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Rural Migration and Changes of Agricultural Population (농민이촌(農民離村)과 농업인구(農業人口)의 변화(變化))

  • Wu, Tsong-Shien;Kim, Kuong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.91-116
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    • 1974
  • Taiwan agricultural development in the last decade has not been changed much since the accomplishment of land reform program. This is mainly due to the rapid development taken place within industry that agricultural development can not keep pace with. The increasing gap of rural-urban income discrepancy has caused socio-psychological unstability among rural people and inspire wants of out-migration. From 1961 to 1970, population of the ten largest cities showed an annual growth rate of 4.05%, while the population of the remainder of Taiwan showed 2.06%. Assuming the natural increase rate of these two population sections are similar, the difference of rural and urban annual growth rate can be at tributed to the flow of people from rural to urban sectors. The main objective of this paper is to identify the amount of agricultural out-migration and its impact on agricultural development and agricultural extension programs. Specifically, the objectives are to examine (1) rural-urban population composition (2) rural out-migration estimation (3) changes of agricultural population, and (4) implications for agricultural development and extension programs Some of the important findings are listed below; (1) The average agricultural out migration of the period 1960-1969 is estimated at around 60,000 per year. Take Tainan prefecture for example, the Male-Female Migration Ratio is 0.39 for age 20-24, 0.55 for age 25-29, 0.90 for 30-34. It is understood between age 20 and 34, the rural female migration rate is higher than the rural male. (2) Based on the population growth rate of 1950-1969, agricultural population is projected for the period of 1953 to 1989. By 1978, the agricultural population will reach its peak and begin to dedaine from 1980. The projected agricultural population in 1989 is 5,847,566 which occupies 29% of the Taiwan total population. (3) Assuming area of cultivated land keep unchanged as 905,263 ha. in 1970, and tif we can eliminate all 72% of part-time farms, then the average farm acreage for hose full-time farms will be increased to 3.6 hactares. This is unlikely to happen before 1989 without the government interference. (4) Less than 10% of adult farmer s of age 25-64 in 1969 enrolled in Farm Discussion Club, only 5% of adult farm women enrolled in Home Economics Club, and 5% of rural youth enrolled in 4-H Club. These statistics show a fact that only few farmers are reached by extension workers. Based on findings in this paper, some important suggestions are listed for future agricultural development. (1) Improve agricultural structure by decreasing agricultural population (a) Encourage farmers with less than 0.5 ha. of land to seek jobs outside of agriculture (b) Encourage joint cultivation and farm mechanization (c) Discourage rural migrants to Keep farm land (d) Provide occupational guidance program through extension education programs (2) Establish future farmers settlement project to assure rural youth have enough resources for farming. (3) An optimum Population policy should be integrated into rural socio-economic development and national development programs.

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Innovative approaches to the health problems of rural Korea (한국농촌보건(韓國農村保健)의 문제점(問題點)과 개선방안(改善方案))

