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Floristic Diversity of Serpentine Area in Andong, Korea (안동 사문암지대의 식물다양성)

  • Kim, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Sun-Yu;Jung, Eun-Hee;Kim, Jin-Seok;Noh, Tae-Kwon;Bae, Ho-Myung;Nam, Chun-Hee;Lee, Byoung Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.19-38
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to investigate the flora, vegetation and soil properties of serpentine area in Andong, Korea. The vascular plants identified during the seven-round field surveys were a total of 359 taxa: 88 families, 239 genera, 311 species, 6 subspecies, 33 varieties, 6 forms and 3 hybrids. 249 taxa were newly discovered in this region. The plant composition of serpentine area is the deciduous broad-leaved and conifer-mixed forest which is the common one in the middle part of the Korean peninsula. Four taxa of Korean endemic plants such as Clematis brachyura, Populus ${\times}$ tomentiglandulosa, Paulownia coreana and Aster koraiensis were collected. The vascular plants on the red list according to IUCN evaluation basis were found to be seven taxa: Near Threatened (NT) species of Hypericum attenuatum, Polygala tenuifolia and Senecio argunensis, Least Concern (LC) species of Penthorum chinense, Potentilla discolor and Acorus calamus, and Not Evaluate (NE) species of Scorzonera austriaca ssp. glabra. The floristic regional indicator plants found in this area were 19 taxa comprising two taxa of grade IV, five taxa of grade III, four taxa of grade II, and nine taxa of grade I. The naturalized plants were identified as 34 taxa and the percentage of naturalized index (NI) was 9.5 %, and urbanization index (UI) was 10.6 %. Forest soils contained high content of nickel and cadmium. The soil layer consists of loam and silt loam from the surface to a depth of 20 cm and loam and silt clay from a depth of 20 cm to 40 cm.

Inhibitory Activities of Water Extracts of Black Ginseng on HCl/Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastritis through Anti-Oxidant Effect (흑삼 열수 추출물의 항산화 효과를 통한 염산/에탄올로 유발된 위염 억제 작용)

  • Kim, Min Yeong;Kwon, O Jun;Noh, Jeong Sook;Roh, Seong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.9
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    • pp.1249-1256
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    • 2016
  • Black ginseng (BG) obtained by a 9-fold steaming process of Panax ginseng has been reported to have anti-oxidative, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetes effects. The current study evaluated the protective effect of BG by steaming time in an HCl/ethanol-induced acute gastritis model. BG was divided into four samples according to steaming-drying processing (Gin1, Gin3, Gin6, and BG). High performance liquid chromatography analysis, free radical scavenging activity, and total phenol and flavonoid contents were examined in ginseng and four BG samples. Compared with ginseng, BG showed a stronger radical scavenging effect and higher contents of total phenol and flavonoids. To evaluate the anti-gastritic effect of BG, mice were distributed into five groups: normal mice (N), acute gastritic mice with distilled water (CON), acute gastritic mice with 100 mg/kg of ginseng (Gin0), acute gastritic mice with 100 mg/kg of BG (BG), and acute gastritic mice with 10 mg/kg of sucralfate (SC). After 1 hour of pre-treatment with water, extracts (Gin0 and BG), or drug (SC), experimental groups except for N were orally administered 0.5 mL of 150 mM HCl/60% ethanol (v/v) mixture. Blood was collected 1 hour later from the heart, and gastric tissue was harvested. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured in serum, and related protein expression was examined by Western blot assay. In HCl/ethanol-induced acute gastritic mice, treatment with ginseng or BG improved mucosal damage in the histological evaluation. The serum ROS level significantly decreased in the BG-treated group compared with the CON group. Furthermore, expression of inflammatory cytokines significantly decreased in the BG-treated group compared with the CON group. Based on these results, antioxidant and anti-gastritic activities of ginseng were enhanced by streaming-drying processing, in part due to an increase in biological active compounds.

