• Title, Summary, Keyword: 기원전 5~4세기

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POLICY & ISSUES 환경정책 - 석면안전지대 대한민국을 위하여

  • Jeong, Ui-Seok
    • Bulletin of Korea Environmental Preservation Association
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    • pp.5-7
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    • 2012
  • 석면(石綿)은 말 그대로 섬유와 같은 돌을 말한다. 자연광물인 석면(Asbestos)은 그리스어의 '불멸의, 끌 수 없는'(A=Not, sbestos=quenchable)이라는 어원에서 알 수 있듯이 열에 대한 저항성이 뛰어나고 유연하다. 기원전 4~5세기경 그리스 아테네의 신전에서는 석면 심지를 사용해 불을 밝혔다고 하고, 로마시대에는 왕이 입는 옷의 재료로도 사용되었을 정도라고 한다.

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The Calendar Date of Pottery with Ring-Rim -Appearance Date of the Slim Bronze Dagger Culture and Ironware- (점토대토기의 실연대 -세형동검문화의 성립과 철기의 출현연대-)

  • Lee, Chang Hee
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.48-101
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    • 2010
  • This paper estimated the calendar date of pottery with ring-rim(粘土帶土器) with the radiocarbon dating. This was based on archaeological facts with comparing line relations and radiocarbon dates of Yayoi pottery(彌生土器). As a result, I understood that pottery with circle ring-rim(圓形粘土帶土器) appeared in BC 6c, pottery with triangle ringrim(三角形粘土帶土器) appeared at the time in BC 300 . Based on the calendar date and aspect of ironware and pottery in grave, I kept in BC 4c with appearance date of ironware. And I kept in BC 5c with appearance date of the slim bronze dagger culture. Korea and Japan common chronological order were built for the first time based on radiocarbon dates, line relations of pottery with ring-rim and Yayoi pottery. This is the calendar date to date back approximately 100~300 years from the existing the calendar date. Current periodization does not match in the calendar date when I built it newly. Therefore I suggested it as follows. Early iron age is from the first~middle part BC 4c to BC 100. And the latter half of Bronze age is from BC 6c to the front appearance of ironware. Then Songguk-ri type(松菊里式) becomes staudard type of pottery in the middle stage of Bronze age.

(3)중국의 대두 재배 현황

  • Lee, Bu-Yong
    • Bulletin of Food Technology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.56-60
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    • 2001
  • 중국은 대두의 원산지로서 기록에 의한 3000여년의 재배 역사를 가지고 있으나, 실제적인 재배 역사는 4000~5000년에 이른다. 기원전 5세기 전에 한국으로 전해지고 세계 각국에 전해졌다.대두는 고지방, 고영양 작물로서 인류가 섭취하는 주요 단백질원이다. 세계 각 국은사회 발전과 인류의 영양에 대한 요구에 따라 대두에 관심을 기울이고 있다. 따라서 급속한 재배 면적 증가 속도로 1999년 세계 대두 재배 면적은 7205.2만 $hm^2 , 총생산량은 15774.4만톤, 단위 면적당 생산량은 2189.3kg/$hm^2이며 농산물 교역량 중 우위를 차지하고 있다.

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금속 자성의 기본 이론

  • 민병일
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetics Society
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.309-314
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    • 1995
  • 최근 새로운 과학기술의 발달로 자기다층박막등 자기 분야의 신소재를 비롯하여 XMCD( X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism), MFM(Magnetic Force Microscope)등 자성분석방법등이 개발되고 있고, 정보화 사회의 출현과 함께 자기기록에 대한 중요성이 증대되면서 자기 물성에 대한 연구는 새로운 르네상스 시기를 맞았다고 할 수 있다. 자기 현상의 근본 원리 규명에 대한 연구는 재료과학 또는 고체물성 연구과제중 가장 오랜 역사를 지닌 문제중의 하나라 할 수 있다. 자연계에 존재하는 자석은 기원전 7세기경부터 인간에게 알려진 것으로 기록되어 있고 그후 오랫동안 나침반으로 사용되어 왔다. 하지만 자석의 원리에 대한 규명은 양자역학이 생기고 전자의 스핀개념이 도입된 20세기 초에서야 시작되어졌다. 그나마 현재까지도 자기현상의 아주 기본적인 개념만이 알려진 상황이고, 금속, 부도체 또는 화합물등에서 일어나는 다양한 자기 현상들을 일관성 있게 설명하는 완전한 이론의 정립은 아직도 요원한 문제라 할 수 있다.

