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Clinical Implication of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression for Rectal Cancer Patients with Lymph Node Involvement (림프절 전이를 동반한 직장암 환자들에서 Cyclooxygenase-2 발현의 임상적 의미)

  • Lee, Hyung-Sik;Choi, Young-Min;Hur, Won-Joo;Kim, Su-Jin;Kim, Dae-Cheol;Roh, Mee-Sook;Hong, Young-Seoub;Park, Ki-Jae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: To assess the influence of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression on the survival of patients with a combination of rectal cancer and lymph node metastasis. Materials and Methods: The study included rectal cancer patients treated by radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy at the Dong-A university hospital from 1998 to 2004. A retrospective analysis was performed on a subset of patients that also had lymph node metastasis. After excluding eight of 86 patients, due to missing tissue samples in three, malignant melanoma in one, treatment of gastric cancer around one year before diagnosis in one, detection of lung cancer after one year of diagnosis in one, liver metastasis in one, and refusal of radiotherapy after 720 cGy in one, 78 patients were analyzed. The immunohistochemistry for COX-2 was conducted with an autostainer (BenchMark; Ventana, Tucson, AZ, USA). An image analyzer (TissueMine; Bioimagene, Cupertino, CA, USA) was used for analysis after scanning (ScanScope; Aperio, Vista, CA, USA). A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan Meier method and significance was evaluated using the log rank test. Results: COX-2 was stained positively in 62 patients (79.5%) and negatively in 16 (20.5%). A total of 6 (7.7%), 15 (19.2%), and 41 (52.6%) patients were of grades 1, 2, and 3, respectively for COX-2 expression. No correlation was found between being positive of COX-2 patient characteristics, which include age (<60-year old vs. $\geq$60), sex, operation methods (abdominoperineal resection vs. lower anterior resection), degrees of differentiation, tumor size (<5 cm vs. $\geq$5 cm), T stages, N stages, and stages (IIIa, IIIb, IIIc). The 5-year overall and 5-year disease free survival rates for the entire patient population were 57.0% and 51.6%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for the COX-2 positive and negative patients were 53.0% and 72.9%, respectively (p=0.146). Further, the 5-year disease free survival rates for the COX-2 positive and negative patients were 46.3% and 72.7%, respectively (p=0.118). The 5-year overall survival rates were significantly different (p<0.05) for the degree of differentiation, N stage, and stage, whereas the 5-year disease free survival rates were significant for N stage and stage. Conclusion: Being positive for and the degree of COX-2 expression did not have a significant influence on the survival of rectal cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. However, N stage and stage did significantly influence the rateof survival. Further analysis of a greater sample size is necessary for the verification of the effect of COX-2 expression on the survival of rectal cancer patients with lymph node involvement.

Simultaneous Production System of Silkworm Dongchunghacho and Male Pupae Using Both Parent Sex-limited Larval Marking Variety (한성반문잠품종을 이용한 누에동충하초 및 숫번데기의 동시 생산체계)

  • Ji, Sang-Duk;Kim, Nam-Suk;Kang, Pil-Don;Sung, Gyoo-Byung;Hong, In-Pyo;Ryu, Kang Sun;Kim, Young-Ki;Nam, Sung-Hee;Kim, Mi-Ja;Kim, Kee-Young
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to confirm the mass production of male pupae and sex-limited larval marking variety as a host for synnemata production of Isaria tenupes in RDA(Rural Development Administration). Silkworm pupation, infection rate and synnemate formation of I.tenuipes were examined. Among the silkworm varieties tested, male Hansaengjam showed the highest pupation rate at 98.7%. I. tenuipes infection rate of larvae of newly-exuviated 5th instar silkworm was 83.7 ~ 90.4% in the spring rearing season and 91.7 ~ 96.6% in the autumn rearing season. Synnemata production of I. tenuipes was execellent in female Yangwonjam with an incidence rate of 99.5% followed by male Yangwonjam(99.5%) and Baegokjam(99.4%) in the spring and autumn rearing season. Synnemata living weight ranged from 0.93 ~ 1.25 g in the spring rearing season. The female Hansaengjam had the heaviest synnemata weight(1.25 g). Synnemata dry weight ranged from 0.27 ~ 0.35 g in the spring rearing season. The female Yangwonjam had the heaviest synnemata weight(0.35 g).

