• Title/Summary/Keyword: 기질

Search Result 4,171, Processing Time 0.131 seconds

CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHIATRIC INPATIENTS WITH MOOD DISORDER (입원한 기분장애 소아청소년의 임상특성 - 주요 우울증과 양극성장애의 우울삽화 비교를 중심으로 -)

  • Cho, Su-Chul;Paik, Ki-Chung;Lee, Kyung-Kyu;Kim, Hyun-Woo;Hong, Kang-E;Lim, Myung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
    • /
    • v.11 no.2
    • /
    • pp.209-220
    • /
    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study is to find out the characteristics of depressive episode about major depression and bipolar disorder in child and adolescent. The subjects of this study were 34 major depression patients and 17 bipolar disorder patients hospitalized at child and adolescent psychiatry in OO university children's hospital from 1st March 1993 to 31st October 1999. The method of this study is to review socio-demographic characteristics, diagnostic classification, chief problems and symptoms at admission, frequency of symptoms, maternal pregnancy problem history, childhood developmental history, coexisting psychiatric disorders, family psychopathology and family history and therapeutic response through their chart. 1) The ratio of male was higher than that of female in major depressive disorder while they are similar in manic episode, bipolar disorder. 2) Average onset age of bipolar disorder was 14 years 1 month and it was 12 years 8 months in the case of major depression As a result, average onset age of major depression is lower than that of bipolar disorder. 3) The patients complained of vegetative symptoms than somatic symptoms in both bipolar disorder and depressive disorder. Also, the cases of major depression developed more suicide idea symptom while the case of bipolar disorder developed more aggressive symptoms. In the respect of psychotic symptoms, delusion was more frequently shown in major depression, but halucination was more often shown in bipolar disorder. 4) Anxiety disorder coexisted most frequently in two groups. And there coexisted symptoms such as somartoform disorder, mental retardation and personality disorder in both cases. 5) The influence of family loading was remarkable in both cases. Above all, the development of major depression had to do with child abuse history and inappropriate care of family. It is apparent that there are distinctive differences between major depression and bipolar disorder in child and adolescent through the study, just as in adult cases. Therefore the differences of clinical characteristics between two disorders is founded in coexisting disorders and clinical symptoms including onset age, somatic symptoms and vegetative symptoms.

  • PDF

A Comparative Study of Diabetes Mellitus Patients with Cerebral Infarction or without Cerebral Infarction - Focused on Nutrient Intakes and Dietary Quality - (뇌경색 당뇨병 환자와 비뇌경색 당뇨병 환자의 비교연구 - 영양소 섭취, 식사의 질 평가를 중심으로 -)

  • Lim, Hyun-Jung;Woo, Mi-Hye;Moon, Sang-Kwan;Choue, Ryo-Won
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.41 no.7
    • /
    • pp.621-633
    • /
    • 2008
  • Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a well-established independent risk factor for cerebral infarction (CI). Additionally, the DM as well as CI are influenced significantly by health-related behaviors and diets. The aim of this study was to compare the food habits, nutrient intakes, and dietary patterns and quality in DM patients with CI (DM-CI) and without CI. This study was accomplished with 68 subjects (DM-CI group = 28, DM group = 40). Health-related behaviors, food habits, nutrient intakes and dietary quality were investigated. As a result, the mean ages and durations of diabetes in DM-CI and DM groups were $65.6{\pm}9.2$, $10.9{\pm}8.5$ and $69.2{\pm}3.0$, $9.7{\pm}8.4$ years, respectively. The health-related behaviors such as, smoking, alcohol drinking, and regular exercising in both groups were significantly different (p < 0.05) showing the number of subjects who were smoking and drinking alcohol was significantly higher in DM-CI group and the opposit result was seen for exercise. In male subjects, the intake of carbohydrate and sodium of DM-CI group were significantly higher than those of DM group (p < 0.05). In female subjects, the intake of calorie, carbohydrate, fat, sodium, and cholesterol were significantly higher in the DM-CI group (p < 0.05). Daily intake of vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, folate, vitamin C, and calcium were significantly higher in DM group (p < 0.05). In the comparison with the dietary reference intake for Koreans (KDRI), vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, folate, and calcium intakes were lower in DM-CI group whereas calcium and zinc intakes were in DM group. Moreover, index of nutritional quality (INQ) of vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, vitamin C, folate, and calcium were lower significantly in DM-CI group (p < 0.05). Dietary quality including dietary diversity score (DDS), GMVDF (grain, meat, vegetable, dairy, fruit), and dietary quality index (DQI) was significantly lower in DM-CI group (p < 0.05). According to the results, diabetic mellitus patients accompanied by cerebral infarction had poorer eating patterns and dietary quality in accordance with poorer health-related behaviors compared with the DM patients without CI.

