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Investigation on Daily Life and Consciousness of Longevous People in Korea - (II) On Social Life and Daily Life Habit of Longevous People in the Past - (우리나라 장수자(長壽者)의 생활(生活) 및 의식조사(意識調査)에 관한 연구(硏究) - 장수지역(長壽地域)의 과거(過去) 사회생활(社會生活)과 일상생활습관(日常生活習慣) -)

  • Choi, Jin-Ho;Pyeun, Jae-Hyeung;Rhim, Chae-Hwan;Yang, Jong-Soon;Kim, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Jeung-Han;Lee, Byeong-Ho;Woo, Soon-Im;Choe, Sun-Nam;Byun, Dae-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.183-196
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    • 1986
  • This study was designed to be link in the chain of the investigation on daily life and consciousness of longevous people in Korea, and to investigate the social life and daily life habit in the past of longevous people. The social life and daily life habit were surveyed on 379 subjects (male 121, female 258) of the aged who were above 80 years of age, from June to November in 1985. 1. 'Generally regular' in the rising time and bedtime between 40 and 60 years of longevous people had the highest figures of 81.8% and 63.1%, respectively. The longevous peoples of 59.4% got up by before 6 a.m., and 61.3% of these aged went to bed from 9 to 11 p.m. But there was no significant difference between male and female. 2. Of the occupation engaged in the longest term of longevous people, the self-management (86.3%) included farming, fishing and household affairs was the highest, whereas administrative position, small-scale management and white-collar worker were only 0.8%, 0.8% and 1.8%, respectively. Therefore, their work involved mainly physical labor (heavy 48.5%, light 47.2%), and mental work was only 2.8% of longevous people. It is believed that this fact was deeply related to the educational degree of them. 3. The longevous people of 58.3% retired from the occupation and household affairs abover 70 years of age, and especially 24.3% of them is including the aged above 80 years of age. 4. The longevous people of 57.2% were shared the role in the home after retirement from the occupation and household affairs, whereas 35.9% of them didn't share. Of the way in killing time in case having no role in the home, 'at home'(50.0%) was the highest, and decreased in the order of 'old people's home' (30.9%), 'ill in bed' (10.3%) and 'asylum for the aged' (8.8%). 5. The acquaintance frequency before retirement from the occupation and household affairs of longevous people showed in the order of 'wide' (38.5%), 'common' (38.0%) and 'narrow' (19.0%), and 56.5% of them had the acquaintance after retirement. 6. Only the longevous people of 38.5% had the hobby and recreation activities of 'more than once' after retirement from the occupation and household affairs, but 53.0% of them was none. Of the kinds of hobby and/or recreation, 'TV-watching' (79.2%) was the highest, and decreased in the order of 'talking with grandchild' (54.2 %), 'working at home' (35.4%), 'religion' (25.0%) and 'chess etc.' (18.1%).

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Suggestion of Learning Objectives in Social Dental Hygiene: Oral Health Administration Area (사회치위생학의 학습목표 제안: 구강보건행정 영역)

  • Park, Su-Kyung;Lee, Ga-Yeong;Jang, Young-Eun;Yoo, Sang-Hee;Kim, Yeun-Ju;Lee, Sue-Hyang;Kim, Han-Nah;Jo, Hye-Won;Kim, Myoung-Hee;Kim, Hee-Kyoung;Ryu, Da-Young;Kim, Min-Ji;Shin, Sun-Jung;Kim, Nam-Hee;Yoon, Mi-Sook
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.85-96
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to propose learning objectives in social dental hygiene by analyzing and reviewing learning objectives in oral health administration area of the existing public oral health. This study is a cross-sectional study. The subjects of the study selected with convenience extraction were 15 members of the social dental hygiene subcommittee of the Korean Society of Dental Hygiene Science. Data collection was conducted by self-filling questionnaire. The research tool is from 48 items of A division in the book of learning objectives in the dental hygienist national examination, and this study classified each of them into 'dental hygiene job relevance', 'dental hygiene competency relevance', 'timeliness', and 'value discrimination of educational goal setting' to comprise 192 items. Also, to collect expert opinions, this study conducted Delphi survey on 7 academic experts. Statistical analysis was performed using the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 23.0 program (IBM Co., Armonk, NY, USA). Recoding was performed according to the degree of relevance of each learning objective and frequency analysis was performed. This study removed 18 items from the whole learning objectives in the dental hygienist national examination in the oral health administration area of public oral health. Fifteen revisions were made and 15 existing learning objectives were maintained. Forty-five learning objectives were proposed as new social dental hygiene learning objectives. The topics of learning objectives are divided into social security and medical assistance, oral health care system, oral health administration, and oral health policy. As a result of this study, it was necessary to construct the learning objectives of social dental hygiene in response to changing situation at the time. The contents of education should be revised in order of revision of learning objectives, development of competency, development of learning materials, and national examination.