Population Size Estimation of the Kaloula borealis in the Daemyung Retarding Basin (대명유수지에 서식하는 맹꽁이 Kaloula borealis 개체군 크기 추정)

  • Choi, Seo-Young;Rho, Paikho
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.684-693
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    • 2016
  • Daemyung retarding basin located near the confluence floodplain of the Nakdong and Kumho River is a large spawning site for the endangered Kaloula borealis, and needs for protecting the habitat of the endangered species are increasing. However, scientific studies are rarely conducted on the population characteristics and ecological knowledge on the species in the basin. This paper aims to estimate the population size and spatial distribution of the species that inhabited at the Daemyung retarding basin, using the capture-recapture method. Also, pitfall traps were installed in each habitat types classified with micro-topographic features, slope aspects, and vegetation communities to identify the spatial distribution characteristics of the Kaloula borealis of each habitat in the retarding basin. Field survey on the species was conducted from May 2013 to October 2014, showing that the species emerged in May, became more active during July and August and started to hibernate at the end of October. Using capture-recapture method, the first survey was carried out from July to August, 2014. Ninety-eight toads were captured, marked, and released back into the site. In the second survey, 68 toads including 5 marked toads of the previous survey were captured. Based on these two-sample surveys, around 535-2,131 individual toads are estimated to inhabit the Daemyung retarding basin. Fifty-seven pitfall traps were installed in four habitat types: mounded and vegetated flatland, lowland swamps, and slope areas of both the southern and western parts of the basin in order to delineate spatial abundance of the endangered Kaloula borealis during the rainy season when the species is actively spawning. Pitfall traps at the spatially explicit array indicated that the species gradually move to the slope areas near the Daemyung stream, showing high occurrence density of the Kaloula borealis compared to the lowland swamps after the spawning season. The emergence of Kaloula borealis in the lowland swamps appeared to be comparatively higher during the spawning season. However, after the spawning season the toads species rapidly moved into the neighboring land of relatively high elevation such as the slope area towards the Dalsung protected wetlands and Daemyung River. These results are closely related to the migration patterns that toads tend to return to the sheltering sites and/or hibernating grounds after the spawning season. Also, the Kaloula borealis moved to the nearest high-level vegetated areas as the lowland swamps of their spawning grounds deteriorated with the expansion of permanent ponds due to the rise in the groundwater level.

A Study on the Culture Transformation about "Takyung-Takjok" in Traditional Landscape Ruins (탁영·탁족의 문화 변용을 통해 본 정원유구)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Suh, Hyo-Suk;Choi, Jong-Hee;Han, Sang-Yub
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.97-106
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    • 2016
  • This study is to suggest the necessity of landscaping alternatives for succession of Takjok(濯足) culture by considering the background and meaning of Takjok's cultural phenomenon shown in old literatures, paintings and ruins of landscape architecture as a front morphemes. Its result is as follows. 1. An old idiom, 'Takyung Takjok(濯纓濯足)' implying a disinterested living attitude from the mundane world and an attitude complying with the nature, has been sublimated to 'Takjokjiyu(濯足之遊)' which means living in comfortable retirement through life in seclusion(隱逸). 2. The meaning of Takjok did not expand into, not only Takyung Takjok, but also into Takcheong(濯淸), Tako(濯吾), and Taksa(濯斯) with continued expansion in its meaning. The spaces the meaning of Takyung Takjok is implied on have also newly expanded into the artificial spaces, including Jeong(亭-pavilion) Jae(齋-house) Heon(軒-eaves), and Ji(池-pond), as well as the natural spaces, including Am(巖-rock) Dae(臺-flat foundation) Dam(潭-deep pond) Ban(盤-dish rock) Seok(石-stone) So(沼-shallow pond) San(山-mountain) Bong(峰-peak), and Cheon(泉-water hole). 3. As seen here, the cultural phenomenon of Takyung Takjok, which have derived from the Dangho(堂號) of buildings, the names of natural objects in Palgyung and Gugok(eight sceneries and nine curves), facilities of Byeolseo garden and Seowon, and the Amgakseo in nature, is worth noting. 4. It should be considered that Takjok includes ordinary people's wisdom to resist the hot weather as well as classical scholar's ideal and the veneration of antiquity. From this perspective, water space, Takjok rocks, and use of water based on the environmental supportability should be newly focused as a recreational space and it reminds us that the spirit of Takjok is a classical mental healing method.