The Treatment of Night Soil using Bacillus sp. (Bacillus sp.를 이용한 분뇨처리)

  • 염혜경;이은숙;이병헌;이민규;정일호;김중균
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.12 no.6
    • /
    • pp.700-707
    • /
    • 2002
  • To study the characteristics of organic and nutrient removal by Bacillus species at high COD concentration of influent, three lab-scale batch reactors(R1, R2, R3), each of which has different substrate composition, were operated. More than 95% of $NH_4^+$-N and $COD_{cr}$, concentrations were removed under an aerobic condition, and their removal efficiencies were found to be 22.6 and 90.5%(R1), 23.9 and 65.8%(R2), 30.2 and 86.4%(R3), respectively. The removal efficiency of $NH_4^+$-N was high when an enough amount of $NO_3^{-}$-N was supplied, and that of $COD_{cr}$. was low when a high concentration of initial $NO_2^{-}$-N was added. The amount of carbon utilized in denitrification was a little. In all reactors,$NO_3^{-}$-N was removed under an anoxic condition, but in the R3 reactor, 10% of $NO_3^{-}$-N could be removed even undo, an aerobic condition. The removal efficiencies of TN and TP were 41.8 and 49.5%(R1), 40.1 and 35.8%(R2), 47.0 and 57.6%(R3), respectively. Alkalinities destructed under an aerobic condition for each reactor were 4.96, 5.41 and 3.93 mg/L (as $CaCO_3$) per each gram of $NH_4^+$-N oxidized, respectively, while 3.06, 3.17 and 2.60 mg/L (as $CaCO_3$) of alkalinities were produced for each gram of ,$NO_3^{-}$-N reduced to $N_2$. The SOUR were found to be 38.5, 52.7 and 42.0 mg $O_2$/g MLSS/hr, which indicated that Bacillus sp. had a higher cell activity than activated sludge. The OLR and sludge production were estimated to be 0.69 and 0.28(Rl), 0.77 and 0.20(R2), 0.61 kg COD/$m^3$/day and 0.25 kg MLSS/kg COD(R3), respectively. From the N-balance, the highest percentage(40.9%) of nitrogen lost to $N_2$ was obtained in the R3 reactor. From all the results, the possibility of aerobic denitrification Bacillus sp. has been shown and the B3 process seemed to have two advantages: a little amount of carbon was required in denitrification and not much amount of alkalinity was destructed under an aerobic condition.

Application of Westgard Multi-Rules for Improving Nuclear Medicine Blood Test Quality Control (핵의학 검체검사 정도관리의 개선을 위한 Westgard Multi-Rules의 적용)

