• Title/Summary/Keyword: 기질

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The Influence of Different Adaptation Substrates on Denitrification Rate of the Anaerobic Sludge (적응기질 종류에 따른 혐기성 슬러지의 탈질속도)

  • Park, Sang-Min;Jun, Hang-Bae;Park, Chan-il;So, Kyu-Ho;Park, Noh-Back
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.214-221
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    • 2009
  • Denitrification efficiency associated with incorporation of the diffrent carbon substrates with the anaerobic sludge was investigated. For this each kinetic constant such as methane reaction and specific denitrification rate (SDNR) were determined in each treated sludge. In the pure methanogenesis, the specific methanogenesis activity (SMA) value was the highest at $0.76COD/g\;VSS{\cdot}day$ when the acetate was incorporated with the anaerobic sludge which has already been adapted at consistent C/N ratio 5 for reatively higher denitrifier population. The anaerobic dinitrificaition and methanogenesis reaction were dependent on both the types of carbon substrate and sludge showing the higher denitrificaition reaction constant at $1.96hr^{-1}$ with incorporation of acetate with the anaerobic sludge at C/N ratio 5 than any other carbon sources examined. When the glucose was introduced as electron donor for the anaerobic sludge adapted with different carbon substrates the SDNR showed the highest value with the sludge adapted to glucose followed by the sludge adapted to piggery sludge and acetate.

Effects of Young Children's Temperament and Teacher-Child Relationship on Young Children's Problem Behaviors (유아의 기질과 교사-유아 관계가 유아의 문제행동에 미치는 영향)

  • Moon, Sang Hee;Lee, Kyung Nim
    • Korean Journal of Childcare and Education
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.69-89
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    • 2012
  • This study was to examine the effects of young children's temperament and teacher-child relationship on young children's problem behaviors. The subjects of this study were 231 3-, 4- and 5- year old children and their teachers. The collected data were analyzed by correlations and pathway analysis. The results were as follows: First, young children's temperament were found to affect young children's problem behaviors directly and indirectly though teacher-child relationship. 'Negative emotionality' and 'attention span/persistence' temperament were found to be important for externalizing problem behaviors, and 'activity level' temperament to be important for internalizing problem behaviors. Second, teacher-child relationship was found to affect young children's problem behaviors directly and to mediate between young children's temperament and problem behaviors. Additionally teacher-child conflict relationship was found to be the most important variable predicting young children's externalizing and internalizing problem behaviors.

Freshwater Habitats of Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy 1851) Living in South Korea (낙동강 본류에 출현하는 담수 태형동물 Pectinatella magnifica (Leidy 1851)의 서식환경 연구)

  • Jeong, Hyungi;Lee, Kyung-Lak;Choi, Byoung-ki;Kwon, Heongak;Park, Hae-Kyung;Jeong, Gang-yong;Yu, Jae Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.352-359
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    • 2015
  • In order to investigate the occurrence of Pectinatella magnifica in Nakdong River, extensive series of sampling was conducted through July to November of 2014. Results revealed that these species show preference to attach themselves on natural substrates over artificial substrates. P. magnifica does not show preference for specified substrates, but itappearthat availability of substrates determines their specific distribution. Considering that most commonly found substrates in Nakdong River were natural substrates such as dead twig, woody plants or aquatic plants, it is possible that high availability of substrates is one of the principal factors which increase the rates of growth and distribution of P. magnifica.

Pretreatment of Used Newspaper to Increase Enzymatic Digestibility (효소 당화율을 높이기 위해 폐 신문지의 전처리)

  • 문남규;김성배
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.446-451
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    • 2001
  • A pretreatment method to increase enzymatic digestibility for waste paper such as newspaper was investigated. Ash content, substrate size and printed ink were considered to be factors that affect on enzymatic hydrolysis. The effect on enzymatic digestibility of varying these factor were measured. Printed ink had the highest effect of the three factors, so a method was developed to remove the ink during pretreatment. Fist, a pretreatment process using a percolation reactor was tried. The digestibility of the substrate pretreated at 170$\^{C}$, however, was less than that of the untreated substrate because only small portion of ink was removed. Therefore, a batch type process at less than 100$\^{C}$ was devised. Of several schemes, a method using amonia-hydrogen peroxide mixture on a shaking bath proved most effective. The digestibility obtained from this method was about 85%--approximately 20% greater than the untreated substrate. This proves the pretreatment method was very effective in treating waste paper. The high digestibility obtained from this pretreatment is probably due to the effects of the hydrogen peroxide that can enhance ink removal and substrate swelling.