Geographic Conditions and Garden Designs of Byeol-seo Scenic Site of Gimcheon Bangcho-Pavilion and Mrs Choi's Pond (별서 명승 김천 방초정(芳草亭)과 최씨담(崔氏潭)의 입지 및 조영 특성)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Hyun-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.71-82
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    • 2016
  • Through literature review and on-site survey of Gimcheon Bangcho pavilion(芳草亭), the features of garden design(庭園意匠) including geographic conditions, landscape modeling of Nujeong(樓亭) and Jidang(池塘, Pond), and scenic interpretations in Nujeong Jeiyoung poetry(樓亭題詠詩) have been carefully researched and the findings are presented below. Bangcho pavilion is located in a village called Wonteomaeul, which belongs to the feng shui state of golden hairpin and floating lotus. It has long been the cultural hub of communication and social interactions among the villagers. The Head House of Jeongyanggong(靖襄公宗宅), the main house(本第) of the Yeonan Yi Clan(延安李氏), is about 150m away from Bangcho pavilion, an artistic space whose landscape modeling is of the form called Nujeong. The name 'Bangcho' reflects the noble man(君子)'s determination: "I yearn for the place where honey parrots fly and the fragrant grass grow." From the two story structure of the pavilion where there is an additional floor installed to the central ondol room by a four-sided subdivision door, one can detect the aspiration of the men for pursuing an open view. One can also observe the efforts in designing the room to be used for multiple purposes from a private place to an office for periodic publication of a family lineage document called "Garyejunghae(家禮增解)". Bangcho pavilion's main sight of interest is Mrs Choi's Pond(崔氏潭), the one and only garden structure that comprises the twin round island of square pond(方池雙圓島) among the existing Jidangs in Korea. In this special Jidang, there are two coexisting islands that represent a well thought out garden facility for symbolizing conjugal affection and unyielding fidelity between master and servent(主從). In addition, the three inflows and one outflow facing the Ramcheon valley is regarded as an ideal garden design optimized for performing the function of a village bangjuk which is the site for undercurrent creation and ecological reprocessing. At present, Giant pussy willow is the only circular vegetation identified in the area of Bangcho pavilion, although this plant species is about to wither away judging from the signs of decrepitude that seems to persist for two out of three weeks. The old pine tree that appears in the 1872 Jeiyoung poetry of Byeongseon Song(宋秉璿) no longer exists. Anjae(安齋) Jang Yoo(張瑠)'s "Eight Scenary on Bangcho pavilion(芳草亭八詠)" and its expansive reproduction "Ten Scenary on Bangcho pavilion(芳草亭十景)" from Gwagang(守岡) Lee Manyoung(李晩永) depict vividly the pastoric scenery of an idyll(田園景) that stretches throughout the natural and cultural landscape of the province of Gimcheon and Guseong surrounding the Bangcho pavilion. The Bangcho pavilion sutra aims to establish Bangcho pavilion and the village of Wonteomaeul as the centre of microcosmos by dividing and allocating its scenic features according to the four seasons and times(四季四時), the eight courses(八方) and the meteorological phenomena, and it is the incarnation(顯現) of landscape perception upon the Byeol-seo Scenic site of Bangcho pavilion, the cultural hub of the region.

Exploring the Role of Vocational Education for the Social Integration in Preparation for the Reunification of the Korea Peninsula (남·북한 통일대비 사회통합을 위한 직업교육의 역할 탐구 -통일 독일의 사회적 통합 사례분석을 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Sung-Kyun
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.382-397
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    • 2016
  • This study focuses on the lessons and implications of Germany's measures for the social integration after the reunification, and especially the Germany's measure on labor reproduction for the economic stability of East Germany. This analysis indicates, whether South Korea is going to achieve gradual and peaceful reunification or absorb North Korea due to its sudden collapse, that the reunification, in any case, requires the social integration through economic stability of both North and South. In order to ensure national reconciliation, recovery of homogeneity, and establishment of identity for the economically stable social integration, the new integration of educational system is necessary. Especially, the objective of this study is to find the role and direction of vocational education for the stability of the North Korea's labor market and economic life in order to socially integrate South Koreans with its Northern counterparts. First of all, this study examined a priori example of the experiences during West Germany's social integration process, i.e. the vocational education promotion process for the social stability and economic life. It figured out the problem of vocational education for the integrity as well as analyzed the vocational education differences and integration promotion system between East & West Germany. Even though East and West Germany showed their disparities in each vocational education, they corroborated each other by finding one similar system such as bifurcation, which lead to the integration of the labor market and new vocational education policy for the economic stability. Despite the West Germany's support for the socio-economic integration, nevertheless, the East Germany's capacity turned out to be insufficient, which resulted in the failure of the policy. Based on above discussion, this study intended to suggest the efficient solutions of vocational education for the internal reunification of South and North Korea by promoting the independence and self-support of North Koreans and leading the stability of labor market and economic for the future reunification.

