liver tissues. Activator protein-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and Inducible nitric oxide synthase were significantly decreased GR0F0 group and GR6F4 group. But tumor necrosis factor alpha only showed a significant reduction in GR6F4 group. GR0F0 and GR6F4 groups against liver damage in mice with LPS. That showed significant effects on anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory action. The effects of GR6F4 group showed superior results compared to GR0F0 group. Therefore, Steamed, dried & fermented Gastrodia rhizoma was might have a protective effect on liver injury.

A Study on the Structure Style of Street Green Spaces on Port Island, Kobe, Japan (일본 고베시(神戶市) 포트아일랜드 가로녹지 구조 유형 연구)

  • Kwak, Jeong-In;Han, Bong-Ho;Noh, Tai-Hwan;Kwak, Nam-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.62-74
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    • 2015
  • This study was carried out to provide examples of planting methods for the construction of street green spaces with abundant greenery by analyzing road type, surrounding land use and planting structures in street green spaces on Port Island, Kobe, Japan. Port Island_(total area: 826ha) is a marine cultural city located in Japan's first artificial island with facilities of urban function and port facilities. The study site was designated at 11 plots of $55{\sim}285m^2$ on Port Island, and topography structure styles were divided into four types with mounding style, slope style, slope and flat style, flat style according to the adjacent roads width. The area adjacent to the middle roads with high levels of noise and pollution set up the mounding style, slope style, slope and flat style of multi-layer structures using topographic properties. The area adjacent to small roads focused on a green strip with shrubs on a flat style. Surrounding land-uses include a public institution, housing complex, and a commercial building. The planting concept was a buffer and landspace function in case of the middle road_(lane 4) while the small road_(lane 2) was a landspace function. Planting species were diverse with Liquidambe formosana, Cinnamomum camphora, Sapium sebiferum, Cedrela sinensis, Laeocarpus sylvestris var. ellipticus, Ginkgo biloba, Prunus serrulata var. spontanea, Zelkova serrata, Quercus glauca, Juniperus chinensis, Magnolia kobus, Rhododendron spp., Camellia japonica, Abelia mosanensis, etc. Planting density was 0.02~0.08(0.04) individual/$m^2$ at the canopy layer, 0.02~0.08(0.04) individual/$m^2$ at the understory layer. Ratio of green coverage was 40.0~173.7(93.0)% at the canopy layer, 2.1~79.8(34.9)% at the understory layer and 17.9~64.2(32.9)% at the shrub layer. $Gr{\ddot{u}}volumenzahl$ was $1.43{\sim}6.67(4.13)m^3/m^2$ at the canopy layer, $0.02{\sim}2.01(0.85)m^3/m^2$ at the understory layer and $0.14{\sim}0.58(0.26)m^3/m^2$ at the shrub layer. The ratio of green coverage of street green space on Port Island was higher than that of Seoul, and particularly, the ratio of green coverage and $gr{\ddot{u}}volumenzahl$ at the shrub layer differed, compared to the main street green space in Korea. The result of this study may be applicable to other coastal reclaimed cities in terms of setting methods for street greenery considering the topography structure, planting structure and planting function.

The KALION Automated Aerosol Type Classification and Mass Concentration Calculation Algorithm (한반도 에어로졸 라이다 네트워크(KALION)의 에어로졸 유형 구분 및 질량 농도 산출 알고리즘)

  • Yeo, Huidong;Kim, Sang-Woo;Lee, Chulkyu;Kim, Dukhyeon;Kim, Byung-Gon;Kim, Sewon;Nam, Hyoung-Gu;Noh, Young Min;Park, Soojin;Park, Chan Bong;Seo, Kwangsuk;Choi, Jin-Young;Lee, Myong-In;Lee, Eun hye
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.119-131
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    • 2016
  • Descriptions are provided of the automated aerosol-type classification and mass concentration calculation algorithm for real-time data processing and aerosol products in Korea Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (KALION, http://www.kalion.kr). The KALION algorithm provides aerosol-cloud classification and three aerosol types (clean continental, dust, and polluted continental/urban pollution aerosols). It also generates vertically resolved distributions of aerosol extinction coefficient and mass concentration. An extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) of 63.31 sr and aerosol mass extinction efficiency of $3.36m^2g^{-1}$ ($1.39m^2g^{-1}$ for dust), determined from co-located sky radiometer and $PM_{10}$ mass concentration measurements in Seoul from June 2006 to December 2015, are deployed in the algorithm. To assess the robustness of the algorithm, we investigate the pollution and dust events in Seoul on 28-30 March, 2015. The aerosol-type identification, especially for dust particles, is agreed with the official Asian dust report by Korean Meteorological Administration. The lidar-derived mass concentrations also well match with $PM_{10}$ mass concentrations. Mean bias difference between $PM_{10}$ and lidar-derived mass concentrations estimated from June 2006 to December 2015 in Seoul is about $3{\mu}g\;m^{-3}$. Lidar ratio and aerosol mass extinction efficiency for each aerosol types will be developed and implemented into the KALION algorithm. More products, such as ice and water-droplet cloud discrimination, cloud base height, and boundary layer height will be produced by the KALION algorithm.