  • Jung, Heung-Soo;Bae, Jin-Soo;Shin, Yong-Hwan;Kim, Ji-Young;Seok, Jae-Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
    • /
    • v.16 no.1
    • /
    • pp.115-118
    • /
    • 2012
  • Purpose: The Levey-Jennings chart controlled measurement values that deviated from the tolerance value (mean ${\pm}2SD$ or ${\pm}3SD$). On the other hand, the upgraded Westgard Multi-Rules are actively recommended as a more efficient, specialized form of hospital certification in relation to Internal Quality Control. To apply Westgard Multi-Rules in quality control, credible quality control substance and target value are required. However, as physical examinations commonly use quality control substances provided within the test kit, there are many difficulties presented in the calculation of target value in relation to frequent changes in concentration value and insufficient credibility of quality control substance. This study attempts to improve the professionalism and credibility of quality control by applying Westgard Multi-Rules and calculating credible target value by using a commercialized quality control substance. Materials and Methods : This study used Immunoassay Plus Control Level 1, 2, 3 of Company B as the quality control substance of Total T3, which is the thyroid test implemented at the relevant hospital. Target value was established as the mean value of 295 cases collected for 1 month, excluding values that deviated from ${\pm}2SD$. The hospital quality control calculation program was used to enter target value. 12s, 22s, 13s, 2 of 32s, R4s, 41s, $10\bar{x}$, 7T of Westgard Multi-Rules were applied in the Total T3 experiment, which was conducted 194 times for 20 days in August. Based on the applied rules, this study classified data into random error and systemic error for analysis. Results: Quality control substances 1, 2, and 3 were each established as 84.2 ng/$dl$, 156.7 ng/$dl$, 242.4 ng/$dl$ for target values of Total T3, with the standard deviation established as 11.22 ng/$dl$, 14.52 ng/$dl$, 14.52 ng/$dl$ respectively. According to error type analysis achieved after applying Westgard Multi-Rules based on established target values, the following results were obtained for Random error, 12s was analyzed 48 times, 13s was analyzed 13 times, R4s was analyzed 6 times, for Systemic error, 22s was analyzed 10 times, 41s was analyzed 11 times, 2 of 32s was analyzed 17 times, $10\bar{x}$ was analyzed 10 times, and 7T was not applied. For uncontrollable Random error types, the entire experimental process was rechecked and greater emphasis was placed on re-testing. For controllable Systemic error types, this study searched the cause of error, recorded the relevant cause in the action form and reported the information to the Internal Quality Control committee if necessary. Conclusions : This study applied Westgard Multi-Rules by using commercialized substance as quality control substance and establishing target values. In result, precise analysis of Random error and Systemic error was achieved through the analysis of 12s, 22s, 13s, 2 of 32s, R4s, 41s, $10\bar{x}$, 7T rules. Furthermore, ideal quality control was achieved through analysis conducted on all data presented within the range of ${\pm}3SD$. In this regard, it can be said that the quality control method formed based on the systematic application of Westgard Multi-Rules is more effective than the Levey-Jennings chart and can maximize error detection.

  • PDF

The Cox-Maze Procedure for Atrial Fibrillation Concomitant with Mitral Valve Disease (승모판막질환에 동반된 심방세동에서 Cox-Maze 술식)

  • Kim, Ki-Bong;Cho, Kwang-Ree;Ahn, Hyuk
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
    • /
    • v.31 no.10
    • /
    • pp.939-944
    • /
    • 1998
  • Background: The sugical results of the Cox-Maze procedure (CMP) for lone atrial fibrillation(AF) have proven to be exellent. However, those for AF associated with mitral valve(MV) disease have been reported to be a little inferior. Materials and methods: To assess the efficacy and safety of the CMP as a combined procedure with MV operation, we studied retrospectively our experiences. Between April 1994 and October 1997, we experienced 70 (23 males, 47 females) cases of CMP concomitantly with MV operation. Results: The etiologies of MV disease were rheumatic in 67 and degenerative in 3 cases. The mean duration of AF before sugery was 66$\pm$70 months. Fifteen patients had the past medical history of thromboembolic complications, and left atrial thrombi were identified at operation in 24 patients. Twelve cases were reoperations. Aortic cross clamp (ACC) time was mean 151$\pm$44 minutes, and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time was mean 246$\pm$65 minutes. Concomitant procedures were mitral valve replacement (MVR) in 19, MVR and aortic valve replacement (AVR) in 14, MVR and tricupid annuloplasty (TAP) in 8, MVR with AV repair in 3, MV repair in 11, MVR and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in 2, MVR and AVR and CABG in 1, redo-MVR in 10, redo-MVR and redo-AVR in 2 patients. The rate of hospital mortality was 1.4%(1/70). Perioperative recurrence of AF was seen in 44(62.9%), and atrial tachyarrhythmias in 10(14.3%), low cardiac output syndrome in 4(5.7%), postoperative bleeding that required mediastinal exploration in 4(5.7%) patients. Other complications were acute renal failure in 2, aggravation of preoperative hemiplegia in 1, and transient delirium in 1 patient. We followed up all the survivors for 16.4 months(3-44months) on an average. Sinus rhythm has been restored in 65(94.2%) patients. AF has been controlled by operation alone in 73.9% and operation plus medication in 20.3%. Two patients needed permanent pacemaker implantation; one with sick sinus syndrome, and the other with tachycardia- bradycardia syndrome. Only two patients remained in AF. We followed up our patients with transthoracic echocardiography to assess the atrial contractilities and other cardiac functions. Right atrial contractility could be demonstrated in 92% and left atrial contractility in 53%.We compared our non-redo cases with redo cases. Although the duration of AF was significantly longer in redo cases, there was no differences in ACC time, CPB time, postoperative bleeding amount and sinus conversion rate. Conclusions: In conclusion, the CMP concomitant with MV operation demonstrated a high sinus conversion rate under the acceptable operative risk even in case of reoperation.