The Effect of the Subjective Wellbeing on the Addiction and Usage Motivation of Social Networking Services: Moderating Effect of Social Tie (SNS 이용동기와 SNS 중독이 주관적 웰빙에 미치는 영향: 사회적 유대감의 조절효과)

  • Noh, Mi-Jin;Jang, Sung-Hee
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.99-122
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    • 2016
  • The social networking services (SNSs) have become popular among smartphone users, and one of the most popular services. In order to explain users' motivations toward SNS, this study considers uses and gratification theory which can explain individuals' motivations to select certain media channels. The purposes of this study is to investigate the relationships between motivations and addiction of SNS, and between addiction of SNS and decline in the subjective wellbeing. We examine moderating effects of social tie based on the social capital theory in the relationships between SNS addiction and decline in the subjective wellbeing. The motivations of SNS are subdivided into emotional motive (entertainment and fantasy) and cognitive motive (information share burden and challenge burden) based on the use and gratifications theory. The addiction of SNS is subdivided into time tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, interruption, and barrier of living. The data used in this study were collected from 286 SNS users through surveys. The data analysis in this study was performed using AMOS 17.0, and we used SEM(Structural Equation Modeling) methods in order to test the research model. The result shows that the emotional motive(entertainment and fantasy) and cognitive motive(information share burden and challenge burden) have an effect on the addiction of SNS. Especially emotional motive such as entertainment and users' fantasy toward SNS is an important factor that can cause SNS addiction. The addiction of SNS such as time tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, interruption, and barrier of living has an effect on the decline in the subjective wellbeing. Our result show that social tie partially moderates the relationship SNS addiction and decline in the subjective wellbeing. In addition, social tie between interruption of SNS and decline in the subjective wellbeing is an important moderating factor. The results focuses on the understanding toward relationship between SNS addiction based on the online and decline in the subjective wellbeing in the real world. The findings of this study also provides theoretical as well as practical implications which reflect the major features of SNS, and moderating effects of social tie based on the social capital.

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A Study on Commemoration Characteristics of Vietnam War Memorials in Korea (한국에 있는 베트남전쟁 메모리얼에 나타난 기념성)

  • Lee, Sang-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.22-34
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze commemoration characteristics of fifty-nine Vietnam war memorials in Korea(VWMK) including monuments and national cemeteries from landscape architectural point of view such as location, spacial characteristic, landscape detail, sculpture, and interpretive text. Based on the commemoration characteristics of the analysis, the commemoration culture among Vietnam, the U.S.A., and Korea were studied and differences compared. The results are as follows. First, monuments were mainly located in public open space such as national cemeteries, parks, and plaza, and some of them were elected along with Korea war memorials to honor Vietnam war veterans at the national level. Second, because the monuments were relatively small and memorial towers were conventionally built on a square platform, the memorial style had been simply standardized to stereotype the commemoration characteristics. Third, outmoded memorial towers, stone plates, emblems, and memorial walls were used as main landscape details and standardized facilities were considered from an artistic and social point of view. Fourth, realistic soldier statues to show heroic and humanitarian image were in majority, while symbolic and abstract sculpture were small in number, they were mostly conventional and unexpressive. Fifth, the causes of participation in the Vietnam War were predominantly expressed as 'defending freedom', 'keeping world peace', and 'national economic development' based on anti-communism and patriotism, and also the collectivity of Vietnam War veterans by troop and local level was emphasized through engraving each veterans's name on towers, plates, and walls. VWMK are mostly conventional and stereotyped in style and show strongly national official memory and the collectivity of veterans from a sociopolitical perspective, and aim for anti-communistic patriotism ideologically. Further study and projects will be required to make creative and innovative memorials and to study how to rethink sublime fundamental themes like war, death, and the individual veteran's experience in VWMK.

