• Title, Summary, Keyword: 기술적 효율성

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R&D Efficiency and Productivity in Korea, Japan and China (한·중·일 연구개발투자의 효율성 및 생산성변화 비교 분석)

  • Cho, Yun Ki
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.43-60
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    • 2010
  • This paper measures R&D efficiency and productivity changes of 24 nations including Korea, Japan and China by the non-parametric Malmquist productivity index. The principle findings of this study are as follows. First, R&D efficiency scores of Korea and Japan are 0.837 and 0.834 respectively. Meanwhile China shows 0.420, the worst performance among the selected countries. Second, Korea marked annual productivity increase of 25%, highest among the selected countries', for 2000-2005. R&D productivity in Japan and China, however, decreased 1.9% and 0.9% respectively. Third, annual rates of technology change and technical efficiency change in Japan are 0.6% and -2.5%. Therefore decrease of productivity in Japan is mainly due to technical inefficiency. In case of China, improvement of technical efficiency is the main contributor to productivity growth but technical progress has edged downward in the sample period. In Korea, with annual rate of technology change and technical efficiency change being 5.2% and 18.2% respectively, both efficiency improvement and technical progress has pulled the R&D productivity growth.

Analyzing the Efficiency of Korean Rail Transit Properties using Data Envelopment Analysis (자료포락분석기법을 이용한 도시철도 운영기관의 효율성 분석)

  • 김민정;김성수
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.113-132
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    • 2003
  • Using nonradial data envelopment analysis(DEA) under assumptions of strong disposability and variable returns scale, this paper annually estimates productive. technical and allocative efficiencies of three publicly-owned rail transit properties which are different in terms of organizational type: Seoul Subway Corporation(SSC, local public corporation), the Seoul Metropolitan Electrified Railways sector (SMESRS) of Korea National Railroad(the national railway operator controlled by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation(MOCT)), and Busan Urban Transit Authority (BUTA, the national authority controlled by MOCT). Using the estimation results of Tobit regression analysis. the paper next computes their true productive, true technical and true allocative efficiencies, which reflect only the impacts of internal factors such as production activity by removing the impacts of external factors such as an organizational type and a track utilization rate. And the paper also computes an organizational efficiency and annually gross efficiencies for each property. The paper then conceptualized that the property produces a single output(car-kilometers) using four inputs(labor, electricity, car & maintenance and track) and uses unbalanced panel data consisted of annual observations on SSC, SMESRS and BUTA. The results obtained from DEA show that, on an average, SSC is the most efficient property on the productive and allocative sides, while SMESRS is the most technically-efficient one. On the other hand. BUTA is the most efficient one on the truly-productive and allocative sides, while SMESRS on the truly-technical side. Another important result is that the differences in true efficiency estimates among the three properties are considerably smaller than those in efficiency estimates. Besides. the most cost-efficient organizational type appears to be a local public corporation represented by SSC, which is also the most grossly-efficient property. These results suggest that a measure to sort out the impacts of external factors on the efficiency of rail transit properties is required to assess fairly it, and that a measure to restructure (establish) an existing(a new) rail transit property into a local public corporation(or authority) is required to improve its cost efficiency.

An Efficiency Analysis of Industry-University-Public Research Institute Collaborative Research: Employing the Input-Output Itemization Model (투입 및 산출 분해모형을 활용한 산학연 협력연구의 효율성 분석)

  • Kim, Hong-Young;Chung, Sunyang
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.12
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    • pp.473-484
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    • 2017
  • This study analyzed collaborative R&D projects funded by the Korean government from 2013-2015. For this analysis, input and output variables of projects were considered, and a combination of those variables was itemized. The output-oriented variable return to scale (VRS) model extended from the DEA methodology was adopted to evaluate the cooperation efficiency of the types of R&D collaboration, which were classified according to the project leader's organizations. In addition, hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted using the efficiency results of the scientific, technical, and economical outcome models. The results showed that cooperation efficiency between large companies and public research institutions was relatively high. Conversely, cooperation among medium-sized companies, small businesses and universities was particularly inefficient. The clustering results demonstrated the various strengths and weaknesses of the types depending on publications, patents, technical loyalties and the number of commercialization. In conclusion, this study suggests differentiated investment portfolios and strategies based on the efficiency results of diverse cooperation types among industries, universities and public research institutions.

