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On The Towing Speed and Warp Tension of the Stern Trawler in the Atlantic Coast of Africa (대서양 아프리카 연안 트로올의 예망속도와 끌줄의 장력에 관하여)

  • 김진건
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 1977
  • The author operated with a six seam trawl net by the stern trawler, No. 85 Parto, 499 GT, 2,200ps, in the Atlantic coast of Africa, from June, 1975 to October, 1977. In the term, towing speed and warp tension were determined, and trawling condition was observed. 1. The condition of trawling was good when the tension was less than 7.5ton. 2. 290 RPM, $13.5^{\circ}\;to\;13.8^{\circ}$ of pitch angle, and 3.5 to 4 knots of towing speed was considered as optimum for the trawler in the relation to the engine condition.

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A Study on the Midwater pair Trawling-III (쌍끌이 중층트롤어업의 연구 ( III ) - 끌줄의 예망장력에 관하여 - ( A Study on the Midwater Pair Trawling ( III ) ))

  • Jang, Choong-Sik;Lee, Byoug-Gee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1996
  • Towing tension of the model nets were determined by the load cell(O~20kg, 20DBBP) in front of W$T_mA$ = 1.57 . $V^1.86$ (unit: kg, mlsec) $T_mB$= 1.58 . $V^1.90$ 2. The towing tension of the full scale net was almost coincided with the results obtained by the model experiment. The towing tension(T) can be expressed as a function of the towing veJocity(V) as T=479$V^1.75$(unit: kg, k't)

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Depth Control and Sweeping Depth Stability of the Midwater Trawl (중층트롤의 깊이바꿈과 소해심도의 안정성)

  • 장지원
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.1-18
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    • 1973
  • For regulating the depth of midwater trawl nets towed at the optimum constant speed, the changes in the shape of warps caused by adding a weight on an arbitrary point of the warp of catenary shape is studied. The shape of a warp may be approximated by a catenary. The resultant inferences under this assumption were experimented. Accordingly feasibilities for the application of the result of this study to the midwater trawl nets were also discussed. A series of experiments for basic midwater trawl gear models in water tank and a couple of experiments of a commercial scale gears at sea which involve the properly designed depth control devices having a variable attitude horizontal wing were carried out. The results are summarized as follows: 1. According to the dimension analysis the depth y of a midwater trawl net is introduced by $$y=kLf(\frac{W_r}{R_r},\;\frac{W_o}{R_o},\;\frac{W_n}{R_n})$$) where k is a constant, L the warp length, f the function, and $W_r,\;W_o$ and $W_n$ the apparent weights of warp, otter board and the net, respectively, 2. When a boat is towing a body of apparent weight $W_n$ and its drag $D_n$ by means of a warp whose length L and apparent weight $W_r$ per unit length, the depth y of the body is given by the following equation, provided that the shape of a warp is a catenary and drag of the warp is neglected in comparison with the drag of the body: $$y=\frac{1}{W_r}\{\sqrt{{D_n^2}+{(W_n+W_rL)^2}}-\sqrt{{D_n^2+W_n}^2\}$$ 3. The changes ${\Delta}y$ of the depth of the midwater trawl net caused by changing the warp length or adding a weight ${\Delta}W_n$_n to the net, are given by the following equations: $${\Delta}y{\approx}\frac{W_n+W_{r}L}{\sqrt{D_n^2+(W_n+W_{r}L)^2}}{\Delta}L$$ $${\Delta}y{\approx}\frac{1}{W_r}\{\frac{W_n+W_rL}{\sqrt{D_n^2+(W_n+W_{r}L)^2}}-{\frac{W_n}{\sqrt{D_n^2+W_n^2}}\}{\Delta}W_n$$ 4. A change ${\Delta}y$ of the depth of the midwater trawl net by adding a weight $W_s$ to an arbitrary point of the warp takes an equation of the form $${\Delta}y=\frac{1}{W_r}\{(T_{ur}'-T_{ur})-T_u'-T_u)\}$$ Where $$T_{ur}^l=\sqrt{T_u^2+(W_s+W_{r}L)^2+2T_u(W_s+W_{r}L)sin{\theta}_u$$ $$T_{ur}=\sqrt{T_u^2+(W_{r}L)^2+2T_uW_{r}L\;sin{\theta}_u$$ $$T_{u}^l=\sqrt{T_u^2+W_s^2+2T_uW_{s}\;sin{\theta}_u$$ and $T_u$ represents the tension at the point on the warp, ${\theta}_u$ the angle between the direction of $T_u$ and horizontal axis, $T_u^2$ the tension at that point when a weights $W_s$ adds to the point where $T_u$ is acted on. 5. If otter boards were constructed lighter and adequate weights were added at their bottom to stabilize them, even they were the same shapes as those of bottom trawls, they were definitely applicable to the midwater trawl gears as the result of the experiments. 6. As the results of water tank tests the relationship between net height of H cm velocity of v m/sec, and that between hydrodynamic resistance of R kg and the velocity of a model net as shown in figure 6 are respectively given by $$H=8+\frac{10}{0.4+v}$$ $$R=3+9v^2$$ 7. It was found that the cross-wing type depth control devices were more stable in operation than that of the H-wing type as the results of the experiments at sea. 8. The hydrodynamic resistance of the net gear in midwater trawling is so large, and regarded as nearly the drag, that sweeping depth of the gear was very stable in spite of types of the depth control devices. 9. An area of the horizontal wing of the H-wing type depth control device was $1.2{\times}2.4m^2$. A midwater trawl net of 2 ton hydrodynamic resistance was connected to the devices and towed with the velocity of 2.3 kts. Under these conditions the depth change of about 20m of the trawl net was obtained by controlling an angle or attack of $30^{\circ}$.