A Comparative Study of Subset Construction Methods in OSEM Algorithms using Simulated Projection Data of Compton Camera (모사된 컴프턴 카메라 투사데이터의 재구성을 위한 OSEM 알고리즘의 부분집합 구성법 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Soo-Mee;Lee, Jae-Sung;Lee, Mi-No;Lee, Ju-Hahn;Kim, Joong-Hyun;Kim, Chan-Hyeong;Lee, Chun-Sik;Lee, Dong-Soo;Lee, Soo-Jin
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.234-240
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: In this study we propose a block-iterative method for reconstructing Compton scattered data. This study shows that the well-known expectation maximization (EM) approach along with its accelerated version based on the ordered subsets principle can be applied to the problem of image reconstruction for Compton camera. This study also compares several methods of constructing subsets for optimal performance of our algorithms. Materials and Methods: Three reconstruction algorithms were implemented; simple backprojection (SBP), EM, and ordered subset EM (OSEM). For OSEM, the projection data were grouped into subsets in a predefined order. Three different schemes for choosing nonoverlapping subsets were considered; scatter angle-based subsets, detector position-based subsets, and both scatter angle- and detector position-based subsets. EM and OSEM with 16 subsets were performed with 64 and 4 iterations, respectively. The performance of each algorithm was evaluated in terms of computation time and normalized mean-squared error. Results: Both EM and OSEM clearly outperformed SBP in all aspects of accuracy. The OSEM with 16 subsets and 4 iterations, which is equivalent to the standard EM with 64 iterations, was approximately 14 times faster in computation time than the standard EM. In OSEM, all of the three schemes for choosing subsets yielded similar results in computation time as well as normalized mean-squared error. Conclusion: Our results show that the OSEM algorithm, which have proven useful in emission tomography, can also be applied to the problem of image reconstruction for Compton camera. With properly chosen subset construction methods and moderate numbers of subsets, our OSEM algorithm significantly improves the computational efficiency while keeping the original quality of the standard EM reconstruction. The OSEM algorithm with scatter angle- and detector position-based subsets is most available.

The Effect of Spiritual Well-being on the Mental Health of the Cho-Sun Tribal Women Residing in P.R. of China (중국거주 조선족 여성의 영적 안녕정도가 정신건강에 미치는 영향)

  • Cheung, Seung-Deuk;Lee, Jong-Bum;Kim, Jin-Sung;Seo, Wan-Seok;Bai, Dai-Seg;Park, Soon-Jae;Joo, Yeol;Youm, Hyoung-Uk;Jin, Cheung-Yuan;Jin, Jiu-Miao;Ahn, Yeung-Log;Huang, Da-Hong;Biao, Mei-Zi;Zheng, Tai-Ji;Zhao, Chang-Lie
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.151-166
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    • 2004
  • Background: Spirituality has been an important part of Transpersonal Psychology and is believed to have a large effect on the mental health because it has been systematized. The aim of this study was to determine the level of spiritual disposition on human beings along with its effects on one's mental health. Materials and Methods: The study targeted 400 women residing in Youn-Gil city of JiLin Prov., which is a district of the Cho-Sun tribe in China. Their spiritual well-being was studied using the Spiritual Well-being Scale-Korean Version. The spiritual well-being scale consists of 2 sub-scales of religious well-being and existential well-being. The study was evaluated using a lie scale, psychotic trend, and a combined anxiety-depression scale. The results were considered to be factors of one's mental health. The correlation between the spiritual well-being and each tendency was analyzed by regression analysis. Results: The total score of the Cho-Sun tribal women according to the spiritual well-being scale was 68.29 which was much less than the 100.65 of Korean Christian women. There was no significant correlation between the spiritual well-being and the Lie trend. However, it was found that 86%(344) of Cho-Sun tribal women scored above 70 in the Lie trend with a mean score of 74.57 which is higher than normal populations. Regarding the correlation between the spiritual well-being and psychotic trend, the psychotic trend became significantly higher when the religious well-being was at a high level. On the other hand, the psychotic trend became significantly lower when the existential well-being was at a high level. Regarding the correlation between the spiritual well-being and anxiety, the anxiety was significantly higher when the religious well-being was at a high level. However, the anxiety level was significantly low when the existential well-being was at a high level. Regarding the correlation between the spiritual well-being and depression, the depression level was somewhat significantly high when the religious well-being was at a high level. However, the depression level was significantly low when the existential well-being was at a high level. Conclusion: This study evaluated the effects of spiritual well-being on a person's mental health among Cho-Sun tribal women in Youn-Gil city of JiLIn Prov., P.R. of China. The results found that the religious well-being, which is a sub-scale of spiritual well-being, had negative effects while the existential well-being had positive effects on the mental health. These results proved that a person's religious disposition had negative effects on their mental health in a communitarian society.

