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Lee Ungno (1904-1989)'s Theory of Painting and Art Informel Perception in the 1950s (이응노(1904~1989)의 회화론과 1950년대 앵포르멜 미술에 대한 인식)

  • Lee, Janghoon
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.172-195
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    • 2019
  • Among the paintings of Goam Lee Ungno (1904-1989), his works of the 1960s in Paris have been evaluated as his most avant-garde works of experimenting with and innovating objects as an artist. At that time, his works, such as Papier Colle and Abstract Letter, were influenced by abstract expressionism and Western Art Informel, illustrating his transformation from a traditional artist into a contemporary artist. An exhibition, which was held prior to his going to Paris in March 1958, has received attention because it exhibited the painting style of his early Informel art. Taking this into consideration, this study was conducted by interpreting his work from two perspectives; first, that his works of 1958 were influenced by abstract expressionism and Art Informel, and, second, that he expressed Xieyi (寫意) as literati painting, focusing on the fact that Lee Ungno first started his career adopting this style. In this paper, I aimed to confirm Lee Ungno's recognition of Art Informel and abstract painting, which can be called abstract expressionism. To achieve this, it was necessary to study Lee's painting theory at that time, so I first considered Hae-gang Kim Gyu-jin whom Lee Ungno began studying painting under, and his paintings during his time in Japan. It was confirmed that in order to escape from stereotypical paintings, deep contemplation of nature while painting was his first important principle. This principle, also known as Xieyi (寫意), lasted until the 1950s. In addition, it is highly probable that he understood the dictionary definition of abstract painting, i.e., the meaning of extracting shapes from nature according to the ideas which became important to him after studying in Japan, rather than the theory of abstract painting realized in Western paintings. Lee Ungno himself also stated that the shape of nature was the basis of abstract painting. In other words, abstractive painting and abstract painting are different concepts and based on this, it is necessary to analyze the paintings of Lee Ungno. Finally, I questioned the view that Lee Ungno's abstract paintings of the 1950s were painted as representative of the Xieyi (寫意) mind of literary art painting. Linking traditional literary art painting theory directly to Lee Ungno, who had been active in other worlds in space and time, may minimize Lee Ungno's individuality and make the distinction between traditional paintings and contemporary paintings obscure. Lee Ungno emphasized Xieyi (寫意) in his paintings; however, this might have been an emphasis signifying a great proposition. This is actually because his works produced in the 1950s, such as Self-Portrait (1956), featured painting styles with boldly distorted forms achieved by strong ink brushwork, a style which Lee Ungno defined as 'North Painting.' This is based on the view that it is necessary to distinguish between Xieyi (寫意) and 'the way of Xieyi (寫意) painting' as an important aspect of literary art painting. Therefore, his paintings need a new interpretation in consideration of the viewpoint that he represented abstract paintings according to his own Xieyi (寫意) way, rather than the view that his paintings were representations of Xieyi (寫意), or rather a succession of traditional paintings in the literary artist's style.

Carbon Stocks of Tree, Forest Floor, and Mineral Soil in Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa Stands (삼나무와 편백 임분의 임목, 임상, 토양의 탄소량 비교)