  • Loh, In-Kyu
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.5-9
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    • 1976
  • The categories of national health problems may be mainly divided into health promotion, problems of diseases, and population-economic problems which are indirectly related to health. Of them, the problems of diseases will be exclusively dealt with this speech. Rurality and Disease Problems There are many differences between rural and urban areas. In general, indicators of rurality are small size of towns, dispersion of the population, remoteness from urban centers, inadequacy of public transportation, poor communication, inadequate sanitation, poor housing, poverty, little education lack of health personnels and facilities, and in-accessibility to health services. The influence of such conditions creates, directly or indirectly, many problems of diseases in the rural areas. Those art the occurrence of preventable diseases, deterioration and prolongation of illness due to loss of chance to get early treatment, decreased or prolonged labour force loss, unnecessary death, doubling of medical cost, and economic loss. Some Considerations of Innovative Approach The followings art some considerations of innovative approaches to the problems of diseases in the rural Korea. 1. It would be essential goal of the innovative approaches that the damage and economic loss due to diseases will be maintained to minimum level by minimizing the absolute amount of the diseases, and by moderating the fee for medical cares. The goal of the minimization of the disease amount may be achieved by preventive services and early treatment, and the goal of moderating the medical fee may be achieved by lowering the prime cost and by adjusting the medical fees to reasonable level. 2. Community health service or community medicine will be adopted as a innovative means to disease problems. In this case, a community is defined as an unit area where supply and utilization of primary service activities can be accomplished within a day. The essential nature o the community health service should be such activities as health promotion, preventive measures, medical care, and rehabilitation performing efficiently through the organized efforts of the residents in a community. Each service activity should cover all members of the residents in a community in its plan and performance. The cooperation of the community peoples in one of the essential elements for success of the service program, The motivations of their cooperative mood may be activated through several ways: when the participation of the residents in service program of especially the direct participation of organized cooperation of the area leaders art achieved through a means of health education: when the residents get actual experience of having received the benefit of good quality services; and when the health personnels being armed with an idealism that they art working in the areas to help health problems of the residents, maintain good human relationships with them. For the success of a community health service program, a personnel who is in charge of leadership and has an able, a sincere and a steady characters seems to be required in a community. The government should lead and support the community health service programs of the nation under the basis of results appeared in the demonstrative programs so as to be carried out the programs efficiently. Moss of the health problems may be treated properly in the community levels through suitable community health service programs but there might be some problems which art beyond their abilities to be dealt with. To solve such problems each community health service program should be under the referral systems which are connected with health centers, hospitals, and so forth. 3. An approach should be intensively groped to have a physician in each community. The shortage of physicians in rural areas is world-wide problem and so is the Korean situation. In the past the government has initiated a system of area-limited physician, coercion, and a small scale of scholarship program with unsatisfactory results. But there might be ways of achieving the goal by intervice, broadened, and continuous approaches. There will be several ways of approach to motivate the physicians to be settled in a rural community. They are, for examples, to expos the students to the community health service programs during training, to be run community health service programs by every health or medical schools and other main medical facilities, communication activities and advertisement, desire of community peoples to invite a physician, scholarship program, payment of satisfactory level, fulfilment of military obligation in case of a future draft, economic growth and development of rural communities, sufficiency of health and medical facilities, provision of proper medical care system, coercion, and so forth. And, hopefully, more useful reference data on the motivations may be available when a survey be conducted to the physicians who are presently engaging in the rural community levels. 4. In communities where the availability of a physician is difficult, a trial to use physician extenders, under certain conditions, may be considered. The reason is that it would be beneficial for the health of the residents to give them the remedies of primary medical care through the extenders rather than to leave their medical problems out of management. The followings are the conditions to be considered when the physician extenders are used: their positions will be prescribed as a temporary one instead of permanent one so as to allow easy replacement of the position with a physician applicant; the extender will be under periodic direction and supervision of a physician, and also referral channel will be provided: legal constraints will be placed upon the extenders primary care practice, and the physician extenders will used only under the public medical care system. 5. For the balanced health care delivery, a greater investment to the rural areas is needed to compensate weak points of a rurality. The characteristics of a rurality has been already mentioned. The objective of balanced service for rural communities to level up that of urban areas will be hard to achieve without greater efforts and supports. For example, rural communities need mobile powers more than urban areas, communication network is extremely necessary at health delivery facilities in rural areas as well as the need of urban areas, health and medical facilities in rural areas should be provided more substantially than those of urban areas to minimize, in a sense, the amount of patient consultation and request of laboratory specimens through referral system of which procedures are more troublesome in rural areas, and more intensive control measures against communicable diseases are needed in rural areas where greater numbers of cases are occurred under the poor sanitary conditions.

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Studies on Lipids in Fresh-Water Fishes 3. Distribution of Lipid Components in Various Tissues of Eel, Anguilla japonica (담수어의 지질에 관한 연구 3. 뱀장어(Anguilla japonica)의 부위별 지질성분의 분포)