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General Enzymatic Properties of Human Histidine Acid Phosphatase-Phytase (히스티딘 에시드 포스파테이즈(Histidine Acid Phosphatase) 계열 인간 파이테이즈(Phytase)의 일반적 특성규명)

  • Cho, Jaie-Soon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.177-182
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    • 2009
  • The glycosylated human MINPP (multiple inositol polyphosphate phosphatase), which was recombinantly over-expressed by using industrial host, Pichia pastoris, showed the phytase activity against phytate ($InsP_6$) and the enzyme activity of the unglycosylated counterpart was decreased to 30%. The optimal phytase activity occurred at pH 7.4. The human MINPP showed high substrate specificity for $InsP_6$ with little activity on other organic phosphate conjugates such as para-nitrophenylphosphate (pNPP), ATP, and ribose-1-phosphate (R-1-P). The phosphatase activity against 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (2,3-BPG) by human MINPP was increased to 1.2-fold in the presence of stimulator, 1 mM 2-phosphoglycolate (2-PG) but the phytase activity against $InsP_6$ was not affected by addition of 1 mM 2-PG. The phosphatase activity against 2,3-BPG by human MINPP was not increased in the presence of 2 mM $Mg^{2+}$ or 100 mM $Cl^-$.

Physical and Chemical Effects of Extracellular Matrix on the Growth of Cardiomyocytes (HL-1) (세포외 기질 물질의 물리·화학적 영향에 따른 심근세포(HL-1)의 성장 연구)

  • Hong, Yoon-Mi;Choi, Seong-Kyun;Kim, Sun-Min
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.35 no.11
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    • pp.1229-1235
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    • 2011
  • The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a key factor affecting cell growth and adhesion to the culture surface, and it is also important for maintaining the innate characteristics of cells. Here, we describe the effects of the ECM on cardiomyocyte (HL-1 cell line) growth, viability, phenotype, and contractile ability. Five different ECM materials were investigated to analyze their effects on the cell growth. The physical morphology of the ECM-coated surfaces was scanned with an atomic force microscope (AFM), and the attachment, growth, proliferation, viability, and phenotype of the cells were analyzed using fluorescence immunostaining and an inverted phase contrast microscope.

Influence of Substrates on the Isozyme Patterns of Cellulase and Xylanase Complexes in Aspergillus niger (Aspergillus niger에 있어서 섬유질 분해효소계의 동질효소 양상에 미치는 기질의 영향)

  • Rho, Jae-Rang;Rhee, Young-Ha;Chung, Jae-Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.209-217
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    • 1990
  • The influence of cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates on the production of cellulase and xylanase complexes in Aspergillus niger was investigated. The culture conditions with different substrates exhibited profound effects on the level of endoglucanase (CMCase), ${\beta}-glucosidase$, endoxylanase and ${\beta}-xylosidase$, and on their isozyme patterns. However, intracellular and extracellular isozyme patterns of cellulase and xylanase complexes were qualitatively identical and appeared to be simultaneous in the early growth phase. Prolonged incubation led to the increase in the concentrations of isozymes with a little changes in the relative proportions of those isozymes. These results suggest that the biosynthesis of cellulase and xylanase complexes in A. niger is coordinately regulated at the level of induction. Moreover, multiple forms of extracellular cellulase and xylanase complexes seem to be the outcome of specific gene expression and should not be considered solely as the consequence of post-secretional modification of synthesized enzymes.

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The relations of toddlers' temperament, mother's rearing attitude, and teacher interaction to Toddlers' Language Ability (영아 기질, 어머니 양육행동, 교사 상호작용과 영아 언어능력의 관계)

  • Kim, Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Childcare and Education
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.67-93
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of the present study was to examine how 25~36-month-old toddlers' temperament, mother's rearing attitude, teacher interaction relates to their language abilities and to analyze the predictive power of these variables in predicting language ability. The subjects were 206 toddlers, 206 mothers and 38 class teachers at child care center in G metropolitan city. The collected data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis on SPSS program. The results of this study were as follow. First, there was a significant relationship between mother's rearing attitude, teacher interaction and toddlers language abilities. However, toddlers' temperament showed no significant correlations with toddlers language abilities. Second, teacher's positive attitude was the best predictor of toddlers language abilities. Toddlers' reactivity and mother's rational guidance were also predictors of toddlers' language abilities.