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A study on the static stability of the otter board in relation to the angle of attack (영각의 변화에 대한 전개판의 정적 안정성 연구)

  • Park, Chang-Doo;An, Heui-Chun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.234-240
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    • 2002
  • The static stability of the otter board in relation to the angle of attack ($\alpha$) was studied analytically and experimentally from the moments of tensions and hydrodynamic force acting on it. Three flat plates of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 aspect ratios (λ) and four cambered plates of 5, 10, 15, and 20% camber ratios (CR) with the same aspect ratio (λ=1.5) were tested in a circulating water tank for measuring the hydrodynamic forces and moments relevant to the position of hydrodynamic center. And, center-of-pressure coefficients ($C_p$) and moment coefficients ($C_M$) of each plate as a function of the angle of attack were calculated for estimating the static stability from hydrodynamic forces. The obtained results are summarized as follows ; 1. When the angle of attack for otter board is changed from equilibrium for some reason, moments depending upon tensions of warp and sweep line always act in order to have the static stability, respectively. 2. Position of center-of-pressure of each flat plate moves from leading edge to center of plate with the increase of the angle of attack. It means that the moment of hydrodynamic force acting on flat plates also increases the static stability of plate. 3. With the increase of the angle of attack for cambered plates, the positions of center of-pressure move from trailing to leading edge, and then turn toward center of plate. As the camber ratios increase, the ranges of the angle of attack of the static un stability depending on moment of hydrodynamic force become wide.

The Opening Efficiency of Anchovy Boat Seine (권현망어구의 전개성능)