  • CHOI Jin-Ho;RO Jae-Il;PYEUN Jae-Hyeung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.477-484
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    • 1984
  • The crude lipid contents in meat, skin and viscera of eel were 24.94, 20.00 and 14.96, respectively, and higher than the other fresh water fishes. The free lipid was consisted in order of neutral lipid(86.71~94.94), phospholipid(4.13~12.74) and glycolipid(0.63~1.22), and the bound lipid in order of phospholipid(51.74~75.21), neutral lipid(14.41~36.82) and glycolipid(5.12~7.51). The neutral lipid in free lipid was mainly consisted of TG(68.51~95.22), and that in bound lipid TG(36.54~39.94), ES & HC(17.20~18.01), and MG(15.81~18.11). The phospholipid in free lipid was mainly consisted of PC (32.40~56.08) and PE(18.71~31.09), while that in bound lipid PC (<42.51~67.90) and PS (23.37~34.49). The contents of major fatty acid of polar lipid in free and bound lipids were $C_{16:0}$(16.58, 14.10, $C_{18:0}$(12.44, 7.36), $C_{18:1}$(16.01, 15.78), $C_{20:4}$(10.01, 6.11) $C_{20:5}$(4.20, 8.67) and $C_{22:6}$(10.26, 18.32) and those of nonpolar lipid in free and bound lipids were $C_{16:0}$(22.31, 18.61), $C_{18:0}$(4.36, 5.69, $C_{18:1}$(36.30, 27.20) $C_{20:5}$(2.88, 2.38) $C_{22:5}$(6.38, 5.11) and $C_{22:6}$(1.20, 5.11). The total essential fatty acid(TEFA) content of polar lipid in meat was ranged from 17.33 to 22.88, and 2.0~3.0 times higher than that of nonpolar lipid, and the TEFA content of bound lipid in meat was ranged from 11.54 to 22.88, and 1.5~2.0 times higher than that of free lipid. The w3 highly unsaturated fatty acid(w3-HUFA) content of polar lipid in meat was ranged from 8.63 to 42.85, and higer than 11.48 to 14.42 of nonpolar lipid. Also the w3-HUFA content of bound lipid in meat was ranged from 13.35 to 42.85, and higher than 11.48 to 18.63 of free lipid. The w3-HUFA content in meat was higher than that in skin and/or viscera

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Studios on Lipids in Fresh-Water Fishes 5. Distribution of Lipid Components in Various Tissues of Carp, Cyprynus carpio (담수어의 지질에 관한 연구 5. 잉어(Cyprynus carpio)의 부위별 지질성분의 분포)

  • CHOI Jin-Ho;RO Jae-Il;BYUN Dae-Seok;PYEUN Jae-Hyeung
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.149-156
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    • 1985
  • Distribution of lipid components in the tissue of meat, skin and viscera from carp(Cyprynus carpio) was analyzed using the techniques of column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and gas liquid chromatography according to the previous report(Choi, et al., 1984). Lipid content was varied by the portion such as $3.88\%$ in meat (free lipid, $2.47\%$ ; bound lipid, $1.41\%$), $8.02\%$ in skin(free lipid, $5.65\%$ ; bound lipid, $2.37\%$) and $6.18\%$ in viscera (free lipid, $3.54\%$ ; bound lipid, $2.64\%$). In the all portions of the body, free lipid was composed of $68\%\;to\;92\%$ in neutral lipid, $3\%\;to\;6\%$ in glycolipid and $4\%\;to\;18\%$ in phospholipid whereas bound lipid was composed of $8\%\;to\;20\%$ in neutral lipid, $2\%\;to\;7\%$ in glycolipid and $47\%\;to\;62\%$ in phospholipid. The free lipids of the tissues on the each portion were mostly represented by triglycerides and some diglycerides, but free lipids in viscera contained considerable amounts of free fatty acids. The bound lipids, on the other hand, commonly comprised appreciable amounts of esterified sterol and hydrocarbon, and triglycerides. The phospholipid was mainly consisted of phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanolamine and phosphatidyl serine in the both free and bound lipids, and much more phosphatidyl choline in the bound lipid. The predominant fatty acids of free and bound lipids were $C_{16:0},\;C_{18:0},\;C_{20:4},\;C_{22:6}\;and\;C_{18:2}$ acids in polar lipids, and $C_{16:0},\;C_{16:1},\;C_{18:0},\;C_{18:1}\;and\;C_{18:2}$ acids in non-polar lipids, whereas those of neutral lipids were $C_{14:0}(2.54{\sim}6.98\%),\;C_{16:0}(11.20{\sim}21.13\%)$ and $C_{18:0}(1.58{\sim}12.76\%)$ of saturated acids, $C_{16:1}(7.06{\sim}20.70\%),\;C_{18:1}(21.68{\sim}30.50\%)$ and $C_{20:1}(1.76{\sim}6.27\%)$ of monoenoic acids, and $C_{18:2}(4.50{\sim}6.89\%),\;C_{20:4}(1.52{\sim}4.29\%)$ and $C_{22:6}(0.73{\sim}6.62\%)$, respectively. In conclusion, the fatty acid compositions revealed apparent differences between the free lipid and bound lipids in the tissues of body.