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Vitamin $B_{12}$ Contents in Some Korean Fermented Foods and Edible Seaweeds (한국의 장류, 김치 및 식용 해조류를 중심으로 하는 일부 상용 식품의 비타민 $B_{12}$ 함량 분석 연구)

  • Kwak, Chung-Shil;Hwang, Jin-Yong;Watanabe, Fumio;Park, Sang-Chul
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.439-447
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    • 2008
  • There is a limitation to estimate vitamin $B_{12}$ intake due to lack of data on vitamin $B_{12}$ content in many Korean foods. In this study, vitamin $B_{12}$ content was determined in some soybean or vegetable-fermented foods, edible seaweeds and other frequently consumed foods in Korea by microbioassay using Lactobacillus delbruecki ATCC 7830. The traditional type of Doenjang and Chungkookjang contained 1.85 ${\mu}g/100$ g and 0.69 ${\mu}g/100$ g of vitamin $B_{12}$, respectively, while the factory-type of Doenjang and Chungkookjang contained 0.04-0.86 ${\mu}g/100$ g and 0.06-0.15 ${\mu}g/100$ g. Vitamin $B_{12}$ was not detected in steamed soybeans and Tofu which is a not-fermented soybean product, indicating that vitamin $B_{12}$ in Doenjang and Chungkookjang might be produced during the fermentation process. The Korean-style soy sauce contained 0.04 ${\mu}g$ vitamin $B_{12}$/100 mL, but vitamin $B_{12}$ was not detected in Japanese-style soy sauce and white miso. Commercial Kimchi, a representative Korean vegetable- fermented food, made of Korean cabbage, Yeolmu, or Mustard leaves contained 0.013-0.03 ${\mu}g$ vitamin $B_{12}$/100 g, while Kimchi without red pepper and fermented fish sauce (White Kimchi) did not. Vitamin $B_{12}$ content was very high in some edible seaweeds such as laver (66.76 ${\mu}g/100$ g dry weight) and sea lettuce (84.74 ${\mu}g/100$ g dry weight), and it was 17.12 ${\mu}g/100$ g of dried small anchovy, 1.07 ${\mu}g/100$ g of whole egg, and 0.02 ${\mu}g/100$ g of coffee mix. From these results, it is assumed that Koreans take substantial amount of vitamin $B_{12}$ from plant-origin foods. And, with these data, we will be able to calculate dietary vitamin $B_{12}$ content more correctly than before. In conclusion, soybean-fermented foods, Kimchi, laver and sea lettuce are recommendable as good sources of vitamin $B_{12}$ for vegetarians or Korean elderly on grain and vegetable based diet.

Aesthetics of Samjae and Inequilateral Triangle Found in Ancient Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock - Centering on Formative Characteristics of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Seosan - (고대(古代) 마애삼존불(磨崖三尊佛)에서 찾는 삼재(三才)와 부등변삼각(不等邊三角)의 미학(美學) - 서산마애삼존불의 형식미를 중심으로 -)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Kyu-Wan;Jang, Il-Young;Goh, Yeo-Bin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.72-84
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    • 2010
  • This study was attempted in order to offer basic data for implementing and applying Samjonseokjo(三尊石造), which is one of traditional stone construction method, by confirming how the constructive principle is expressed such as proportional beauty, which is contained in the modeling of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock that was formed in the period of the Three States, centering on Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Susan. The summarized findings are as follows. 1. As a result of analyzing size and proportion of totally 17 of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock, the average total height in Bonjonbul(本尊佛) was 2.96m. Right Hyeopsi(右挾侍) was 2.19m. Left Hyeopsi(左挾侍) was 2.16m. The height ratio according to this was 100:75:75, thereby having shown the relationship of left-right symmetrical balance. The area ratio in left-right Hyeopsi was 13.4:13.7, thereby the two area having been evenly matched. 2. The Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Seosan is carved on Inam(印岩) rock after crossing over Sambulgyo bridge of the Yonghyeon valley. Left direction was measured with $S47^{\circ}E$ in an angle of direction. This is judged to target an image change and an aesthetic sense in a Buddhist statue according to direction of sunlight while blocking worshipers' dazzling. 3. As for iconic characteristics of Buddha Carved on Rock in Seosan, there is even Hyeopsi in Bangasang(半跏像) and Bongjiboju(捧持寶珠) type Bosangipsang. In the face of Samjon composition in left-right asymmetry, the unification is indicated while the same line and shape are repeated. Thus, the stably visual balance is being shown. 4. In case of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Seosan, total height in Bonjonbul, left Hyeopsi, and right Hyeopsi was 2.80m, 1.66m, and 1.70m, respectively. Height ratio in left-right Hyeopsibul was 0.60:0.62, thereby having been almost equal. On the other hand, the area ratio was 28.8:25.2, thereby having shown bigger difference. The area ratio on a plane was grasped to come closer to Samjae aesthetic proportion. 5. The axial angle of centering on Gwangbae was 84:46:50, thereby having been close to right angle. On the other hand, the axial angle ratio of centering on Yeonhwajwa(蓮華坐: lotus position) was measured to be 135:25:20, thereby having shown the form of inequilateral triangle close to obtuse angle. Accordingly, the upper part and the lower part of Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Susan are taking the stably proportional sense in the middle of maintaining the corresponding relationship through angular proportion of inequilateral triangle in right angle and obtuse angle. 6. The distance ratio in the upper half was 0.51:0.36:0.38. On the other hand, the distance ratio in the lower half was 0.53 : 0.33 : 0.27. Thus, the up-down and left-right symmetrical balance is being formed while showing the image closer to inequilateral triangle. 7. As a result of examining relationship of Samjae-mi(三才美) targeting Triad of Buddha Carved on Rock in Susan, the angular ratio was shown to be more notable that forms the area ratio or triangular form rather than length ratio. The inequilateral triangle, which is formed centering on Gwangbae(光背) in the upper part and Yeonhwajwa(lotus position) in the lower part, is becoming very importantly internal motive of doubling the constructive beauty among Samjae, no less than the mutually height and area ratio in Samjonbul.