A Study on the Coexistance of Ganghak(講學) and Yusik(遊息) space of Oksan Confucian Academy, Gyeongju: Directed Attention Restoration Theory Perspectives (주의집중 피로회복이론의 장으로 본 경주 옥산서원 강학 및 유식공간의 일원적 공간성)

  • Tak, Young-Ran;Sung, Jeong-Sang;Choi, Jong-Hee;Kim, Soon-Ae;Rho, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.50-66
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    • 2016
  • This study attempts to understand and explain how "Directed Attention Restorative Environment (DARE)" is managed and fostered in "Gang-Hak (講學)" and "Yu-Sik (遊息)" spaces both inside and outside of Oksan Seowon Confucian Academy, Gyeongju. Directed Attention is a pivotal element in human information processing so that its restoration is crucial for effective thinking and learning. According to Kaplan & Kaplan's Attention Restoration Theory, an environment, in order to be restorative, should have four elements: 'Being Away,' 'Extent,' 'Fascination,' and 'Compatibility.' We could confirm OkSan Seowon Confucian Academy has an inner logic that integrates two basically different spacial concepts of "Jangsu" and "Yusik" and thus fosters the Attention Restorative Environment. Particularly, the Four Mountains and Five Platforms (四山五臺) surrounding the premises provides an excellent learning environment, and is in itself educational in terms of the Neo-Confucian epistemology with "Attaining Knowledge by way of Positioning Things (格物致知)" as its principle precept, and of its aesthetics with "Connectedness with Nature" as its central tenet. This study attempts to recapture the value of Korea's cultural heritage concerning the Human/Nature relationship; and it may provide useful insights and practical guidelines/grounds in designing today's schools and campuses, where the young people's needs for the Directed Attention- and Attention Restorative- Servicescapes seem to be greater than ever.

A Basic Study on the Euryale ferox Salisbury for Introduction in Garden Pond(II) - Focusing with Soil and Water Conditions - (정원 연못내 가시연꽃(Euryale ferox Salisbury) 도입을 위한 기초연구 II - 토양과 수환경을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Suk-Woo;Rho, Jae-Hyun;Park, Jae-Cheol;Kim, Hwa-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.28-37
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    • 2016
  • Through the research and analysis on the hydrological environment and soil environment of habitats through documentary and field studies over 14 habitats of Euryale ferox Salisb. within Jeollabukdo, with the objective of acquiring the basic data for forming an environment based on plantation of reservoirs that are composed with Euryale ferox, the following results were obtained. As a result of analyzing the construction period of the habitats of Euryale ferox from a total of 14 places, the average period of duration after construction of all subject reservoirs appeared to be 71.8 years. Moreover, when examining the relationship between the age of reservoirs and eutrophication, it could be judged that at least the eutrophication of subsoil and water environment is not an obstacle to the growth of Euryale ferox grows in habitats that have a reservoir age of approximately 70 years or more. As a result of analyzing the gardening of soil sediment of the Euryale ferox habitats, the component ingredients appeared to be composed of 80.2% of clay, 16.7% of silt and 3.1% of sand, and the soil class pursuant to such was classified as 'heavy clay'. The organic matter contents of soil sediment appeared to be an average of 36g/kg, and there appeared to be no noticeable difference between the habitats and non-habitats of Euryale ferox. The water quality environment of Euryale ferox habitat appeared to be pH 6.5~7.9, concentration of dissolved oxygen to be $1.8{\sim}8.8mg/{\ell}$, concentration of COD to be $6.8{\sim}74mg/{\ell}$, floating materials to be $2.0{\sim}213mg/{\ell}$, total nitrogen to be $0.422{\sim}10.723mg/{\ell}$, and phosphate to be $0.003{\sim}0.126mg/{\ell}$. The average DO concentration of Aedang Reservoir at Jeongeup, Daejeong Reservoir at Imsil, and Myeongdeokji at Gimje with high vitality and green coverage ratio of Euryale ferox appeared to be $3.5mg/{\ell}$, total nitrogen to be $1.33mg/{\ell}$, and concentration of phosphorus-phosphate to be $0.061mg/{\ell}$. When comparing such with the entire average value, the DO and total nitrogen concentration appeared to be rather low, and the phosphorus-phosphate concentration appeared to be higher by two times or more, thus, an in-depth study on the correlation of the vitality of Euryale ferox Salisb. and concentration of phosphorate-phosphorus will be needed in the future.