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Studies on Stability for the Quality of Ginseng Products -5. Improvement of Physical Properties on Moisture Sorption of Spray Dried Red Ginseng Extract Powder- (인삼제품(人蔘製品)의 품질안정성(品質安定性)에 관한 연구(硏究) -5. 홍삼정분(紅蔘精粉)의 흡습물성(吸濕物性) 개선(改善)-)

  • Choi, Jin-Ho;Byun, Dae-Seok;Ro, Jae-Il;Park, Kil-Dong;Sung, Hyun-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.251-258
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    • 1984
  • In order to improve the physical properties on moisture sorption of spray dried red ginseng extract powder (SD-RGEP), the various additives and coating agents were treated, and solubility, sedimentation rate and storage stability of RGEPs treated were investigated. For the moisture-proofing, additive itself was effective in the order casein>dextrin>starch>avicell, but RGEPs treated with additives were effective in the order cord oil+tween-40>starch>casein. But there was no significant difference between RGEP treated less than 1% additive and the moisture-proofing. The coating effect of AEA and CAP on RGEP could not be recognized for the moisture-proofing, whereas that of HPC, corn oil, lecithin and HPC+corn oil was proved to be very effective for the moisture-proofing of RGEP. Also it is required to control the initial moisture content of RGEP. The sedimentation rate of RGEP nontreated was 65.1 seconds, whereas that of RGEPs coated with 1% HPC, 1% corn oil, 1% lecithin and 1% HPC+0.5% corn oil was in the range of 96.2 to 114.3 seconds. The sedimentation rate of RGEPs coated was 1.5 to 1.8 times higher than that of RGEP nontreated, and there was significant difference between solubility and sedimentation rate. Therefore it was no matter for the keeping quality. The sorption rates of RGEPs coated with lecithin $(0.5{\sim}1.0%$), corn oil(0.8%) and cellulose acetate (0.8%) were ranged 54 to 56%, 51 to 55% and 52 to 54%, respectively, and it is found that the moisture-proofing effect of RGEPs coated was about 2 times higher than that of RGEP nontreated. From the result of storage experiment during 3 months under the maltreated condition of $48{\pm}2^{\circ}C$, 75% RH, the moisture sorption of RGEPs coated with corn oil$(0.5{\sim}1.0%$), cellulose acetate(DES, $0.5{\sim}0.8%$) and lecithin (DES, 1.0%) was not at all observed. Therefore it is considered that the circulating period of RGEPs coated with these coating agents could to give more than 3 years.

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Investigation on Daily Life and Consciousness of Longevous People in Korea - (II) On Social Life and Daily Life Habit of Longevous People in the Past - (우리나라 장수자(長壽者)의 생활(生活) 및 의식조사(意識調査)에 관한 연구(硏究) - 장수지역(長壽地域)의 과거(過去) 사회생활(社會生活)과 일상생활습관(日常生活習慣) -)

  • Choi, Jin-Ho;Pyeun, Jae-Hyeung;Rhim, Chae-Hwan;Yang, Jong-Soon;Kim, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Jeung-Han;Lee, Byeong-Ho;Woo, Soon-Im;Choe, Sun-Nam;Byun, Dae-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.183-196
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    • 1986
  • This study was designed to be link in the chain of the investigation on daily life and consciousness of longevous people in Korea, and to investigate the social life and daily life habit in the past of longevous people. The social life and daily life habit were surveyed on 379 subjects (male 121, female 258) of the aged who were above 80 years of age, from June to November in 1985. 1. 'Generally regular' in the rising time and bedtime between 40 and 60 years of longevous people had the highest figures of 81.8% and 63.1%, respectively. The longevous peoples of 59.4% got up by before 6 a.m., and 61.3% of these aged went to bed from 9 to 11 p.m. But there was no significant difference between male and female. 2. Of the occupation engaged in the longest term of longevous people, the self-management (86.3%) included farming, fishing and household affairs was the highest, whereas administrative position, small-scale management and white-collar worker were only 0.8%, 0.8% and 1.8%, respectively. Therefore, their work involved mainly physical labor (heavy 48.5%, light 47.2%), and mental work was only 2.8% of longevous people. It is believed that this fact was deeply related to the educational degree of them. 3. The longevous people of 58.3% retired from the occupation and household affairs abover 70 years of age, and especially 24.3% of them is including the aged above 80 years of age. 4. The longevous people of 57.2% were shared the role in the home after retirement from the occupation and household affairs, whereas 35.9% of them didn't share. Of the way in killing time in case having no role in the home, 'at home'(50.0%) was the highest, and decreased in the order of 'old people's home' (30.9%), 'ill in bed' (10.3%) and 'asylum for the aged' (8.8%). 5. The acquaintance frequency before retirement from the occupation and household affairs of longevous people showed in the order of 'wide' (38.5%), 'common' (38.0%) and 'narrow' (19.0%), and 56.5% of them had the acquaintance after retirement. 6. Only the longevous people of 38.5% had the hobby and recreation activities of 'more than once' after retirement from the occupation and household affairs, but 53.0% of them was none. Of the kinds of hobby and/or recreation, 'TV-watching' (79.2%) was the highest, and decreased in the order of 'talking with grandchild' (54.2 %), 'working at home' (35.4%), 'religion' (25.0%) and 'chess etc.' (18.1%).