An Analysis of the Psychiatric Characteristics of the Alopecia Areata in Female (여성 탈모증의 정신의학적 특성 분석)

  • Lee, Kil-Hong;Na, Chul;Lee, Young-Sik;Lee, Chang-Hoon;No, Byung-In;Hong, Chang-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.31-45
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    • 2000
  • Objectives : The present study was performed to reveal differences between female and male cases of alopecia in their alopecia related variables such as patterns of hair loss, psychiatric characteristics, associate illnesses, and methods of treatment, and to use them as basic materials for proper management and early prevention of the alopecia prone cases. Methods : In order to analysis the gender difference in hair losses, the subjects were divided into two subgroups as the 51 cases of female alopecia and the 42 cases of male alopecia, who had visited to the department of psychiatry consulted from the department of dermatology, Yongsan hopital, ChungAng University, Seoul, Korea, from January 1998 to December 1998. In data analysis, the subjects were statistically assesed by chi-squre test and analysis of varaiance, through SPSS-$PC^+$ 9.0V. Results : 1) Female subjects were more likely showed lower socio-economical level including lower eonomical level, lower educational level, or lower occupational level in their parent's job, were more likely to have larger number of siblings and to have many sisters comparison to the male cases. 2) Female subjects were more likely visited to the department of dermatology, more history of alopecia in their female family members, lesser history of alopecia in their male family members, more loss of hairs in vertex or frontal region of scalp, lesser loss of hairs in occipital region, and lesser nail changes in comparison to the male cases. 3) Female subjects were more suffered from intra-familial conflicts and economical changes, or their introverted personality makeup, lesser likely suffered from changes of business and health changes, and showed lesser conflicts related with poorer adaptaion in their job life. 4) Female subjects were more likely diagnosed as depression or conversion disorders, more frequently complaint anxiety symptoms or depressive symptoms, higher level of anxiety index, lesser complaint somatization or obsessive compulsive symptoms, and lesser diagnosed as anxiety disorder in comparison to the male cases. 5) Female subjects were more likely tended to show personality makeup such as the introverted, the lie, the repressed, or the feminine trends than the male cases. 6) Female subjects were more significantly treated by antianxiety drug such as etizolam and dermatological therapies include tretinoin, and lesser treated by clotiazepam and prednicarbonate in comparison to the male cases. Conclusion : From the facts that The most important factors in developing hair loss in the female subjects in comparison to the male cases seems to be closely correlated with the serious psychopathology such as the presence of mental disorders including depression, the presence of complaining anxiety or depressive symptomatology, the presence of stressful life events such as intrafamilial life changes, and the presence of personality makeup such as the introverted, the lie, the repressed, or the feminine trends, the authors confirmed that dermatologists act as the primary care physician are in a unique position to recognize psychiatric comorbidity and execute meaningful intervention for female patients with the alopecia with psychiatrists.