Microbial Community of the Arctic Soil from the Glacier Foreland of Midtre Lovénbreen in Svalbard by Metagenome Analysis (북극 스발바르 군도 중앙로벤 빙하 해안 지역의 토양 시료 내 메타지놈 기반 미생물 군집분석)

  • Seok, Yoon Ji;Song, Eun-Ji;Cha, In-Tae;Lee, Hyunjin;Roh, Seong Woon;Jung, Ji Young;Lee, Yoo Kyung;Nam, Young-Do;Seo, Myung-Ji
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.171-179
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    • 2016
  • Recent succession of soil microorganisms and vegetation has occurred in the glacier foreland, because of glacier thawing. In this study, whole microbial communities, including bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes, from the glacier foreland of Midtre Lovénbreen in Svalbard were analyzed by metagenome sequencing, using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) platform. Soil samples were collected from two research sites (ML4 and ML7), with different exposure times, from the ice. A total of 2,798,108 and 1,691,859 reads were utilized for microbial community analysis based on the metagenomic sequences of ML4 and ML7, respectively. The relative abundance of microbial communities at the domain level showed a high proportion of bacteria (about 86−87%), whereas archaeal and eukaryotic communities were poorly represented by less than 1%. The remaining 12% of the sequences were found to be unclassified. Predominant bacterial groups included Proteobacteria (40.3% from ML4 and 43.3% from ML7) and Actinobacteria (22.9% and 24.9%). Major groups of Archaea included Euryarchaeota (84.4% and 81.1%), followed by Crenarchaeota (10.6% and 13.1%). In the case of eukaryotes, both ML4 and ML7 samples showed Ascomycota (33.8% and 45.0%) as the major group. These findings suggest that metagenome analysis using the Ion Torrent PGM platform could be suitably applied to analyze whole microbial community structures, providing a basis for assessing the relative importance of predominant groups of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial communities in the Arctic glacier foreland of Midtre Lovénbreen, with high resolution.

Effects of Maltogenic Amylase on Textural Properties of Dough and Quality Characteristics of White Pan Bread (Maltogenic Amylase가 식빵반죽의 물성과 식빵의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Seongjun;Cho, Namji;Lee, Soo-Jeong;Moon, Sung-Won;Jeong, Yoonhwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.752-760
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    • 2015
  • Effects of maltogenic amylase on textural properties of dough and quality characteristics of white pan bread were investigated. White pan bread was prepared with four different levels of maltogenic amylase contents (M-1: 0.048 U/g, M-2: 0.060 U/g, M-3: 0.072 U/g, M-4: 0.084 U/g). The setback by amylograph for the control was $480.0{\pm}12.25$ Brabender Unit (B.U.) while M-4 showed the a setback of $215.0{\pm}5.00B.U.$ The absorption, mixing tolerance index, and stability by farinogram were not significantly different (P>0.05) for across all treatments. The area under the curve (135 min) by extensogram was higher than all samples. The texture profile analysis results showed that there was significant decreasing in hardness for the maltogenic amylase infused bread (P<0.05). M-3 and M-4 showed higher springiness and cohesiveness but lower hardness than control over 1 to 3 days, indicating possibly extended shelf-life. Imaging scan showed that air cell size less than $0.4mm^2$ for the control and M-4 were at rates of 94.90% and 95.70%, respectively. For sensory evaluation, M-3 and M-4 showed higher intensities than the control for taste, flavor, texture, mouthfeel, and moistness quality. These results imply that the quality of white pan bread could be improved by adding maltogenic amylase without the use of chemical additives.