  • Kim, Choonsig;Baek, Gyeongwon;Choi, Byeonggil;Ha, Jiseok;Bae, Eun Ji;Lee, Kwang-Soo;Son, Yeong Mo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.109 no.2
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    • pp.169-178
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    • 2020
  • This study aimed to compare the organic carbon stocks of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa stands established under a similar-site environmental condition in South Korea. C. japonica and C. obtusa stands adjacent to each other from 13 representative regions were chosen to evaluate the carbon stocks of tree biomass, forest floor, and mineral soils. Mean stand ages were 45 years for C. japonica and 43 years for C. obtusa, respectively. Tree density was significantly lower in C. japonica (989 tree ha-1) than in C. obtusa (1,223 tree ha-1) stands, whereas diameter at breast height and dominant tree height values were significantly higher in C. japonica (27.4 cm and 20.4 m, respectively), compared with C. obtusa (23.9 cm and 17.9 m, respectively) stands. The total carbon stocks of tree biomass were linearly related with stand basal area (C. japonica: r2 = 0.82; C. obtusa: r2= 0.92; P< 0.05), whereas stand density and site index were not correlated with the carbon stocks of tree biomass (P > 0.05). The carbon stocks of aboveground tree biomass were significantly higher in C. obtusa (117.7 Mg C ha-1), compared with C. japonica (95.5 Mg C ha-1) stands, whereas carbon concentration and stocks of the forest floor and mineral soil layers were insignificantly different between the C. japonica and C. obtusa stands. The results indicated that trees in C. obtusa stands sequestrated more carbon dioxide, compared with C. japonica stands, whereas carbon stocks in the forest floor and mineral soil layers were unaffected by stand development processes of the different tree species.

A study on the CRM strategy for medium and small industry of distribution (중소유통업체의 CRM 도입방안에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Gi-Pyoung
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.37-47
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    • 2010
  • CRM refers to the operating activities that always maintain and promote good relationship with customers to ultimately maximize the company's profits by understanding the value of customers to meet their demands, establishing a strategy which may maximize the Life Time Value and successfully operating the business by integrating the customer management processes. In our country, many big businesses are introducing CRM initiatively to use it in marketing strategy however, most medium and small sized companies do not understand CRM clearly or they feel difficult to introduce it due to huge investment needed. This study is intended to present CRM promotion strategy and activities plan fit for the medium and small sized companies by analyzing the success factors of the leading companies those have already executed CRM by surveying the precedents to make the distributors out of the industries have close relation with consumers to overcome their weakness in scale and strengthen their competitiveness in such a rapidly changing and fiercely competing market. There are 5 stages to build CRM such as the recognition of the needs of CRM establishment, the establishment of CRM integrated database, the establishment of customer analysis and marketing strategy through data mining, the practical use of customer analysis through data mining and the implementation of response analysis and close loop process. Through the case study of leading companies, CRM is needed in types of businesses where the companies constantly contact their customers. To meet their needs, they assertively analyze their customer information. Through this, they develop their own CRM programs personalized for their customers to provide high quality service products. For customers helping them make profits, the VIP marketing strategy is conducted to keep the customers from breaking their relationships with the companies. Through continuous management, CRM should be executed. In other words, through customer segmentation, the profitability for the customers should be maximized. The maximization of the profitability for the customers is the key to CRM. These are the success factors of the CRM of the distributors in Korea. Firstly, the top management's will power for CS management is needed. Secondly, the culture across the company should be made to respect the customers. Thirdly, specialized customer management and CRM workers should be trained. Fourthly, CRM behaviors should be developed for the whole staff members. Fifthly, CRM should be carried out through systematic cooperation between related departments. To make use of the case study for CRM, the company should understand the customer and establish customer management programs to set the optimal CRM strategy and continuously pursue it according to a long-term plan. For this, according to collected information and customer data, customers should be segmented and the responsive customer system should be designed according to the differentiated strategy according to the class of the customers. In terms of the future CRM, integrated CRM is essential where the customer information gathers together in one place. As the degree of customers' expectation increases a lot, the effective way to meet the customers' expectation should be pursued. As the IT technology improved rapidly, RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) appears. On a real-time basis, information about products and customers is obtained massively in a very short time. A strategy for successful CRM promotion should be improving the organizations in charge of contacting customers, re-planning the customer management processes and establishing the integrated system with the marketing strategy to keep good relation with the customers according to a long-term plan and a proper method suitable to the market conditions and run a company-wide program. In addition, a CRM program should be continuously improved and complemented to meet the company's characteristics. Especially, a strategy for successful CRM for the medium and small sized distributors should be as follows. First, they should change their existing recognition in CRM and keep in-depth care for the customers. Second, they should benchmark the techniques of CRM from the leading companies and find out success points to use. Third, they should seek some methods best suited for their particular conditions by achieving the ideas combining their own strong points with marketing. Fourth, a CRM model should be developed that will promote relationship with individual customers just like the precedents of small sized businesses in Switzerland through small but noticeable events.