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Gender Differences in Pain in Cancer Patients (성별에 따른 암환자의 통증 차이)

  • Kim, Hyun-Sook;Lee, So-Woo;Yun, Young-Ho;Yu, Su-Jeong;Heo, Dae-Seog
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.14-25
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : To determine whether there exist gender differences in pain in Korean cancer patients and whether the depression and performance that are often expressed differently between men and women with cancer interact with pain. Method : The results of survey were collected from 140 in- and out-patients (78 male and 62 female) who had cancer treatment at one of the university hospital in Seoul for four months from February of 1999. The severity and interference of pain were examined with the self-reported survey based on Korean version of Brief Pain Inventory (BPI-K). Demographic and clinical information for all patient were compiled by reviewing their medical records, and the level of depression was examined with the Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-K). Usual statistical methods, e.g., frequences, means and SDs were used to characterize the sample. The chi-square tests for categorical data and t-test for numerical data were used for group comparison. And the correlation between variables were performed using Pearson correlation coefficient. Resuts : 1) The mean scores of the worst pain for last 24-hours measured with the pain severity of BPI-K were 5.77 in male and 6.45 in female. The pain interference of BPI-K in men was in the order of mood (5.49), enjoy (5.36), and work (5.00), and in women were work (7.48), enjoy (7.16), and mood (6.53). 2) In pain severity, significant difference was found between men and women in the average pain for last 24-hours (t=-2.130, P=.035). In pain interference, significant difference was found between men and women in activity (t=-2.450, P=.015), mood (t=-2,321, P=.022), walk (t=-2.762, P=.007), work (t=-4.946, P=.000), relate (t=-2.595, P=.010), sleep (t=-2.071, P=.040), enjoy (t=-3.198, P=.001). 3) It was found that the items of pain and depression are significantly correlated in men but not in women. Men also exhibited higher correlation in the items of pain and performance status than women. Conclusions : Women report significantly greater average pain for last 24-hours and for all items of pain interference than men. Pain and depression are significantly correlated in men. The results of this study suggest that gender differences in pain should be considered for planning effective pain management program.

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A Study on Hip Joint ROM of the Elderly (노인의 고관절 ROM에 관한 연구)