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The Commencement Period of the Korean Type Bronze Dagger Culture, Seen from the Condition of the Section Polishing Technique - Through the Chronology of Chinese Data - (구분마연 기술로 본 한국식동검문화의 개시 연대 - 중국 자료의 편년을 통하여 -)

  • Heo, Jun-Yang
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.4-29
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to grasp the commencement date of Korean-type bronze dagger through the chronology of Chinese data. It focuses on the fact that the same section polishing technique appears both in Korean type bronze dagger and Dongzhou type bronze dagger. Dongzhou type bronze dagger in Anqiu Shandong, in which A1 type section polishing technique is observed, was said to have been collected remains in 1958, but the clear excavation cannot be identified. Therefore, this study presents Tomb No.1 Zuojiawa Jinan, Dongzhou type bronze dagger, and associated products. As associated products, bronze weapon and bronze ware were excavated, whose periods are estimated to be in the Spring and Autumn period, the transition period of Warring States, and the former part of the China's Warring States. Accordingly, the Korean bronze dagger, excavated in the remains of the Han Peninsula appears to have run parallel with the Dongzhou type bronze dagger of the A1 type section polishing technique, excavated in China for a fixed period. In addition, the chronology of Tomb No. 61MI grave in Wanrongmiaoqian, Shanxi is estimated to range from the former part to the middle part of the China's Warring States, which is identified to be connected to the A1 type section polishing technique. Examining the data of the relative date, we can find out that the Commencement Period of the Korean type bronze dagger Culture is seen to be the transition period and the former part of the China's Warring States, which is estimated to be the 5th and 4th centuries BC. This chronology is followed by Tomb No.6512 Zhengjiawazi Shenyang, recorded as the 6th century B.C. which reveals that Liaoning type bronze dagger culture and Korean-typed Bronze Dagger Culture are naturally connected. Furthermore, the A1 type section polishing technique was distributed in the southwestern area of the Korean peninsula and Shandong, China, while the A2 type section polishing technique was distributed in the southern area of the Korean peninsula, Shanxi-Province in China, and Northern Kyushu region in Japan. Seen from the weapon-shaped bronze ware of the section polishing technique, Shanxi area(Central Plains area), China. the southwestern area of the Korean peninsula (northwest area), and Northern Kyushu region in Japan are set up as one traffic road(spreading route). This demonstrates that the section polishing technique emerged around the Han Peninsular, spreading the technique regionally.

A Study of Dohang-Ri wooden coffin and Anya-Kuk (도항리목관묘(道項里木棺墓) 안사국(安邪國))

  • Lee, Ju-Huen
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.37
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    • pp.5-37
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    • 2004
  • A wooden coffin has been given academic attention in Kaya(伽倻), due to the place the stage of Samhan society appropriately in the development of ancient korea history. Special attention must be paid on Dohang-Ri(道項里) woden coffin, since it is expected to explain the origin of Arakaya(阿羅伽倻) in the region of southen korea peninsula. Dohang-Ri wooden coffin is become generally knowen two types, and complete its unique feature in Chin-Han(辰韓) and Byun-Han(弁韓). Recently the fact that Dohang-Ri wooden coffin is discovered only in the king tombs of Chang Won Daho-Ri(昌原茶戶里) and it is remarkable of political connection between Kuya-Kuk (狗邪國) and Anya-Kuk(安邪國). Various ironware unearth of Dohang-Ri has seen similar to that from Daho-Ri, but it has not bronze mirror be maid Chines, symbol with dignity of social position in the ruling ciass. It seems that political unit of Daho-Ri is advanced sociaity and central force than Dohang-Ri in the Byun-Han. The later of two century, I have a think about wooden coffin changes the wooden chamble of Dohang-Ri and Daho-Ri that it go out of sight at AD.2 century. Becouse of possitive achaelogical sites has not confirm, it request radical interpretaion. I inference to accordingly to the it appearance connected of the wars between the eight country of southen regins in korea peninsula at the first half of AD.3 cencury. Exactly, the politial units of Dohang-Ri and Daho-Ri has concentration of trade in Racdong river(洛東江) and Nam river(南江) water system and that give form to coexistence system of economic and political mutuality.

A History of Calculus and the Dialectical Materialism (미적분의 역사와 변증법적 유물론)

  • 조윤동
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.521-540
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    • 2003
  • The processes of mathematics development and the results of it are always those of making a conquest of the circumscription by historical inevitability within the historical circumscription. It is in this article that I try to show this processes through the history of calculus. This article develops on the basis of the dialectical materialism. It views the change and development as the facts that take place not by individual subjective judgments but by social-historical material conditions as the first conditions. The dialectical materialism is appropriate for explaining calculus treated in full-scale during the 17th century, passing over ahistorical vacuum after Archimedes about B.C. 4th century. It is also appropriate for explaining such facts as frequent simultaneous discoveries observed in the process of the development of calculus. 1 try to show that mathematics is social-historical products, neither the development of the logically formal symbols nor the invention by subjectivity. By this, I hope to furnish philosophical bases on the discussion that mathematics teaching-learning must start from the real world.