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Development for Fishing Gear and Method of the Non-Float Midwater Pair Trawl Net (II) - Opening Efficiency of the Model Net according to Front Weight and Wing-end Weight - (무부자 쌍끌이 중층망 어구어법의 개발 (II) - 추와 날개끝 추의 무게에 따른 모형어구의 전개성능 -)

  • 유제범;이주희;이춘우;권병국;김정문
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.189-196
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    • 2003
  • In this study, the vertical opening of the non-float midwater pair trawl net was maintained by controlling the length of upper warp. This was because the head rope was able to be kept linearly and the working depth was not nearly as changed with the variation of flow speed as former experiments in this series of studies have demonstrated. We confirmed that the opening efficiency of the non-float midwater pair trawl net was able to be developed according to the increase in front weight and wing-end weight. In this study, we described the opening efficiency of the non-float midwater pair trawl net according to the variation of front weight and wing-end weight obtained by model experiment in circulation water channel. We compared the opening efficiency of the proto type with that of the non-float type. The results obtained can be summarized as follows:1. The hydrodynamic resistance was almost increased linearly in proportion to the flow speed and was increased in accordance with the increase in front weight and wing-end weight. The increasing rate of hydrodynamic resistance was displayed as an increasing tendency in accordance with the increase in flow speed. 2. The net height of the non-float type was almost decreased linearly in accordance with the increase in flow speed. As the reduced rate of the net height of the non-float type was smaller than that of the net height of the proto type against increase of flow speed, the net height of the non-float type was bigger than that of the proto type over 4.0 knot. The net width of the non-float type was about 10 m bigger than that of the proto type and the change rate of net width varied by no more than 2 m according to the variation of the front weight and wing-end weight. 3. The mouth area of the non-float type was maximized at 1.75 ton of the front weight and 1.11 ton of the wing-end weight, and was smaller than that of the proto type at 2.0∼3.0 knot, but was bigger than that of the proto type at 4.0∼5.0 knot. 4. The filtering volume was maximized at 3.0 knot in the proto type and at 4.0 knot in the non-float type. The optimal front weight was 1.40 ton.

Validity of Clinically Used Tray Transmission Factor (임상적으로 쓰이는 차폐선반투과율의 타당성에 관한 연구)

  • 윤형근
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.218-224
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    • 2003
  • Purpose:By evaluating the dependence of the tray transmission factor (tray factor) on collimator setting and tray thickness, we determined the validity of the clinically used single tray factor for standard radiation field size (10${\times}$10 $\textrm{cm}^2$). Methods and Materials:For each X ray energies (6 and 10 MV), outputs were measured by using 5 steps of tray thickness (0, 6, 8, 10, 12 mm) and 7 steps of radiation field size (5${\times}$5, 10${\times}$10, 15${\times}$15, 20${\times}$20, 25${\times}$25, 30${\times}$30, 35${\times}$35 $\textrm{cm}^2$) at 10 cm phantom depth. Outputs were measured in both 'with tray' and 'without tray' conditions by using radiation with the same monitor units, and the tray factors were determined by the ratios of the two outputs. To evaluate the validity of a single tray factor obtained for standard radiation field, we analyzed the pattern of the field sizes in cases treated at our hospital in 2002. Results : In the 6 MV X-ray, the increases in the tray factor between the standard field (l0${\times}$10 $\textrm{cm}^2$) and the largest field (35${\times}$35 $\textrm{cm}^2$) were 0.517%, 0.835%, 1.058%, 1.066% in 6, 8, 10, and 12 mm thickness tray, respectively. In the 10 MV X-ray, the increases in the fray factor between the standard field (10${\times}$10 $\textrm{cm}^2$) and the largest field (35${\times}$35 $\textrm{cm}^2$) were 0.517%, 0.836%, 1.058%, 1.066% in 6, 8, 10, 12 mm thickness tray, respectively. In a major portion of clinical cases, when the field size was smaller than 20${\times}$20 $\textrm{cm}^2$, the tray factor was in good agreement with the standard tray factor. However, in cases where the field sizes were 30${\times}$30 $\textrm{cm}^2$ and 35${\times}$35 $\textrm{cm}^2$, the error could exceed 1.0%. Conclusion:The tray factor increased with increasing field size or decreasing tray thickness. The difference of tray factor between the small field and the large field increased with increasing tray thickness. Furthermore, the standard tray factor was valid in most clinical cases except for when the field size was greater than 30${\times}$30 $\textrm{cm}^2$, wherein the error could exceed 1.0%.