  • Um, Ki-Mai;Yang, Yoon-Kwon;Chang, Soo-Kyung
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to know the average of hip joint range of motion and difference according to the aging for the elderly. This study consisted of elder male(n=75) and elder female(n=109). The result of assessment and analysis in hip pint range of motion are as follows : 1) The average hip flexion(knee flexed) joint range of motion in 60-69(from sixty to sixty-nine)years old are $104.26^{\circ}$(Left-Male), $101.00^{\circ}$(Right-Male), $107.05^{\circ}$(Left-Female), $107.05^{\circ}$(Right-Female). 70-79years old are $104.59^{\circ}$(L-M), $102.05^{\circ}$(R-M), $105.73^{\circ}$(L-F), $108.75^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89years old are $101.53^{\circ}$(L-M), $101.13^{\circ}$(R-M), $96.83^{\circ}$(L-F), $97.67^{\circ}$(R-F). There was significant difference in hip flexion(knee flexed) among female group(p<.01). The average hip flexion(knee extended) joint range of motion in 60-69(from sixty to sixty-nine)years old are $73.13^{\circ}$(Left-Male), $72.04^{\circ}$(Right-Male), $77.29^{\circ}$(Left-Female), $75.97^{\circ}$(Right-Female). 70-79years old are $74.95^{\circ}$(L-M), $72.19^{\circ}$(R-M), $76.73^{\circ}$(L-F), $76.65^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89years old are $70.83^{\circ}$(L-M), $70.37^{\circ}$(R-M), $69.00^{\circ}$(L-F), $69.00^{\circ}$(R-F). There was significant difference in left hip flexion(knee extended) among female group(p<.05). 2) The average hip extension joint range of motion in 60-69years old are $13.09^{\circ}$(L-M), $12.78^{\circ}$(R-M), $10.97^{\circ}$(L-F), $10.68^{\circ}$(R-F). 70-79years old are $8.95^{\circ}$(L-M), $8.48^{\circ}$(R-M), $11.24^{\circ}$(L-F), $10.90^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89 years old are $8.40^{\circ}$(L-M), $8.23^{\circ}$(R-M), $7.33^{\circ}$(L-F), $7.33^{\circ}$(R-F). There was significant difference in left(p<.01) and right(p<.05) hip extension among male group(p<.05). 3) The average hip abduction joint range of motion in 60-69 years old are $33.04^{\circ}$(L-M), $33.17^{\circ}$(R-M), $33.16^{\circ}$(L-F), $33.37^{\circ}$(R-F). 70-79 years old are $31.00^{\circ}$(L-M), $30.05^{\circ}$(R-M), $32.44^{\circ}$(L-F), $32.68^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89 years old are $29.07^{\circ}$(L-M), $27.90^{\circ}$(R-M), $28.17^{\circ}$(L-F), $28.67^{\circ}$(R-F). There was no significant difference among group. 4) The average hip adduction pint range, of motion in 60-69years old are $29.57^{\circ}$(L-M), $29.35^{\circ}$(R-M), $31.87^{\circ}$(L-F), $31.89^{\circ}$(R-F). 70-79, years old are $27.41^{\circ}$(L-M), 27.00(R-M) $30.85^{\circ}$(L-F), $31.28^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89 years old are $26.87^{\circ}$(L-M), $26.63^{\circ}$(R-M), $24.67^{\circ}$(L-F), $24.83^{\circ}$(R-F). There was significant difference in hip abduction among female group(p<01). 5) The average hip external rotation pint range of motion in 60-69years old are $32.26^{\circ}$(L-M), $31.17^{\circ}$(R-M), $33.53^{\circ}$(L-F), $34.42^{\circ}$(R-F). 70-79 years old are $31.64^{\circ}$(L-M), $28.62^{\circ}$(R-M) $31.29^{\circ}$(L-F), $31.45^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89 years old are $26.40^{\circ}$(L-M), $26.07^{\circ}$(R-M), $24.77^{\circ}$(L-F), $24.27^{\circ}$(R-F). There was significant difference in left(male, female p<.01) and right(female p<.0l) hip external rotation among group. 6) The average hip internal rotation joint range of motion in 60-69years old are $30.30^{\circ}$(L-M), $28.13^{\circ}$(R-M), $34.27^{\circ}$(L-F), $36.03^{\circ}$(R-F). 70-79years old are $31.24^{\circ}$(L-M), $29.57^{\circ}$(R-M), $28.51^{\circ}$(L-F), $29.10^{\circ}$(R-F). 80-89 years old are $24.63^{\circ}$(L-M), $24.40^{\circ}$(R-M), $24.27^{\circ}$(L-F), $24.27^{\circ}$(R-F). There was significant difference in left(male p<.05, female p<.01) and right(female p<.01) hip internal rotation among group.