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Suggestion of Learning Objectives in Social Dental Hygiene: Oral Health Administration Area (사회치위생학의 학습목표 제안: 구강보건행정 영역)

  • Park, Su-Kyung;Lee, Ga-Yeong;Jang, Young-Eun;Yoo, Sang-Hee;Kim, Yeun-Ju;Lee, Sue-Hyang;Kim, Han-Nah;Jo, Hye-Won;Kim, Myoung-Hee;Kim, Hee-Kyoung;Ryu, Da-Young;Kim, Min-Ji;Shin, Sun-Jung;Kim, Nam-Hee;Yoon, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.85-96
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to propose learning objectives in social dental hygiene by analyzing and reviewing learning objectives in oral health administration area of the existing public oral health. This study is a cross-sectional study. The subjects of the study selected with convenience extraction were 15 members of the social dental hygiene subcommittee of the Korean Society of Dental Hygiene Science. Data collection was conducted by self-filling questionnaire. The research tool is from 48 items of A division in the book of learning objectives in the dental hygienist national examination, and this study classified each of them into 'dental hygiene job relevance', 'dental hygiene competency relevance', 'timeliness', and 'value discrimination of educational goal setting' to comprise 192 items. Also, to collect expert opinions, this study conducted Delphi survey on 7 academic experts. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 23.0 program (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). Recoding was performed according to the degree of relevance of each learning objective and frequency analysis was performed. This study removed 18 items from the whole learning objectives in the dental hygienist national examination in the oral health administration area of public oral health. Fifteen revisions were made and 15 existing learning objectives were maintained. Forty-five learning objectives were proposed as new social dental hygiene learning objectives. The topics of learning objectives are divided into social security and medical assistance, oral health care system, oral health administration, and oral health policy. As a result of this study, it was necessary to construct the learning objectives of social dental hygiene in response to changing situation at the time. The contents of education should be revised in order of revision of learning objectives, development of competency, development of learning materials, and national examination.

An Analysis of the Psychiatric Characteristics of the Alopecia Areata in Female (여성 탈모증의 정신의학적 특성 분석)