  • PDF

Metamorphic Evolution of the central Ogcheon Metamorphic Belt in the Cheongju-Miwon area, Korea (청주-미원지역 중부 옥천변성대의 변성진화과정)

  • 오창환;권용완;김성원
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.106-124
    • /
    • 1999
  • In the Cheongju-Minwon area which occupies the middle part of the Ogcheon Metamorphic Belt, three metamorphic events(M1, M2, M3) had occurred. Intermediate P/T type M2 regional metamorphism formed prevailing mineral assemblages in the study area. Low PIT type M3 contact metamorphism occurred due to the intrusion of granites after M2 metamorphism. M1 metamorphism is recognized by inclusions within garnet. During M2 metamorphism, the metamorphic grade increased from the biotite zone in the southeastern part to the garnet zone in the northwestern part of the study area. This result is similar to the metamorphic evolution of the southwestern part of the Ogcheon Metamorphic Belt. Garnets in the garnet zone are classified into two types; Type A garnet has inclusions whose trail is connected to the foliation in the matrix and Type B garnet has inclusion rich core and inclusion poor rim. Type A garnet formed in the mica rich part with crenulation cleavage whereas Type B garnet formed in the quartz rich part with weak crenulation cleavage. In some outcrops, two types garnets are found together. Compared to the rim of Type A garnet, the rim of Type B garnet is lower in grossular and spessartine contents but higher in almandine and pyrope contents. In some Type B garnets, the inclusion poor part is rimmed by muddy colored or protuberant new overgrowth. In the inclusion poor part and new overgrowth, a rapid increase in grossular and decrease in spessartine is observed. However, the compositional patterns of Type A and B are similar; Ca increases and Mn decreases from core to rim. Two types garnets formed mainly due to the difference of bulk chemistry instead of metamorphic and deformational differences. The metamorphic P-T conditions estimated from Type A garnets are 595-690 OC15.7-8.8 kb, which indicates M2 metamorphism is intermediate P/T type metamorphism. On the other hand, a wide range of P-T conditions is calculated from Type B garnets. The P-T conditions from most Type B garnet rims are 617-690 OC16.2-8.9 kb which also indicates an intermediate P/T type metamorphism. However, at the rim part with flat end or weak overgrowth, grossular content is low and 573-624OC14.7-5.8 kb are estimated. The P-T conditions calculated from plagioclase and biotite inclusions in garnet are 460-500 0C/1.9-3.0 kb. The P-T conditions from rim part with weak overgrowth and inclusions within garnet, indicate that low P/T type M1 regional metamorphism might have occurred before intermediate P/T type M2 regional metamorphism. The P-T conditions estimated from samples which had undergone low PIT type M3 metamorphism strongly, are 547-610 0C/2.1-5.0 kb.