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Thinking in Terms of East-West Contacts through Spreading Process of Sarmathia-Pattened Scabbard on Tillya-Tepe Site in Afghanistan (아프가니스탄 틸랴 테페의 사르마티아(Sarmathia)식 검집 패용 방식의 전개 과정으로 본 동서교섭)

  • Lee, Song Ran
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.54-73
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    • 2012
  • In this article, we examined the patterns of activities of the Sarmathians though in a humble measure, with a focus on the regions where the Sarmathian sheaths spreaded. One of the main weapons the mounted nomads like the Scythias, the Sarmathians, and the Alans used at war was a spear. Though complementary, a sword was the most convenient and appropriate weapon when fighting at a near distance, fallen from the horse to the ground. The Sarmathian swords continued the tradition of the Akinakes which the Scythias or the Persians used, but those of the Sarmathians showed some advances in terms of the easiness with which a sword was drawn out from a sheath, and the way the sheaths were worn to parts of a human body. It turns out that the Sarmathian sheaths, which were designed for the people to draw swords easily, having the sheaths attached to thighs through 4 bumps, spread extensively from Pazyryk, Altai, to South Siberia, Bactria, Parthia and Rome. The most noteworthy out of all the Sarmathian sheaths were the ones that were excavated from the 4th tomb in Tillatepe, Afghanistan which belonged to the region of Bactria. The owner of the fourth tomb of Tilla-tepe whose region was under the control of Kushan Dynasty at that time, was buried wearing Sarmathian swords, and regarded as a big shot in the region of Bactria which was also under the governance of Kushan Dynasty. The fact that the owner of the tomb wore two swords suggests that there had been active exchange between Bactria and Sarmathia. It seemed that the reason why the Sarmathians could play an important role in the exchange between the East and the West might have something to do with their role of supplying Chinese goods to Silk Road. That's why we are interested in how the copper mirrors of Han Dynasty, decoration beads like melon-type beads, crystal beads and goldring articulated beads, and the artifacts of South China which produced silks were excavated in the northern steppe route where the Sarmathians actively worked. Our study have established that the eye beads discovered in Sarmathian tomb estimated to have been built around the 1st century B.C. were reprocessed in China, and then imported to Sarmathia again. We should note the Huns as a medium between the Sarmathians and the South China which were far apart from each other. Thus gold-ring articulated beads which were spread out mainly across the South China has been discovered in the Huns' remains. On the other hand, between 2nd century B.C. and 2nd century A.D. which were main periods of the Sarmathians, it was considered that the traffic route connecting the steppe route and the South China might be West-South silk road which started from Yunnan, passed through Myanmar, Pakistan, and Afghanistan, and then went into the east of India. The West-south Silk road is presumed to have been used by nomadic tribes who wanted to get the goods from South China before the Oasis route was activated by the Han Dynasty's policy of managing the countries bordering on Western China.

A Study of Cast Ironware Heat Treatment Technique in Ancient Korea (고대 한반도 주조철기 열처리 기술에 대한 고찰)

  • Choi, Yeongmin
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.168-183
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    • 2020
  • Efforts had been made to eliminate the brittleness unique to cast ironware from 5 BC up until the time that cast ironware became widely used. One of the techniques used to this end was to produce the cast ironware in one kiln and then anneal it in another kiln. This technique condensed or removed the carbon in the structure to eliminate the brittleness of cast ironware and enable forging. To clarify the nature of this technique, this study examined cast ironware made of malleable cast iron, which manifests the characteristics of the annealing technique for cast ironware excavated on the Korean peninsula, based on current steelmaking technology and research results from China and Japan. Results confirmed that all cast ironware made of malleable cast iron had been imported into Korea until the Proto-Three Kingdoms Period. Also, since the Chiljido (Seven-Branched Sword), which is housed at the Ishigami Shrine in Japan, appears to have been produced in the Korean peninsula, it is determined that Baekje in the 4th century must have possessed such an annealing technique. At that time, however, iron was produced mainly with an iron bloom, and a large amount of forged iron was produced with a steel bloom smelted from an iron bloom. In addition, most of the cast ironware that was used previously, except for cast iron hoes, had been replaced by forged ironware. In other words, this annealing technique was not used frequently until the Three Kingdoms Period. However, it spread broadly during the Unified Silla Period in so much as it was identified in the Jangan-ri remains, which represented the regional hub of iron production and distribution.