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Validity and Pertinence of Administrative Capital City Proposal (행정수도 건설안의 타당성과 시의성)

  • 김형국
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.312-323
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    • 2003
  • This writer absolutely agrees with the government that regional disequilibrium is severe enough to consider moving the administrative capital. Pursuing this course solely to establish a balanced development, however, is not a convincing enough reason. The capital city is directly related to not only the social and economic situation but, much more importantly, to the domestic political situation as well. In the mid-1970s, the proposal by the Third Republic to move the capital city temporarily was based completely on security reasons. At e time, the then opposition leader Kim, Dae-jung said that establishing a safe distance from the demilitarized zone(DMZ) reflected a typically military decision. His view was that retaining the capital city close to the DMZ would show more consideration for the will of the people to defend their own country. In fact, independent Pakistan moved its capital city from Karachi to Islamabad, situated dose to Kashmir the subject of hot territorial dispute with India. It is regrettable that no consideration has been given to the urgent political situation in the Korean peninsula, which is presently enveloped in a dense nuclear fog. As a person requires health to pursue his/her dream, a country must have security to implement a balanced territorial development. According to current urban theories, the fate of a country depends on its major cities. A negligently guarded capital city runs the risk of becoming hostage and bringing ruin to the whole country. In this vein, North Koreas undoubted main target of attack in the armed communist reunification of Korea is Seoul. For the preservation of our state, therefore, it is only right that Seoul must be shielded to prevent becoming hostage to North Korea. The location of the US Armed Forces to the north of the capital city is based on the judgment that defense of Seoul is of absolute importance. At the same time, regardless of their different standpoints, South and North Korea agree that division of the Korean people into two separate countries is abnormal. Reunification, which so far has defied all predictions, may be realized earlier than anyone expects. The day of reunification seems to be the best day for the relocation of the capital city. Building a proper capital city would take at least twenty years, and a capital city cannot be dragged from one place to another. On the day of a free and democratic reunification, a national agreement will be reached naturally to find a nationally symbolic city as in Brazil or Australia. Even if security does not pose a problem, the governments way of thinking would not greatly contribute to the balanced development of the country. The Chungcheon region, which is earmarked as the new location of the capital city, has been the greatest beneficiary of its proximity to the capital region. Not being a disadvantaged region, locating the capital city there would not help alleviate regional disparity. If it is absolutely necessary to find a candidate region at present, considering security, balanced regional development and post-reunification scenario of the future, Cheolwon area located in the middle of the Korean peninsula may be a plausible choice. Even if the transfer of capital is delayed in consideration of the present political conflict between the South and the North Koreas, there is a definite shortcut to realizing a balanced regional development. It can be found not in the geographical dispersal of the central government, but in the decentralization of power to the provinces. If the government has surplus money to build a new symbolic capital city, it is only right that it should improve, for instance, the quality of drinking water which now everyone eschews, and to help the regional subway authority whose chronic deficit state resoled in a recent disastrous accident. And it is proper to time the transfer of capital city to coincide with that of the reunification of Korea whenever Providence intends.