Effect of Grit on relationship between Temperamental Effortful Control and Academic Failure Tolerance (아동기 통제 기질이 청소년기 학업적 실패내성에 미치는 영향에서 그릿의 매개효과)

  • Jang, Na Ri;Kwak, Keumjoo;Kim, Yeonsoo
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.9 no.9
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    • pp.329-335
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between children's Temperamental Effortful Control and adolescents' Academic failure tolerance(AFT). Specifically, Grit effect as a mediator between Effortful Control and AFT was also determined. A total of 108 children participated as they were at age 8, and as they turned 14 years old. Children Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) was measured to investigate children's Effortful Control, and Grit scale and AFT scale were measured to investigate adolescents' Grit and their response to failure. The results of this study showed that children's Effortful Control was significantly related to AFT. And adolescents' Grit was also positively related to adolescents' AFT. In addition, Effortful Control was related to Grit. Finally, Grit partly mediated the relationship between Effortful Control and AFT.

Sugar contents of cellulosic hydrolysates according to pre-treatment (전처리법에 따른 섬유소 기질의 당 함량 변화)

  • Jin, Kilsun;Jeong, Seungmi;Kim, Yongjin;Lee, Donghoon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 2011.05a
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    • pp.177.2-177.2
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    • 2011
  • 세계적인 자원고갈과 지구온난화와 같은 환경문제가 발생됨에 따라 대체에너지 개발에 대한 연구가 활발히 이루어지고 있다. 섬유소 기질을 이용한 바이오에탄올 생산은 세계적으로 막대한 자원이 있으며 광합성에 의해 재생산되는 무한한 재원으로서 환경적으로도 대기오염물질을 적게 배출하여 유용한 에너지원으로 각광받고 있다. 하지만 섬유소 기질은 cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin과 같은 고분자 화합물이 유기적으로 결합된 단단한 결정구조로 이루어져 있어 이를 분해하여 원하는 물질을 얻기 위해서는 전처리 과정이 필요하다. 전처리 공정은 바이오에탄올을 생산하는 당화 및 발효공정의 효율 및 반응시간 단축에 기여하며, 특히 섬유소 기질일 경우에는 필수불가결한 공정이다. 전처리 공정은 물리적, 화학적, 생물학적 방법으로 나누어지며, 이러한 방법들 중 기질의 특성과 처리효율에 따라 기술들을 병합하여 사용하기도 한다. 이에 본 연구에서는 산 처리, 암모니아 처리, 과산화수소 처리 및 효소를 이용한 생물학적 처리를 단독 또는 병행하여, 전환된 당 성분 및 함량을 조사함으로서 섬유소계 기질인 채소 음식물류 쓰레기를 대상으로 바이오에탄올을 경제적으로 생산하기 위한 적합한 전처리법을 검토하였다. 전처리 방법별 당화율을 살펴보면, 산 처리와 암모니아-과산화수소-계면활성제 처리가 각각 65.3 % 및 65.7 %로 가장 높았으며, 과산화수소 처리는 16.2 %로 가장 낮았다. 반면 전처리 공정 없이 효소를 이용한 당화만을 실시한 경우에는 4.3 %의 낮은 당화율을 나타내었다. 섬유소계 기질의 전처리 효율을 향상시키기 위해 첨가하는 계면활성제의 효과는 암모니아-과산화수소 및 암모니아-과산화수소-계면활성제 처리의 당화율을 비교한 결과, 뚜렷한 효과를 확인할 수 없었다. 전처리 방법별 당의 성분 및 함량을 비교한 결과 육탄당은 암모니아-과산화수소-계면활성제 전처리에서 가장 많이 검출되었다. 오탄당은 산 처리 후 그 함량이 현저히 높았으며, 오탄당 중 xylose의 함량이 60.49 mg/g로 가장 많이 차지하고 있었다. 이 결과로부터 전처리 방법에 관계없이 당화율은 유사한 수준을 보이지만, 당화된 당의 성분 및 함량에는 큰 차이가 있음을 알 수 있었다. 이당류의 경우 과산화수소 및 암모니아-과산화수소 처리를 제외한 나머지 전처리 방법에서 유사한 수준을 나타내었다. 암모니아 처리 및 과산화수소 처리를 순차적으로 병행한 암모니아-과산화수소 처리에서는 각각의 처리시보다 육탄당의 함량은 증가하였으나 암모니아 처리시보다 이당류의 함량은 감소한 것으로 나타났다.

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