Customer perception and expert assessment in restaurant food environment by region - Focused on restaurants in Suwon, Hwaseong city - (도시와 농촌의 한식 음식점 식생활 환경에 대한 고객 인식 및 전문가 평가 비교 - 수원, 화성지역 음식점을 중심으로 -)

  • Oh, Mi Hyun;Choe, Jeong-Sook;Kim, Young;Lee, Sang Eun;Paik, Hee Young;Jang, Mi Jin
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.463-474
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the food environment, particularly focusing on restaurants in three areas (Suwon city, Hwaseong Byeongieom-dong, and Bibong-myun). Methods: A total of 662 persons were surveyed on customers' perceptions of the food environment in restaurants. A structured questionnaire composed of 30 questions on 7 factors, sanitation (4 items), displaying information (5), food quality (12), information on nutritional and healthy food choice (6), restaurant's accessibility (1), availability (1), and affordability (1) was used. In addition, an expert assessment of restaurant sanitation, and information on nutritional healthy food choice was conducted through visiting 126 restaurants. Results: Scores (range of score : 1~7) for each factors assessing the restaurant food environment were 5.06 for sanitation factors, 5.05 for displaying information factors, 5.13 for taste appearance factors, and 4.35 for healthy menu factors. Informations on nutritional healthy food choice showed a low rate: only 16.24% of the subjects answered that there is a message encouraging choice of healthy foods and 27.4% answered that menus contain nutritional information. Significant differences in food environment were observed by region (city, town, rural). The restaurants food environment in the rural area turned out to be poorer than that of the other two areas. In comparison of customer perception and expert assessment, significant differences were observed for 'Employee appearances and uniforms are clean and tidy' (p < .05), and 'There is a message encouraging the choice of healthy foods' (p < .05). Conclusion: This study provided evidence for differences of restaurant food environment by regions. In the rural area, there is a problem in restaurant's accessibility, availability, and affordability because of a lack of variety in menu items and restaurants. This results suggest that there is a need for more healthy food restaurants in the rural area.