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Changes of Polyamine Metabolism and Delayed Neuronal Degeneration of Hippocampus after Transient Cerebral Ischemia in Mongolian Gerbils (뇌허혈 손상에 있어서 Polyamine 대사의 변동이 해마신경세포의 지연성괴사에 미치는 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Kyung-Ho;Shin, Hwa-Jung;Lee, Young-Jae;Kim, Hyung-Gun;Choi, Sang-Hyun;Chun, Yeon-Sook;Chun, Boe-Gwun
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.323-334
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    • 1996
  • Male Mongolian gerbils $(60{\sim}80g)$ were given DL-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO; 250mg/kg, ip) and methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG; 50 mg/k, ip), respectively, 1 h prior to transient (7 min) occlusion of bilateral common carotid arteries (OBC7) and a daily dose of one of them for 6 days after recirculation, and the polyamine contents, activities of ornithine and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylases (ODC and SAM-DC), and light microscopic findings of the hippocampus were evaluated. The hippocampal putrescine (PT) levels of the control gerbils treated with saline (STGr), markedly increased after OBC7, showing a peak level at 24 h after recirculation. The peak PT level was reduced in DFMO treated gerbils (DTCr) and in MGBG treated gerbils (MTGr). And 7 days after recirculation, the PT level of DTGr was decreased to about 75% of the PT level in the sham operated group (nonTGr) and to about 55% of the STGr level, respectively. The hippocampal spermidine (SD) level of STGr tended to decline, showing the lowest value at 8 h after recirculation. But the spermidine (SD) level of DTGr was somewhat higher at 8 h after OBC7 than those of STGr and MTGr The hippocampal spermine (SM) levels of all the experimental groups were little changed for 7 days after OBC. OBC7 markedly increased the hippocampal ODC activity. reaching a maximum (about 3 times higher than preischemic level) at 8 h and rapidly recovered to the control value by 24 h in STGr gerbils, and the OBC7-induced increase of ODC activity was significantly attenuated by DFMO or MGBG treatment. Whereas OBC7 induced a rapid decrease of the hippocampal SAMDC activity follwed by gradual recovery to the preischemic level, and the decrease of the SAMDC activity was slightly attenuated by DFMO or MGBG treatment. 7 Days after OBC7 the histological finding of the hippocampal complex stained with cresyl violet showed an extensive delayed neuronal damage in the CA1 region and to a lesser extent, in the dentate gyrus, sparing the CA3 region. And the neuronal death was aggevated by DFMO but significantly attenuated by MGBG. The immunochemical reactivity of hippocampus to anti-GFAP antibody was significantly increased in the CA1 region and to a lesser extent, in the dentate gyrus 7 days after OBC7, but was little changed in the CA3. And the increase of the anti-GFAP immunoreactivity was moderately enhanced by DFMO and significantly suppressed by MGBG. These results suggest that the polyamine metabolism may play a modulatory role in the ischemic brain damage.

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A Study on Perception and Attitudes of Health Workers Towards the Organization and Activities of Urban Health Centers (도시보건소 직원의 보건소 업무에 대한 인식 및 견해)

  • Lee, Jae-Mu;Kang, Pock-Soo;Lee, Kyeong-Soo;Kim, Cheon-Tae
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.347-365
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    • 1995
  • A survey was conducted to study perception and attitudes of health workers towards health center's activities and organization of health services, from August 15 to September 30, 1994. The study population was 310 health workers engaged in seven urban health centers in Taegu City area. A questionnaire method was used to collect data and response rate was 81.3 percent or 252 respondents. The following are summaries of findings: Profiles of study population: Health workers were predominantly female(62.3%); had college education(60.3%); and held medical and nursing positions(39.6%), technicians(30.6%) and public health/administrative positions(29.8%). Perceptions on health center's resources: Slightly more than a half(51.1%) of respondents expressed that physical facilities of the centers are inadequate; equipments needed are short(39.0%); human resource is inadequate(44.8%); and health budget allocated is insufficient(38.5%) to support the performance of health center's activities. Decentralization and health services: The majority revealed that the decentralization of government system would affect the future activities of health centers(51.9%) which may have to change. However, only one quarter of respondents(25.4%) seemed to view the decentralization positively as they expect that it would help perform health activities more effectively. The majority of the respondents(78.6%) insisted that the function and organization of the urban health centers should be changed. Target workload and job satisfaction: A large proportion (43.3%) of respondents felt that present target setting systems for various health activities are unrealistic in terms of community needs and health center's situation while only 11.1 percent responded it positively; the majority(57.5%) revealed that they need further training in professional fields to perform their job more effectively; more than one third(35.7%) expressed that they enjoy their professional autonomy in their job performance; and a considerable proportion (39.3%) said they are satisfied with their present work. Regarding the personnel management, more worker(47.3%) perceived it negatively than positive(11.5%) as most of workers seemed to think the personnel management practiced at the health centers is not fair or justly done. Health services rendered: Among health services rendered, health workers perceived the following services are most successfully delivered; they are, in order of importance, Tb control, curative services, and maternal and child health care. Such areas as health education, oral health, environmental sanitation, and integrated health services are needed to be strengthening. Regarding the community attitudes towards health workers, 41.3 percent of respondents think they are trusted by the community they serve. New areas of concern identified which must be included in future activities of health centers are, in order of priority, health care of elderly population, home health care, rehabilitation services, and such chronic diseases control programs as diabetes, hypertension, school health and mental health care. In conclusion, the study revealed that health workers seemed to have more negative perceptions and attitudes than positive ones towards organization and management of health services and activities performed by the urban health centers where they are engaged. More specifically, the majority of health workers studied revealed to have the following areas of health center's organization and management inadequate or insufficient to support effective performance of their health activities: Namely, physical facilities and equipments required are inadequate; human and financial resources are insufficient; personnel management is unsatisfactory; setting of service target system is unrealistic in terms of the community needs. However, respondents displayed a number of positive perceptions, particularly to those areas as further training needs and implementation of decentralization of government system which will bring more autonomy of local government as they perceived these change would bring the necessary changes to future activities of the health center. They also displayed positive perceptions in their job autonomy and have job satisfactions.