The Morphology, Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Red-Yellow Soils in Korea (우리나라 전토양(田土壤)의 특성(特性) (저구릉(低丘陵), 산록(山麓) 및 대지(臺地)에 분포(分布)된 적황색토(赤黃色土)를 중심(中心)으로))

  • Shin, Yong Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.35-52
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    • 1973
  • Red Yellow Soils occur very commonly in Korea and constitute the important upland soils of the country which are either presently being cultivated or are suitable for reclaiming and cultivating. These soils are distributed on rolling, moutain foot slopes, and terraces in the southern and western parts of the central districts of Korea, and are derived from granite, granite gneiss, old alluvium and locally from limestone and shale. This report is a summary of the morphology, physical and chemical characteristics of Red Yellow Soils. The data obtained from detailed soil surveys since 1964 are summarized as follows. 1. Red-Yellows Soils have an A, Bt, C profile. The A horizon is dark colored coarse loamy or fine loamy with the thin layer of organic matter. The B horizon is dominantly strong brown, reddish brown or yellowish red, clayey or fine loamy with clay cutans on the soil peds. The C horizon varies with parent materials, and is coarser texture and has a less developed structure than the Bt horizon. Soil depth, varied with relief and parent materials, is predominantly around 100cm. 2. In the physical characteristics, the clay content of surface soil is 18 to 35 percent, and of subsoil is 30 to 90 percent nearly two times higher than the surface soil. Bulk density is 1.2 to 1.3 in the surface soil and 1.3 to 1.5 in the subsoil. The range of 3-phase is mostly narrow with 45 to 50 percent in solid phase, 30 to 45 percent in liquid one, and 5 to 25 percent in gaseous state in the surface soil; and 50 to 60 solid, 35 to 45 percent liquid and less than 15 percent gaseous in the subsoil. Available soil moisture capacity ranges from 10 to 23 percent in the surface soil, and 5 to 16 percent in the subsoil. 3. Chemically, soil reaction is neutral to alkaline in soils derived from limestone or old fluviomarine deposits, and acid to strong acid in other ones. The organic matter content of surface soil varying considerably with vegetation, erosion and cultivation, ranges from 1.0 to 5.0 percent. The cation exchange capacity is 5 to 40 me/100gr soil and closely related to the content of organic matter, clay and silt. Base saturation is low, on the whole, due to the leaching of extractable cations, but is high in soils derived from limestone with high content of lime and magnesium. 4. Most of these soils mainly contain halloysite (a part of kaolin minerals), vermiculite (weathered mica), and illite, including small amount of chlorite, gibbsite, hematite, quartz and feldspar. 5. Characteristically they are similar to Red Yellow Podzolic Soils and a part of Reddish Brown Lateritic Soils of the United States, and Red Yellow Soils of Japan. According to USDA 7th Approximation, they can be classified as Udu Its or Udalfs, and in FAO classification system to Acrisols, Luvisols, and Nitosols.

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Utilization of Phosphorus and Nitrogen Fertilizers by Paddy Rice -A six years internationally coordinated study using isotopes- (수도(水稻)에 대(對)한 인산(燐酸) 및 질소질비료(窒素質肥料)의 효용에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -동위원소(同位元素)를 이용(利用)한 6 개년간(個年間)의 국제적(國際的) 공동시험결과(共同試驗結果)-)