  • PDF

Study on PM10, PM2.5 Reduction Effects and Measurement Method of Vegetation Bio-Filters System in Multi-Use Facility (다중이용시설 내 식생바이오필터 시스템의 PM10, PM2.5 저감효과 및 측정방법에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Han;Choi, Boo-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
    • /
    • v.48 no.5
    • /
    • pp.80-88
    • /
    • 2020
  • With the issuance of one-week fine dust emergency reduction measures in March 2019, the public's anxiety about fine dust is increasingly growing. In order to assess the application of air purifying plant-based bio-filters to public facilities, this study presented a method for measuring pollutant reduction effects by creating an indoor environment for continuous discharge of particle pollutants and conducted basic studies to verify whether indoor air quality has improved through the system. In this study conducted in a lecture room in spring, the background concentration was created by using mosquito repellent incense as a pollutant one hour before monitoring. Then, according to the schedule, the fine dust reduction capacity was monitored by irrigating for two hours and venting air for one hour. PM10, PM2.5, and temperature & humidity sensors were installed two meters front of the bio-filters, and velocity probes were installed at the center of the three air vents to conduct time-series monitoring. The average face velocity of three air vents set up in the bio-filter was 0.38±0.16 m/s. Total air-conditioning air volume was calculated at 776.89±320.16㎥/h by applying an air vent area of 0.29m×0.65m after deducing damper area. With the system in operation, average temperature and average relative humidity were maintained at 21.5-22.3℃, and 63.79-73.6%, respectively, which indicates that it satisfies temperature and humidity range of various conditions of preceding studies. When the effects of raising relatively humidity rapidly by operating system's air-conditioning function are used efficiently, it would be possible to reduce indoor fine dust and maintain appropriate relative humidity seasonally. Concentration of fine dust increased the same in all cycles before operating the bio-filter system. After operating the system, in cycle 1 blast section (C-1, β=-3.83, β=-2.45), particulate matters (PM10) were lowered by up to 28.8% or 560.3㎍/㎥ and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) were reduced by up to 28.0% or 350.0㎍/㎥. Then, the concentration of find dust (PM10, PM2.5) was reduced by up to 32.6% or 647.0㎍/㎥ and 32.4% or 401.3㎍/㎥ respectively through reduction in cycle 2 blast section (C-2, β=-5.50, β=-3.30) and up to 30.8% or 732.7㎍/㎥ and 31.0% or 459.3㎍/㎥ respectively through reduction in cycle 3 blast section (C-3, β=5.48, β=-3.51). By referring to standards and regulations related to the installation of vegetation bio-filters in public facilities, this study provided plans on how to set up objective performance evaluation environment. By doing so, it was possible to create monitoring infrastructure more objective than a regular lecture room environment and secure relatively reliable data.

Helicobacter pylori Infection in Children with Recurrent Abdominal Pain (소아에서 만성 반복성 복통(Recurrent Abdominal Pain)과 Helicobacter pylori 감염과의 연관성에 대한 연구)

  • Na, So Young;Seo, Jeong Kee
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
    • /
    • v.8 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-11
    • /
    • 2005
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between H. pylori infection and recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) in children and to evaluate the effects of eradication therapy on RAP. Methods: From January 1998 to January 2005, 166 children with RAP (61 male, 105 female) aged $10.0{\pm}3.3$ years were included. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopies were performed for all the patients. All H. pylori infected children (n=70) received the eradication therapy and were divided into two groups: Group Ia (n=52); eradicated, Group Ib (n=18); non-eradicated. H. pylori-negative children (n=96) were divided into three groups according to the medication: Group IIa (n=67); no medication, Group IIb (n=13); acid-suppressant, Group IIc (n=16); both acid-suppressant and antibiotics. Questionnaire for symptoms were asked at the first, 6th, 12th, 24th, and 36th months following the treatment (grade 0; completely resolved, grade 1; definitely improved, but there are occasional episodes of mild abdominal pain, grade 2; no change in the frequency and intensity of abdominal pain). Results: In about 90% of H. pylori positive children, RAP improved in the both H. pylori-eradicated and non-eradicated children in a follow-up survey. In about 75% of H. pylori-negative children, RAP also improved among in the three groups of patients regardless of medication. Conclusion: These results suggest that there was no correlations between improvement of RAP and eradication of H. pylori, and between improvement of RAP and medication. Consequently the reassurance that the children with RAP have no serious organic cause was important to improvement of RAP.

  • PDF

Effect of FK506 and Cyclosporin A on $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ Degradation and $IKK{\alpha}$ Pathway in Bronchial Epithelial Cells, Monocytes, Lymphocytes and Alveolar Macrophages (FK506과 cyclosporin A가 기관지상피세포, 단핵구, 림프구 및 폐포대식세포에서 $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ 분해 및 $IKK{\alpha}$ 활성에 미치는 효과)