A Study on the Distribution Status and Management Measures of Naturalized Plants Growing in Seongeup Folk Village, Jeju Island (제주 성읍민속마을의 귀화식물 분포현황 및 관리방안)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Oh, Hyun-Kyung;Han, Yun-Hee;Choi, Yung-Hyun;Byun, Mu-Sup;Kim, Young-Suk;Lee, Won-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.107-119
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the current status of vascular plants and naturalized plants growing in the Seongeup Folk Village in Jeju and to consider and compare their distribution patterns and the characteristics of emergence of naturalized plants in other folk villages and all parts of Jeju, thereby exploring measures to well manage naturalized plants. The result of this study is as follows.11) The total number of vascular plants growing in Seongeup Folk Village is identified to be 354 taxa which include 93 families, 260 genus, 298 species, 44 varieties and 12 breeds. Among them, the number of naturalized plants is 55 taxa in total including 22 families, 46 genus, 53 species, and 2 varieties, which accounts for 21.7% of the total of 254 taxa identified all over the region of Jeju. The rate of naturalization in Seongeup Folk Village is 15.5%, which is far higher than the rates of plant naturalization in Hahoi Village in Andong, Yangdong Village in Gyeongju, Hangae Village in Seongju, Wanggok Village in Goseong, and Oeam Village in Asan. Among the naturalized plants identified within the targeted villages, the number of those growing in Jeju is 9 taxa including Silene gallica, Modiola caroliniana, Oenothera laciniata, Oenothera stricta, Apium leptophyllum, Gnaphalium purpureum, Gnaphalium calviceps, Paspalum dilatatum and Sisyrinchium angustifolium. It is suggested that appropriate management measures that consider the characteristics of the gateway to import and the birthplace of the naturalized plants are necessary. In the meantime, 3 more taxa that have not been included in the reference list of Jeju have been identified for the first time in Seongeup Folk Village, which include Bromus sterilis, Cannabis sativa and Veronica hederaefolia. The number of naturalized plants identified within the gardens of unit-based cultural properties is 20 taxa, among which the rate of prevalence of Cerastium glomeratum is the highest at 62.5%. On the other hand, the communities of plants that require landscape management are Brassica napus and other naturalized plants, including Cosmos bipinnatus, Trifolium repens, Medicago lupulina, Oenothera stricta, O. laciniata, Lotus corniculatus, Lolium perenne, Silene gallica, Hypochaeris radicata, Plantago virginica, Bromus catharticus and Cerastium glomeratum. As a short-term measure to manage naturalized plants growing in Seongeup Folk Village, it is important to identify the current status of Cosmos bipinnatus and Brassica napus that have been planted for landscape agriculture, and explore how to use flowers during the blooming season. It is suggested that Ambrosia artemisiifolia and Hypochaeris radicata, designated as invasive alien plants by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, should be eradicated initially, followed by regular monitoring in case of further invasion, spread or expansion. As for Hypochaeris radicata, in particular, some physical prevention measures need to be explored, such as for example, identifying the habitat density and eradication of the plant. In addition, it is urgent to remove plants, such as Sonchus oleraceus, Houttuynia cordata, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Erigeron annuus and Lamium purpureum with high index of greenness visually, growing wild at around high Jeongyi town walls. At the same time, as the distribution and dominance value of the naturalized plants growing in deserted or empty houses are high, it is necessary to find measures to preserve and manage them and to use the houses as lodging places.

A Basic Study on the Establishment of Preservation and Management for Natural Monument(No.374) Pyeongdae-ri Torreya nucifera forest of Jeju (천연기념물 제374호 제주 평대리 비자나무 숲의 보존·관리방향 설정을 위한 기초연구)

  • Lee, Won-Ho;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Jae-Ung;Oh, Hae-Sung;Choi, Byung-Ki;Lee, Jong-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.93-106
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    • 2014
  • In this study, Analyze environment of location, investigation into vegetation resources, survey management status and establish to classify the management area for Natural monument No.374 Pyengdae-ri Torreya nucifera forest. The results were as follows: First, Torreya nucifera forest is concerned about influence of development caused by utilization of land changes to agricultural region. Thus, establish to preservation management plan for preservation of prototypical and should be excluded development activity to cause the change of terrain that Gotjawal in the Torreya nucifera forest is factor of base for generating species diversity. Secondly, Torreya nucifera forest summarized as 402 taxa composed 91 familly 263 genus, 353 species, 41 varieties and 8 forms. The distribution of plants for the first grade & second grade appear of endangered plant to Ministry of Environment specify. But, critically endangered in forest by changes in habitat, diseases and illegal overcatching. Therefore, when establishing forest management plan should be considered for put priority on protection. Thirdly, Torreya nucifera representing the upper layer of the vegetation structure. But, old tree oriented management and conservation strategy result in poor age structure. Furthermore, desiccation of forest on artificial management and decline in Torreya nucifera habitat on ecological succession can indicate a problem in forest. Therefore, establish plan such as regulation of population density and sapling tree proliferation for sustainable characteristics of the Torreya nucifera forest. Fourth, Appear to damaged of trails caused by use. Especially, Scoria way occurs a lot of damaged and higher than the share ratio of each section. Therefore, share ratio reduction Plan should be considered through the additional development of tourism routes rather than the replacement of Scoria. Fifth, Representing high preference of the Torreya nucifera forest tourist factor confirmed the plant elements. It is sensitive to usage pressure. And requires continuous monitoring by characteristic of Non-permanent. In addition, need an additional plan such as additional development of tourism elements and active utilizing an element of high preference. Sixth, Strength of protected should be differently accordance with importance. First grade area have to maintenance of plant population and natural habitats. Set the direction of the management. Second grade areas focus on annual regeneration of the forest. Third grade area should be utilized demonstration forest or set to the area for proliferate sapling. Fourth grade areas require the introduced of partial rest system that disturbance are often found in proper vegetation. Fifth grade area appropriate to the service area for promoting tourism by utilizing natural resources in Torreya nucifera forest. Furthermore, installation of a buffer zone in relatively low ratings area and periodic monitoring to the improvement of edge effect that adjacent areas of different class.