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The Characteristics of Rural Population, Korea, 1960~1995: Population Composition and Internal Migration (농촌인구의 특성과 그 변화, 1960~1995: 인구구성 및 인구이동)

  • 김태헌
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.77-105
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    • 1996
  • The rural problems which we are facing start from the extremely small sized population and the skewed population structure by age and sex. Thus we analyzed the change of the rural population. And we analyzed the recent return migration to the rural areas by comparing the recent in-migrants with out-migrants to rural areas. And by analyzing the rural village survey data which was to show the current characteristics of rural population, we found out the effects of the in-migrants to the rural areas and predicted the futures of rural villages by characteristics. The changes of rural population composition by age was very clear. As the out-migrants towards cities carried on, the population composition of young children aged 0~4 years was low and the aged became thick. The proportion of the population aged 0~4 years was 45.1% of the total population in 1970 and dropped down to 20.4% in 1995, which is predicted to become under 20% from now on. In the same period(1970~1995), the population aged 65 years and over rose from 4.2% to 11.9%. In 1960, before industrialization, the proportion of the population aged 0~4 years in rural areas was higher than that of cities. As the rural young population continuously moves to cities it became lower than that in urban areas from 1975 and the gap grew till 1990. But the proportion of rural population aged 0~4 years in 1995 became 6.2% and the gap reduced. We can say this is the change of the characteristics of in-migrants and out-migrants in the rural areas. Also considering the composition of the population by age group moving from urban to rural area in the late 1980s, 51.8% of the total migrants concentrates upon age group of 20~34 years and these people's educational level was higher than that of out-migrants to urban areas. This fact predicted the changes of the rural population, and the results will turn out as a change in the rural society. However, after comparing the population structure between the pure rural village of Boeun-gun and suburban village of Paju-gun which was agriculture centered village but recently changed rapidly, the recent change of the rural population structure which the in-migrants to rural areas becomes younger is just a phenomenon in the suburban rural areas, not the change of the total rural areas in general. From the characteristics of the population structure of rural village from the field survey on these villages, we can see that in the pure rural villages without any effects from cities the regidents are highly aged, while industrialization and urbanization are making a progress in suburban villages. Therefore, the recent partial change of the rural population structure and the change of characteristics of the in-migrants toward rural areas is effecting and being effected by the population change of areas like suburban rural villages. Although there are return migrants to rural areas to change their jobs into agriculture, this is too minor to appear as a statistic effect.

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FAMILY DYNAMICS OF INCEST PERCEIVED BY ADOLESECENTS (청소년이 지각한 근친상간의 가족역동)