  • Yoon, Ho Il;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Hee-Seok;Lee, Choon-Taek;Kim, Young Whan;Han, Sung Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Yoo, Chul-Gyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.54 no.4
    • /
    • pp.449-458
    • /
    • 2003
  • Background : Cyclosporin A(CsA) and tacrolimus(FK506) have been widely used as immunosuppressants. The effects of CsA, or FK506, on the $I{\kappa}B/NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway have been shown to vary according to the cell type. However, their effects on the $I{\kappa}B/NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway have not been reported in bronchial epithelial cells. In this study, the effects of CsA and FK506 on the $I{\kappa}B/NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway in bronchial epithelial cells, monocytes, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages were evaluated. The relationship between their effects on the $I{\kappa}B/NF-{\kappa}B$ pathway and $I{\kappa}B$ kinase(IKK) activity was also investigated. Methods : BEAS-2B and A549 cells, pulmonary alveolar macrophages, peripheral blood monocytes and lymphocytes were used. The cells were pre-treated with CsA, or FK506, for various time periods, followed by stimulation with TNF-${\alpha}$, LPS or IL-$1{\beta}$. The $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ expressions were assayed by Western blot analyses. The IKK activity was evaluated by an in vitro immune complex kinase assay, using GST-$I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ as the substrate. Results : Neither CsA nor FK506 affected the level of $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ expression in any of the cell types used in this study. CsA pre-treatment inhibited the TNF ${\alpha}$-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation in bronchial epithelial cells. In contrast, the TNF ${\alpha}$-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation was not affected by FK506 pre-treatment. However, FK506 suppressed the cytokine-induced $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation in the pulmonary alveolar macrophages, peripheral blood monocytes and lymphocytes. The inhibitory effect of CsA, or FK506, on $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation was not related to IKK. Conclusions : CsA and FK506 suppressed the $I{\kappa}B{\alpha}$ degradation in bronchial epithelial cells, monocytes, lymphocytes and alveolar macrophages, so this may not be mediated through IKK.

A Natural L-Arginine Analog, L-Canavanine-Induced Apoptosis is Suppressed by Protein Tyrosine Kinase p56lck in Human Acute Leukemia Jurkat T Cells (인체 급성백혈병 Jurkat T 세포에 있어서 L-canavanine에 의해 유도되는 세포자살기전에 미치는 단백질 티로신 키나아제 p56lck의 저해 효과)

  • Park, Hae-Sun;Jun, Do-Youn;Woo, Hyun-Ju;Rue, Seok-Woo;Kim, Sang-Kook;Kim, Kyung-Min;Park, Wan;Moon, Byung-Jo;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.19 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1529-1537
    • /
    • 2009
  • To elucidate further the antitumor effects of a natural L-arginine analogue, L-canavanine, the mechanism underlying apoptogenic activity of L-canavanine and its modulation by protein tyrosine kinase $p56^{lck}$ was investigated in human Jurkat T cells. When the cells were treated with 1.25 to 2.5 mM L-canavanine for 36 h, several apoptotic events including mitochondrial membrane potential (${\Delta\Psi}m$) loss, activation of caspase-9, -3, -8, and -7, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) degradation, and DNA fragmentation were induced without alteration in the levels of Fas or FasL. These apoptotic changes were more significant in $p56^{lck}$-deficient Jurkat clone JCaM1.6 than in $p56^{lck}$-positive Jurkat clone E6.1. The L-canavanine-induced apoptosis observed in $p56^{lck}$-deficient JCaM1.6 cells was significantly reduced by introducing $p56^{lck}$ gene into JCaM1.6 cells by stable transfection. Treatment of JCaM1.6/lck cells with L-canavanine caused a transient 1.6-fold increase in the kinase activity of $p56^{lck}$. Both FADD-positive wild-type Jurkat T cell clone A3 and FADD-deficient Jurkat T cell clone I2.1 exhibited a similar susceptibility to the cytotoxicity of L-canavanine, excluding involvement of Fas/FasL system in triggering L-canavanine-induced apoptosis. The L-canavanine-induced apoptotic sub-$G_1$ peak and activation of caspase-3, -8, and -7 were abrogated by pan-caspase inhibitor (z-VAD-fmk), whereas L-canavanine-induced activation of caspase-9 was not affected. These results demonstrated that L-canavanine caused apoptosis of Jurkat T cells via the loss of ${\Delta\Psi}m$, and the activation of caspase-9, -3, -8, and -7, leading to PARP degradation, and that the $p56^{lck}$ kinase attenuated the ${\Delta\Psi}m$ loss and activation of caspases, and thus contributed as a negative regulator to L-canavanine-induced apoptosis.