An Analysis on the Efficiency and Productivity of Korean Rail Transit Authorities Using a Stochastic Cost Frontier Approach (A Comparison with the Estimation Results by DEA) (확률적 비용변경접근법을 이용한 도시철도 운영기관의 효율성과 생산성 분석 (자료포락분석기법을 이용한 추정결과와의 비교를 중심으로))

  • Kim, Min-Jung;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.15-25
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    • 2005
  • Using a stochastic cost frontier approach(SCFA), this paper annually estimates the efficiency and productivity with same data in the papers which analyze the efficiency and productivity using data envelopment analysis(DEA) to compare the results and suggest the political findings of raising the efficiency and productivity for three publicly-owned rail transit properties. the Seoul Subway Corporation (SSC), the Seoul Metropolitan Electrified Railways Sector of Korea National Railroad (SMESRS) and the Busan Urban Transit Authority (BUTA). The results show that the results of SCFA are higher than DEA for efficiency and lower for productivity in that DEA regards the stochastic error and measurement error as the inefficiency contrary to SFCA. But the political findings from these results appears to be similar as follows. First, the productivity of the three properties should be first improved by using existing technologies efficiently and then by introducing new ones. Second, the three properties should improve the technical efficiency through reducing input quantities to raise their efficiency. Finally, all the three components of the productivity such as productive efficiency change, technical change, and scale change should be considered to evaluate their productivity more correctly.

An Evaluation of Cross-National Information and Communication Technology Practices Using Data Envelopment Analysis and Malmquist Index (국가 정보통신기술의 활용성과 평가: 자료포락분석과 맘퀴스트지수 분석을 중심으로)

  • Yang, Chang Hoon
    • Journal of Technology Innovation
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.41-72
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    • 2013
  • In this study, a comparison has been made among the countries regarding recent ICT practices being performed based on the measures of relative efficiency and productivity growth that use multiple inputs and outputs. Efficiency measures a country's ICT performance relative to a benchmark at a given point of time and productivity measures a country's performance over a period of time. An output-oriented Data Envelopment Analysis and Malmquist Index has been used for comparison among 28 countries over the period 2008-2011 by incorporating 9 variables. The empirical findings disclose gross inefficiencies in national ICT practices, which show that there is room for enhancing output gains through increased efficiency in their operations. In addition, 13 countries have performed better than others in total factor productivity mainly because of their improvement in the underlying technological progress in ICT. For those technically inefficient countries, however, technical inefficiency may hamper the growth of total factor productivity of ICT practices.

Virtualization and SDN/NFV technology research for efficient cloud environment (효율적인 클라우드 환경을 위한 가상화 및 SDN/NFV 기술 연구)

  • Kim, Nam Yong;Moon, Seo Yeon;Park, Jong Hyuk
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.318-321
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    • 2017
  • 최근 가상화 및 Software Defined Networking(SDN)/Network Functions Virtualization(NFV) 기술의 등장으로 클라우드에 효율적이면서 경제적인 기술을 적용하는 추세이다. 각 분야의 기업은 클라우드에 가상화 기술을 활용함으로써 IT분야에서 시간과 비용 모두 감소시키며, 운영 효율성 및 유연성을 향상시키는 기술로 채택하고 있다. 본 논문에서는 네트워크 관련 연구를 통해 효율적인 클라우드 환경을 위한 가상화 기술 및 SDN/NFV에 대해 논의한다. 효율적인 클라우드 환경은 기존 네트워크 환경에서 가상화 및 SDN/NFV를 접목시킬 수 있는 이점이 있다. 본 논문을 통해 미래 IT에 효율적인 클라우드 환경을 위해 다양한 가상화 및 SDN/NFV 기술에 대해 연구가 필요하다.

Analyzing the Influence Factors on Efficiency of Railway Transport using DEA and Tobit Model (DEA와 Tobit 모형을 이용한 철도산업 효율성 결정요인 분석)

  • Lee, Yoon-Mi;Yoo, Jae-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.1030-1036
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    • 2009
  • In 1990's, in Europe and some advanced nations, the structural reform of the railroad industry for improving the productive efficiency of the railroad industry and competitive power had been progressed. This paper empirically explores the relationship between railway restructuring and productive efficiency in the railway industry. We use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to construct efficiency scores, and explain these scores, using Tobit regression analysis by using variables reflecting institutional factors and organizational type. Our results suggest that vertical separation, infrastructure and services are separated, and horizontal separation, passenger service and freight service are separated, improve productive efficiency. We also find that market competition has positive effect on the efficiency, but independent management from the government has negative effect, which is in line with economic intuition as well as with expectations on the railway restructuring. As a consequence, increased independence without sufficient competition and adequate regulation may deteriorate incentives for productive efficiency.