  • Lee, Kil-Hong;Na, Chul;Lee, Young-Sik;Lee, Chang-Hoon;No, Byung-In;Hong, Chang-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.31-45
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    • 2000
  • Objectives : The present study was performed to reveal differences between female and male cases of alopecia in their alopecia related variables such as patterns of hair loss, psychiatric characteristics, associate illnesses, and methods of treatment, and to use them as basic materials for proper management and early prevention of the alopecia prone cases. Methods : In order to analysis the gender difference in hair losses, the subjects were divided into two subgroups as the 51 cases of female alopecia and the 42 cases of male alopecia, who had visited to the department of psychiatry consulted from the department of dermatology, Yongsan hopital, ChungAng University, Seoul, Korea, from January 1998 to December 1998. In data analysis, the subjects were statistically assesed by chi-squre test and analysis of varaiance, through SPSS-$PC^+$ 9.0V. Results : 1) Female subjects were more likely showed lower socio-economical level including lower eonomical level, lower educational level, or lower occupational level in their parent's job, were more likely to have larger number of siblings and to have many sisters comparison to the male cases. 2) Female subjects were more likely visited to the department of dermatology, more history of alopecia in their female family members, lesser history of alopecia in their male family members, more loss of hairs in vertex or frontal region of scalp, lesser loss of hairs in occipital region, and lesser nail changes in comparison to the male cases. 3) Female subjects were more suffered from intra-familial conflicts and economical changes, or their introverted personality makeup, lesser likely suffered from changes of business and health changes, and showed lesser conflicts related with poorer adaptaion in their job life. 4) Female subjects were more likely diagnosed as depression or conversion disorders, more frequently complaint anxiety symptoms or depressive symptoms, higher level of anxiety index, lesser complaint somatization or obsessive compulsive symptoms, and lesser diagnosed as anxiety disorder in comparison to the male cases. 5) Female subjects were more likely tended to show personality makeup such as the introverted, the lie, the repressed, or the feminine trends than the male cases. 6) Female subjects were more significantly treated by antianxiety drug such as etizolam and dermatological therapies include tretinoin, and lesser treated by clotiazepam and prednicarbonate in comparison to the male cases. Conclusion : From the facts that The most important factors in developing hair loss in the female subjects in comparison to the male cases seems to be closely correlated with the serious psychopathology such as the presence of mental disorders including depression, the presence of complaining anxiety or depressive symptomatology, the presence of stressful life events such as intrafamilial life changes, and the presence of personality makeup such as the introverted, the lie, the repressed, or the feminine trends, the authors confirmed that dermatologists act as the primary care physician are in a unique position to recognize psychiatric comorbidity and execute meaningful intervention for female patients with the alopecia with psychiatrists.

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Gender Differences in Pain in Cancer Patients (성별에 따른 암환자의 통증 차이)

  • Kim, Hyun-Sook;Lee, So-Woo;Yun, Young-Ho;Yu, Su-Jeong;Heo, Dae-Seog
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.14-25
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : To determine whether there exist gender differences in pain in Korean cancer patients and whether the depression and performance that are often expressed differently between men and women with cancer interact with pain. Method : The results of survey were collected from 140 in- and out-patients (78 male and 62 female) who had cancer treatment at one of the university hospital in Seoul for four months from February of 1999. The severity and interference of pain were examined with the self-reported survey based on Korean version of Brief Pain Inventory (BPI-K). Demographic and clinical information for all patient were compiled by reviewing their medical records, and the level of depression was examined with the Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-K). Usual statistical methods, e.g., frequences, means and SDs were used to characterize the sample. The chi-square tests for categorical data and t-test for numerical data were used for group comparison. And the correlation between variables were performed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Resuts : 1) The mean scores of the worst pain for last 24-hours measured with the pain severity of BPI-K were 5.77 in male and 6.45 in female. The pain interference of BPI-K in men was in the order of mood (5.49), enjoy (5.36), and work (5.00), and in women were work (7.48), enjoy (7.16), and mood (6.53). 2) In pain severity, significant difference was found between men and women in the average pain for last 24-hours (t=-2.130, P=.035). In pain interference, significant difference was found between men and women in activity (t=-2.450, P=.015), mood (t=-2,321, P=.022), walk (t=-2.762, P=.007), work (t=-4.946, P=.000), relate (t=-2.595, P=.010), sleep (t=-2.071, P=.040), enjoy (t=-3.198, P=.001). 3) It was found that the items of pain and depression are significantly correlated in men but not in women. Men also exhibited higher correlation in the items of pain and performance status than women. Conclusions : Women report significantly greater average pain for last 24-hours and for all items of pain interference than men. Pain and depression are significantly correlated in men. The results of this study suggest that gender differences in pain should be considered for planning effective pain management program.