  • Kim, H.S.;Cho, B.H.;Lee, C.Y.;Lee, E.W.;Shim, S.C.;Yoo, S.H.;Kwon, Y.W.;Jo, J.S.
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.13-26
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    • 1968
  • To establish the most efficient method of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization in paddy rice a series of internationally coordinated research using $N^{15}\;P^{32}$ isotopes were carried out from the year 1962 through 1967, supervised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Agriculture under the auspicies of FAO, UN. In Korea College of Agriculture, Seoul National University had been participated in the Coordinated Research Programme from the year 1963 through the last year, arid the results obtained through the six years' researches are summarized as follows: 1. In the application of superphosphate broadcasting or placement at the surface of paddy as basal dressing was most efficient. 2. Split or late application of superphosphate did not affect the grain yield of the rice, but its efficiency in the rice plant uptake was less than in the case of basal dressing of whole amounts. 3. The contents of available soil phoshorus of the experimental sites in Korea were above 60 ppm, and the efficiency of phosphorus utilization of the rice from the fertilizer was approximately 10 per cent. The grain yield response of the rice to phosphorus application in Korea was rather small comparing to those of other countries. 4. The nitrogen uptake of the rice plants from the fertilizer was most efficient when the fertilizer was applied at the time of ear prime growth. However, the most efficient utilization of nitrogen did not necessarily accompany the maximum yield of the rice and basic application of adequate amount of nitrogen was required to secure proper number of panicles. 5. In the application of nitrogenous fertilizer shallow placement at 5 cm depth was most efficient. The effect of split application of nitrogen was not so noticeable. It seemed due to the fact that total application amount of nitrogen, 60 kg N/ha, was smaller than that of usual dosage in Korea. 6. The efficiency of nitrogen utilization of the rice from the fertilizer was about 40 percent in Korea, and the yield reponse of the rice plant to nitrogen application was remarkable comparing to those of other countries, showing the marked differences in the fertilizer efficiency and grain yield according to the application method. 7. The nitrogen uptake of the rice plant was not likely affected by the time and the rate of phosphorus application whereas the efficiency of phosphorus utilization was affected to some degree by the method of nitrogen application.

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The study on the scattering ratio at the edge of the block according to the increasing block thickness in electron therapy (전자선 치료 시 차폐블록 두께 변화에 따른 블록 주변 선량에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Zi On;Gwak, Geun Tak;Park, Ju Kyeong;Lee, Seung Hun;Kim, Yang Su;Kim, Jung Soo;Kwon, Hyoung Cheol;Lee, Sun Young
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: The purpose is to clarify the effect of additional scattering ratio on the edge of the block according to the increasing block thickness with low melting point lead alloy and pure lead in electron beam therapy. Methods and materials: $10{\times}10cm^2$ Shielding blocks made of low melting point lead alloy and pure lead were fabricated to shield mold frame half of applicator. Block thickness was 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 (mm) for each material. The common irradiation conditions were set at 6 MeV energy, 300 MU / Min dose rate, gantry angle of $0^{\circ}$, and dose of 100 MU. The relative scattering ratio with increasing block thickness was measured with a parallel plate type ion chamber(Exradin P11) and phantom(RW3) by varying the position of the shielding block(cone and on the phantom), the position of the measuring point(surface ans depth of $D_{max}$), and the block material(lead alloy and pure lead). Results : When (depth of measurement / block position / block material) was (surface / applicator / pure lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 15.33 nC(+0.33 %), 15.28 nC(0 %), 15.08 nC(-1.31 %), 15.05 nC(-1.51 %), 15.07 nC(-1.37 %) as the block thickness increased in order of 3, 5, 10, 15, 20 (mm) respectively. When it was (surface / applicator / alloy lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 15.19 nC(-0.59 %), 15.25 nC(-0.20 %), 15.15 nC(-0.85 %), 14.96 nC(-2.09 %), 15.15 nC(-0.85 %) respectively. When it was (surface / phantom / pure lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 15.62 nC(+2.23 %), 15.59 nC(+2.03 %), 15.53 nC(+1.67 %), 15.48 nC(+1.31 %), 15.34 nC(+0.39 %) respectively. When it was (surface / phantom / alloy lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 15.56 nC(+1.83 %), 15.55 nC(+1.77 %), 15.51 nC(+1.51 %), 15.42 nC(+0.92 %), 15.39 nC(+0.72 %) respectively. When it was (depth of $D_{max}$ / applicator / pure lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 16.70 nC(-10.87 %), 16.84 nC(-10.12 %), 16.72 nC(-10.78 %), 16.88 nC(-9.93 %), 16.90 nC(-9.82 %) respectively. When it was (depth of $D_{max}$ / applicator / alloy lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 16.83 nC(-10.19 %), 17.12 nC(-8.64 %), 16.89 nC(-9.87 %), 16.77 nC(-10.51 %), 16.52 nC(-11.85 %) respectively. When it was (depth of $D_{max}$ / phantom / pure lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 17.41 nC(-7.10 %), 17.45 nC(-6.88 %), 17.34 nC(-7.47 %), 17.42 nC(-7.04 %), 17.25 nC(-7.95 %) respectively. When it was (depth of $D_{max}$ / phantom / alloy lead), the relative value(scattering ratio) was 17.45 nC(-6.88 %), 17.44 nC(-6.94 %), 17.47 nC(-6.78 %), 17.43 nC(-6.99 %), 17.35 nC(-7.42 %) respectively. Conclusions: When performing electron therapy using a shielding block, the block position should be inserted applicator rather than the patient's body surface. The block thickness should be made to the minimum appropriate shielding thickness of each corresponding using energy. Also it is useful that the treatment should be performed considering the influence of scattering dose varying with distance from the edge of block.