  • Kim, Hun-Soo;Shin, Hwa-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.56-64
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    • 1995
  • Family is a primary unit of the major socialization processing for children. Parents among the family members are one of the most important figures from whom the child and adolescent acquire a wide variety of behavior patterns, attitudes, values and norms. An organization of family members product family structural functioning. Abnormal family structure is one of the most important reference models in the learning of antisocial patterns of behavior. Therefore incest and child sexual abuse including spouse abuse, elderly abuse, and neglect occurs in the abnormal family structural setting. In particular, incest, a specific form of sexual abuse, was once thought to be a phenomenon of great rarity, but our clinical experiences, especially over the past decade, have made us aware that incest and child sexual abuse is not rare case and on the increasing trend. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the family problem and dynamics of incest family, and character pattern of post-incest adolescent victim in Korea. A total of 1,838 adolescents from middle and high school(1,237) and juvenile correctional institute(601) were studied, sampled from Korean student population and adolescent delinquent population confined in juvenile correctional institutes, using proportional stratified random sampling method. The subjects' ages ranged from 12 to 21 years. Data were collected through questionnaire survey. Data analysis was done by IBM PC of Behavior Science Center at the Korea university, using SAS program. Statistical methods employed were Chi-square, principal component analysis and t-test etc. The results of this study were as follows ; 1) Of 1,071 subjects, 40(3.7%) reported incest experiences(sibling incest : 1.6% ; another type of incest : 2.1%) in their family setting. 2) The character pattern of post-incest adolescent victim was more socially maladjusted, immature, impulsive, rigid, anxious and dependent than non-incest adolescent. Also they showed some problem in academic performance and their assertiveness. 3) The other family members of incest family revealed more psychological and behavioral problem such as depression, alcoholism, psychotic disorder and criminal act than the non-incest family, even though there is no evidence of the context between them. 4) The family dynamics of incest family tended to be dysfunctional trend, as compared with non-incest family. It showed that the psychological instability of family member, parental rejection toward their children, coldness and indifference among family member and marital discordance between the parents had significant correlation with incest.

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A Statistical model to Predict soil Temperature by Combining the Yearly Oscillation Fourier Expansion and Meteorological Factors (연주기(年週期) Fourier 함수(函數)와 기상요소(氣象要素)에 의(依)한 지온예측(地溫豫測) 통계(統計) 모형(模型))

  • Jung, Yeong-Sang;Lee, Byun-Woo;Kim, Byung-Chang;Lee, Yang-Soo;Um, Ki-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 1990
  • A statistical model to predict soil temperature from the ambient meteorological factors including mean, maximum and minimum air temperatures, precipitation, wind speed and snow depth combined with Fourier time series expansion was developed with the data measured at the Suwon Meteorolical Service from 1979 to 1988. The stepwise elimination technique was used for statistical analysis. For the yearly oscillation model for soil temperature with 8 terms of Fourier expansion, the mean square error was decreased with soil depth showing 2.30 for the surface temperature, and 1.34-0.42 for 5 to 500-cm soil temperatures. The $r^2$ ranged from 0.913 to 0.988. The number of lag days of air temperature by remainder analysis was 0 day for the soil surface temperature, -1 day for 5 to 30-cm soil temperature, and -2 days for 50-cm soil temperature. The number of lag days for precipitaion, snow depth and wind speed was -1 day for the 0 to 10-cm soil temperatures, and -2 to -3 days for the 30 to 50-cm soil teperatures. For the statistical soil temperature prediction model combined with the yearly oscillation terms and meteorological factors as remainder terms considering the lag days obtained above, the mean square error was 1.64 for the soil surfac temperature, and ranged 1.34-0.42 for 5 to 500cm soil temperatures. The model test with 1978 data independent to model development resulted in good agreement with $r^2$ ranged 0.976 to 0.996. The magnitudes of coeffcicients implied that the soil depth where daily meteorological variables night affect soil temperature was 30 to 50 cm. In the models, solar radiation was not included as a independent variable ; however, in a seperated analysis on relationship between the difference(${\Delta}Tmxs$) of the maximum soil temperature and the maximum air temperature and solar radiation(Rs ; $J\;m^{-2}$) under a corn canopy showed linear relationship as $${\Delta}Tmxs=0.902+1.924{\times}10^{-3}$$ Rs for leaf area index lower than 2 $${\Delta}Tmxs=0.274+8.881{\times}10^{-4}$$ Rs for leaf area index higher than 2.

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