  • An, Yeong-Su;Jang, Chung-Sik;Lee, Ju-Hui
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.118-131
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    • 1997
  • An opening efficiency experiment of anchovy boat seine has been carried out using a half size of the ordinary seine to reduce the size of the seine net and to improve the fishing efficiency from field operation. The intervals of towing boats were set at 100, 200 and 300m, and the towing speed, at 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2k't by possible combinations of them. The vertical openings of wing net, inside wing net, bagnet and flapper as well as the spreads of the seine net and the towing tension of the warp were measured, to find out efficient fishing gear and method of the anchovy boat seine. The results obtained are as follows : 1. The vertical opening of the inside wing net ranged from 8.7m to 12.0m at the normal current and from 7.0m to 10.0m at the counter current, and that of the wing net, from 8.4m to 19.8m at the normal current and from 4.9m to 16.3m at the counter current. The vertical opening of the wing net and inside wing net decreased as the towing speed and intervals of the boats increase, from 66% to 16% and from 32% to 18% of the normal opening, respectively. 2. The vertical opening of the fore of bag net ranged from 7.9m to 12.8m at the normal current and from 7.4m to 9.7m at the counter current, and that of the flapper, from 3.4m to 5.1m at the normal current and from 4.4m to 5.1m at the counter current, and that of the flapper, from 3.4m to 5.1m at the normal current and from 4.4m to 5.1m at the counter current. The vertical opening of the bag net was from 98% to 57% of the normal opening and the flapper showed a circular shape and it rose up to the upper layer with a slower towing speed. 3. The vertical opening of the end of the bag net ranged from 7.1m to 9.3m at the normal current and from 7.4m to 8.8m at the counter current. The end of the bag net rose up to the upper layer, This phenomenon was more apparent as the towing speed and the interval of the boats increase. 4. The towing tension of the experimental nets increased from 648kg to 2,716kg at the normal current and from 1,050kg to 6,010kg at the counter current with increasing towing speed. 5. The net depth of the anchovy seine was stable with the higher towing speed and the wider interval of the boats, but it was unstable by rising up to the upper layer with the lower towing speed and the narrower interval of towing boats.

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On the motion characteristics of small trawler in trawling job and sailing (소형 트롤 어선의 예망과 항해중의 동요특성)

  • Kang, Il-Kwon;Kim, Hyung-Seok;Kim, Jung-Chang;Kim, Min-Seok;Jo, Hyo-Jae;Lee, Chun-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.311-318
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    • 2004
  • It is very important for the safe navigation and fishing operation to ensure the hull response of a fishing vessel in rough seas. This is an experimental study on the dynamical characteristics of ship's motion during operating job and sailing in the real sea. The experiments were carried out on the small stern trawler in operating job and sailing, and then the ship's roll and pitch motion were simultaneously recorded by P/C according to the wave directions. From these data, the statistical properties and power spectra were obtained and the analysis of ship's motions in the both case were made. The results obtained are summarized follows : (1) The amplitudes of pitch motion don't appear a big different between trawl job and sailing, but at bow seas, its in sailing have a tendency to increase more than in trawl job. The amplitudes of roll motion appear a bog different between trawl job and sailing, but at beam sea, that slightly decreasing tendency. (2) The peak period of pitch motion in trawl job and sailing change, but that of roll motion don't change according to the direction of waves. (3) The warp tention cause the motion of hull to be reduce, if the tention of each side have a ballance.

Analysis of the Net Mouth Shape for a Midwater Trawl Gear (중층 트롤 어구의 망구 형상 해석)

  • 김인진;이춘우
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.118-128
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    • 1999
  • The shape of the net mouth in a midwater trawl gear is examined by measuring towing speed, gear resistance, the width of otter boards, net height, and so on of a full-scale gear in operation. In addition, a mathematical model is developed to predict shapes of the net mouth. In the model, shapes of head, ground, side ropes, which governs the shape of net mouth, are assumed as a catenary. The validity of the model is tested with observations. The results can be summarized as follows: 1. The warp tension and vertical opening of the gear is highly dependent to the towing speed. The depth of the gear and width of otter boards are very sensitive to the variations of the warp length. 2. The model results indicate that the wing tip of the head and side ropes is reduced and the vertical distances of the head and side ropes sagged to the back with increasing towing speed. 3. The results of comparing the measured net height with calculated side rope height were satisfying. 4. The results of analysis showed the vertical axis of the net mouth was decreased and the width of the net mouth was little changed when the towing speed increased.

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