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Studies on the Organic Tiers Contained Paddy Soils in Honam Area -I. The Characteristcs and Formation of Organic Tiers Contained Paddy Soils (유기질토시(有機質土尸)을 함유(含有)한 호남지역(湖南地域) 답토양(畓土壤)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -I. 유기질토시함유(有機質土尸含有) 답토양(畓土壤)의 특성(特性) 및 생성(生成))

  • Yoo, Chul-Hyun;Kim, Eung-Bog;Cho, Guk-Hyun;Kim, Han-Myoung;Yoo, Sug-Jong;Park, Keon-Ho;Bae, Sung-Ho;Um, Ki-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.265-275
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    • 1985
  • Present studies were carried out to investigate the distribution and formation of organic tiers contained paddy soils in Honam area characteristics to give basic informations on the effective utilization, management and improvement of the soils. The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. The extent of organic tiers contained paddy soils in Honam area were 6.538㏊ and the amount of peat deposits were presumed about 2.41 million M/T. 2. Out of the total extent of the organic tiers contained paddy soils, about 97.6% was distributed in Honam plains (water-sheds of Mangyeong-Dongjin river), while about 1.5% in the Naju plains (water-sheds of Yeongsan river), and 0.9% in the Wando and Yeocheon areas. 3. The period of peat formation was presumed to be about the early of Seung Moon period (B.C. 4,250), and the Gongdeog series and the Bongnam series were formed in the bog conditions close to the valley mouth of near rolling and hill with small steram channels, and the Gimje series was formed in the out-skirts plains of the Gongdeog and Bongnam soils. 4. In the casue of peat formation, it was presumed to be the Gimje series that accumulated the fibrous peat out of the autochthonous peat such as reeds and grasses etc, to be the Gongdeog and Bongnam series that accumulated the autochtonous peat and the xylem and fibrous peat out of first allochthonous peat. 5. In the Organic horizons of these soils, the range of muck and peat horizons were in 62-68cm and 68-137cm of soil profile in the Gongdeog series, 52-84cm and 84-113cm in the Bongnam series respectively, one of muck horizon was in 46-71cm in the Gimje series. 6. The marks of soil horizons of the soils were expressed that the lower soils than the horizon of muck and peat were formed Cg, Aag for the muck horizon, 0 for the peat horizon, 0 of peat horizon were distingushed with Oag and Oig according to Organic forms. 7. The depthe occurred the muck and peat horizons were positively correlated with the width of local in the Gongdeog series ($r=0.881^{**}$, $r=0.827^{**}$), but not in the Bongnam series and Gimje series.

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