Technical Efficiency of Medical Resource Supply and Demand (의료자원 공급, 수요의 성과 효율성에 대한 실증분석)

  • Chang, Insu;Ahn, Hyeong Seok;Kim, Brian H.S.
    • Journal of the Korean Regional Science Association
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.3-19
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    • 2018
  • The objective of this study is to observe the efficiency of clinical performance on the supply and demand of medical resources in Korea. For the empirical analysis, we constructed the dataset on age standardized mortality rate, the number of physician, specialist, surgery, medical institution, ratio of general hospitals of 16 provinces in Korea from 2006 to 2013. The panel probability frontier model is employed as an analysis method and considered heteroscedasticity and autocorrelation of the error in panel data. In addition, the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the 16 provinces, unemployment rate, elderly population ratio, GRDP per capita, and ratio of hospitals in comparison to the general hospitals are used to find the effect on the technical efficiency of clinical performance on supply and demand of medical resources. The results are as follows. First, for the clinical performance, the supply side of human resources such as doctors and specialists and the demand side factors such as chronic illness clinic per unit population have a significant influence, respectively. Second, the technical efficiency of clinical performance on the supply and demand of medical resources of each input component was 59-70% in terms of clinical efficiency in each region. Third. estimates of technical efficiency of inputs that affect clinical performance showed a slight increase in all regions during the analysis period, but the increase trend decreased slightly. Fourth, the ratio of the elderly population and GRDP per capita have a positive influence on the technical efficiency of clinical performance on the supply and demand of medical resources. The difference of each efficiency by region is due to the regional differences of the input medical resources and the combination of them and the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the region. It is understood that the differences in technological efficiency due to the complexity of supply and demand of medical resources, demographic structure and economic difference affecting clinical performance by region are different.

Management Efficiency of Korean Information and Communication Enterprise (국내 정보통신업의 경영효율성)

  • Kim, Jong-Ki;Kang, Da-Yeon
    • Journal of the Korea Industrial Information Systems Research
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.32-42
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    • 2009
  • Information and communication industry, which has been growing rapidly, is now leading the global economic growth, contributing a ripple effect on general business and economic structure. It is said that information and communication industry enables swift economic growth taking a role as a basic industry of information-oriented society. Especially, rapid technical innovation promotes mutual growth of other related industries and it is technology-intensive. The purpose of this research is to analyze the management efficiency of information and communication industry using DEA method, and finally suggests numerical value for inefficient organizations to improve their efficiency. CCR-I, BCC-I efficiency and RTS(Returns to scale) of 29 companies engaged in information and communication industry was evaluated. With the results, we suggested the model companies for benchmarking in information and communication industry. To summarize, 7 companies were selected with CCR-I efficiency rate 1, and 12 companies with BCC-I efficiency rate 1. RTS was finalized with 8 IRS companies, 10 DRS companies, and 11 CRS companies.

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Technical Inefficiency in Korea's Manufacturing Industries (한국(韓國) 제조업(製造業)의 기술적(技術的) 효율성(效率性) : 산업별(産業別) 기술적(技術的) 효율성(效率性)의 추정(推定))

  • Yoo, Seong-min;Lee, In-chan
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.51-79
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    • 1990
  • Research on technical efficiency, an important dimension of market performance, had received little attention until recently by most industrial organization empiricists, the reason being that traditional microeconomic theory simply assumed away any form of inefficiency in production. Recently, however, an increasing number of research efforts have been conducted to answer questions such as: To what extent do technical ineffciencies exist in the production activities of firms and plants? What are the factors accounting for the level of inefficiency found and those explaining the interindustry difference in technical inefficiency? Are there any significant international differences in the levels of technical efficiency and, if so, how can we reconcile these results with the observed pattern of international trade, etc? As the first in a series of studies on the technical efficiency of Korea's manufacturing industries, this paper attempts to answer some of these questions. Since the estimation of technical efficiency requires the use of plant-level data for each of the five-digit KSIC industries available from the Census of Manufactures, one may consture the findings of this paper as empirical evidence of technical efficiency in Korea's manufacturing industries at the most disaggregated level. We start by clarifying the relationship among the various concepts of efficiency-allocative effciency, factor-price efficiency, technical efficiency, Leibenstein's X-efficiency, and scale efficiency. It then becomes clear that unless certain ceteris paribus assumptions are satisfied, our estimates of technical inefficiency are in fact related to factor price inefficiency as well. The empirical model employed is, what is called, a stochastic frontier production function which divides the stochastic term into two different components-one with a symmetric distribution for pure white noise and the other for technical inefficiency with an asymmetric distribution. A translog production function is assumed for the functional relationship between inputs and output, and was estimated by the corrected ordinary least squares method. The second and third sample moments of the regression residuals are then used to yield estimates of four different types of measures for technical (in) efficiency. The entire range of manufacturing industries can be divided into two groups, depending on whether or not the distribution of estimated regression residuals allows a successful estimation of technical efficiency. The regression equation employing value added as the dependent variable gives a greater number of "successful" industries than the one using gross output. The correlation among estimates of the different measures of efficiency appears to be high, while the estimates of efficiency based on different regression equations seem almost uncorrelated. Thus, in the subsequent analysis of the determinants of interindustry variations in technical efficiency, the choice of the regression equation in the previous stage will affect the outcome significantly.

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