Characristics and Management Plans of Myeongwoldae and Myeongwol Village Groves Located in, Jeju (제주 팽림월대(彭林月臺)의 경관특성 및 관리방안)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Oh, Hyun-Kyung;Chol, Yung-Hyun;Kahng, Byung-Seon;Kim, Young-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.68-81
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to identify the spacialty, to illuminate the existence and values of Myeongwoldae(明月臺) and Forest Myeongwol, and to suggest the sustainable usage, preservation and management plans with the purpose of ecological and cultural landscaping characteristic and value identification. The result of the study is as follows. Castle Myeongwol and Port Myeongwol shows the status of Hallim-eup Myeongwol District which is the administrative center of western Jeju as well as is the fortress. Building Wolgyejeongsa and School Woohakdang, the head temple of education and culture, located in Myeongwol District represents the spaciality of Myeonwol-ri which was the center of education. Stand Myeongwol is one of the most representative Confucian cultural landscapes in Jeju Island and the field of communion with nature where scholars enjoy poetries, nature, changgi(Korean chess), and go in the Joseon Dynasty period. It was found that the current relics of Myeongwoldae was recovered through the maintenance project conducted by Youth Group Myeongwol composed with Hongjong-si(洪鍾時) as the center during the Japanese colonial era in 1931. It seems that the stonework of Myeongwoldae composed of three levels in the order of square, octagon, and circle based on the heaven-man unity theory of Confucianism and the octagon in the middle is the messenger of Cheonwonjibang(天圓地方), in other words, between the square-shaped earth and the circle-shaped sky. It is assumed that both Grand Bridge Myeongwol and Bridge Myeongwol were constructed as arched bridges in early days. Bridge Myeongwol is the only arched bridge remaining in Jeju Island now, which has the modern cultural heritage value. In Forest Myeongwol, 97 taxa of plants were confirmed and in accordance with 'Taxonomic Group and Class Criteria of Floristic Specific Plants', eight taxa were found; Arachniodes aristata of FD IV and Ilex cornuta, Piper kadsura, Litsea japonica, Melia azedarach, Xylosma congestum, Richosanthes kirilowii var. japonica, Dichondra repens, Viburnum odoratissimum var. awabuki of FD III. Otherwise, 14 taxa of naturalized plants including Apium leptophylihum which is imported to Jeju Island only were confirmed. In Forest Myeongwol, 77 trees including 41 Celtis sinensis, 30 Aphananthe aspera, two Wylosma congestum, a Pinus densiflora, a Camellia japonica, a Melia azedarach, and an Ilex cornuta form a colony. Based on the researched data, the preservation and plans of Myeongwoldae and Forest Myeongwol is suggested as follows. Myeongwoldae, Bridge Myeongwol, and Forest Myeongwol should be managed as one integrated division. Bridge Myeongwol, an arched bridge which is hard to be found in Jeju Island is a high-standard stonework requiring long-term preservation plans. Otherwise, Grand Bridge Myeongwol that is exposed to accident risks because of deterioration and needs safety diagnosis requires measures according to the result of precise safety diagnosis. It is desirable to restore it to a two-sluice arched bridge as its initial shape and to preserve and use it as a representative local landmark with Stand Myeongwol. In addition, considering the topophsis based on the analysis result, the current name of Jeju Special Self-Governing Province Monument No. 19 'Myoengwol Hackberry Colony' should change to 'Myeongwol Hackberry-Muku Tree Colony'. In addition, the serial number system which is composed without distinction of hackberry and muku tree should be improved and the regular monitoring of big and old trees, specific plants, and naturalized species is required.