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A Study on Hip Joint ROM of the Elderly (노인의 고관절 ROM에 관한 연구)

  • Um, Ki-Mai;Yang, Yoon-Kwon;Chang, Soo-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to know the average of hip joint range of motion and difference according to the aging for the elderly. This study consisted of elder male(n=75) and elder female(n=109). The result of assessment and analysis in hip pint range of motion are as follows : 1) The average hip flexion(knee flexed) joint range of motion in 60-69(from sixty to sixty-nine)years old are $104.26^{\circ}$(Left-Male), $101.00^{\circ}$(Right-Male), $107.05^{\circ}$(Left-Female), $107.05^{\circ}$(Right-Female). 70-79years old are $104.59^{\circ}$(L-M), $102.05^{\circ}$(R-M), $105.73^{\circ}$(L-F), $108.75^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89years old are $101.53^{\circ}$(L-M), $101.13^{\circ}$(R-M), $96.83^{\circ}$(L-F), $97.67^{\circ}$(R-F). There was significant difference in hip flexion(knee flexed) among female group(p<.01). The average hip flexion(knee extended) joint range of motion in 60-69(from sixty to sixty-nine)years old are $73.13^{\circ}$(Left-Male), $72.04^{\circ}$(Right-Male), $77.29^{\circ}$(Left-Female), $75.97^{\circ}$(Right-Female). 70-79years old are $74.95^{\circ}$(L-M), $72.19^{\circ}$(R-M), $76.73^{\circ}$(L-F), $76.65^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89years old are $70.83^{\circ}$(L-M), $70.37^{\circ}$(R-M), $69.00^{\circ}$(L-F), $69.00^{\circ}$(R-F). There was significant difference in left hip flexion(knee extended) among female group(p<.05). 2) The average hip extension joint range of motion in 60-69years old are $13.09^{\circ}$(L-M), $12.78^{\circ}$(R-M), $10.97^{\circ}$(L-F), $10.68^{\circ}$(R-F). 70-79years old are $8.95^{\circ}$(L-M), $8.48^{\circ}$(R-M), $11.24^{\circ}$(L-F), $10.90^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89 years old are $8.40^{\circ}$(L-M), $8.23^{\circ}$(R-M), $7.33^{\circ}$(L-F), $7.33^{\circ}$(R-F). There was significant difference in left(p<.01) and right(p<.05) hip extension among male group(p<.05). 3) The average hip abduction joint range of motion in 60-69 years old are $33.04^{\circ}$(L-M), $33.17^{\circ}$(R-M), $33.16^{\circ}$(L-F), $33.37^{\circ}$(R-F). 70-79 years old are $31.00^{\circ}$(L-M), $30.05^{\circ}$(R-M), $32.44^{\circ}$(L-F), $32.68^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89 years old are $29.07^{\circ}$(L-M), $27.90^{\circ}$(R-M), $28.17^{\circ}$(L-F), $28.67^{\circ}$(R-F). There was no significant difference among group. 4) The average hip adduction pint range, of motion in 60-69years old are $29.57^{\circ}$(L-M), $29.35^{\circ}$(R-M), $31.87^{\circ}$(L-F), $31.89^{\circ}$(R-F). 70-79, years old are $27.41^{\circ}$(L-M), 27.00(R-M) $30.85^{\circ}$(L-F), $31.28^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89 years old are $26.87^{\circ}$(L-M), $26.63^{\circ}$(R-M), $24.67^{\circ}$(L-F), $24.83^{\circ}$(R-F). There was significant difference in hip abduction among female group(p<01). 5) The average hip external rotation pint range of motion in 60-69years old are $32.26^{\circ}$(L-M), $31.17^{\circ}$(R-M), $33.53^{\circ}$(L-F), $34.42^{\circ}$(R-F). 70-79 years old are $31.64^{\circ}$(L-M), $28.62^{\circ}$(R-M) $31.29^{\circ}$(L-F), $31.45^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89 years old are $26.40^{\circ}$(L-M), $26.07^{\circ}$(R-M), $24.77^{\circ}$(L-F), $24.27^{\circ}$(R-F). There was significant difference in left(male, female p<.01) and right(female p<.0l) hip external rotation among group. 6) The average hip internal rotation joint range of motion in 60-69years old are $30.30^{\circ}$(L-M), $28.13^{\circ}$(R-M), $34.27^{\circ}$(L-F), $36.03^{\circ}$(R-F). 70-79years old are $31.24^{\circ}$(L-M), $29.57^{\circ}$(R-M), $28.51^{\circ}$(L-F), $29.10^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89 years old are $24.63^{\circ}$(L-M), $24.40^{\circ}$(R-M), $24.27^{\circ}$(L-F), $24.27^{\circ}$(R-F). There was significant difference in left(male p<.05, female p<.01) and right(female p<.01) hip internal rotation among group.

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