Radioprotective Effects of Post-Treatment with Hesperetin against γ-Irradiation-Induced Tissue Damage and Oxidative Stress in BALB/c Mice (BALB/c 마우스에서 감마선 조사로 유도된 조직 손상과 산화적 스트레스에 대한 헤스페레틴 투여 후의 방사선방호 효과)

  • Kang, Jung Ae;Nam, You Ree;Rho, Jong Kook;Jang, Beom-Su;Chung, Young-Jin;Park, Sang Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.657-663
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    • 2015
  • Ionizing radiation induces cell damage through formation of reactive oxygen species. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effects of post-treatment with hesperetin against ${\gamma}$-irradiation-induced cellular damage and oxidative stress in BALB/c mice. Healthy female BALB/c mice were exposed to ${\gamma}$-irradiation and administered hesperetin (25 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, b.w., orally) for 7 days after 6 Gy of ${\gamma}$-irradiation. Exposure to ${\gamma}$-irradiation resulted in hematopoietic system damage manifested as decreases in spleen indexes and WBC count. In addition, hepatocellular damage characterized by increased levels of aspartate aminoransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in plasma. However, post-irradiation treatment with hesperetin provided significant protection against hematopoietic system damage and decreased AST and ALT levels in plasma. The results indicate that ${\gamma}$-irradiation induced increases in lipid peroxidation and xanthine oxidase (XO) as well as decreases in antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glutathione (GSH) in the liver. These effects were also attenuated by post-treatment with hesperetin, which decreased lipid peroxidation and XO as well as increased antioxidant enzymes and GSH. These results show that post-treatment with hesperetin offers protection against ${\gamma}$-irradiation-induced tissue damage and oxidative stress and can be developed as an effective radioprotector during radiotherapy.

Association between energy intake and skeletal muscle mass according to dietary patterns derived by cluster analysis: data from the 2008 ~ 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (군집분석으로 도출한 식사패턴별 에너지 섭취량과 골격근육량의 연관성 분석 : 2008 ~ 2010년 국민건강영양조사 자료를 활용하여)

  • Jang, Bo Young;Bu, So Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.581-592
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study investigated major dietary patterns among healthy Korean adults using cluster analysis and analyzed the relationship between energy intake and skeletal muscle mass. Methods: This study was conducted using the data from the 2008 ~ 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey. The data of 7,922 subjects aged 30 years and over, without any missing values, were included in the final analysis. K-means cluster analyses were conducted to identify the dietary patterns of the study subjects, which were based on the energy intake from 21 food groups using a 24-h recall method. The changes in energy intake with each dietary pattern, according to quartiles of skeletal muscle mass, were investigated. Results: Three dietary patterns were identified for both men and women: 'Flour, Animal fat', 'White rice' and 'Healthy mixed diet'. The association between energy intake and skeletal muscle mass for both men and women was significant only in the 'White rice' dietary pattern. In the 'White rice' pattern, the energy intake increased up to > 300 kcal from the lowest to the highest quartile of skeletal muscle mass after adjustment for covariates. Within the 'White rice' pattern, skeletal muscle mass was linearly associated with energy intake in all the age groups in men. Conclusion: Energy intake was significantly associated with changes in skeletal muscle mass only in the 'White rice' pattern. Furthermore, the degree of association between the change in skeletal muscle mass and energy intake differed according to gender. These results indicate that the association between skeletal muscle mass and energy intake may be specific to Korean people who are accustomed to a traditional Korean diet.

Large scale enzymatic production of chitooligosaccharides and their biological activities (키토산올리고당의 효소적 대량생산 및 생리활성)

  • Kim, Se-Kwon;Shin, Kyung-Hoon
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.2-32
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    • 2020
  • In recent years, significant importance has been given to chitooligosaccharides (COS) due to its potent notable biological applications. COS can be derived from chitosan which is commonly produced by partially hydrolyzed products from crustacean shells. In order to produce COS, there are several approaches including chemical and enzymatic methods which are the two most common choices. In this regard, several new methods were intended to be promoted which use the enzymatic hydrolysis with a lower cost and desired properties. Hence, the dual reactor system has gained more attention than other newly developed technologies. Enzymatic hydrolysis derived COS possesses important biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti-hypersentive, anti-dementia (Altzheimer's disease), anti-diabeties, anti-allergy, anti-inflammatory, etc. Results strongly suggest that properties of COS can be potential materials for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical product development.

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