• Title, Summary, Keyword: 기술적 효율성

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Scale-Up Factor for Seismic Analysis of Building Structure for Various Coordinate Systems (건축구조물의 지진해석에서 좌표축의 설정에 따른 보정계수 산정법)

  • Yu, Il-Hyang;Lee, Dong-Guen;Ko, Hyun;Kim, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.33-47
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    • 2007
  • In a practical engineering, the equivalent static analysis (E.S.A) and the response spectrum analysis (R.S.A) are generally used for the seismic analysis. The base shears obtained from the E.S.A are invariable no matter how the principal axes of building structures are specified on an analysis program while those from the R.S.A are variable. Accordingly, the designed member size may be changed by how an engineer specify the principal axes of a structure when the R.S.A is used. Moreover, the base shears in the normal direction to the excitation axis are sometimes produced even when an engineer performs a response spectrum analysis in only one direction. This tendency makes the base shear, which is used to calculate the scale-up factor, relatively small. Therefore the scale-up factor becomes larger and it results in uneconomical member sizes. To overcome these disadvantages of the R.S.A, an alternative has been proposed in this study. Three types of example structures were adapted in this study, i.e. bi-direction symmetric structure, one-direction antisymmetric structure and bi-direction antisymmetric structure. The seismic analyses were performed by rotating the principal axes of the example structures with respect to the global coordinate system. The design member forces calculated with the scale-up factor used in the practice were compared with those obtained by using the scale-up factor proposed in this study. It can be seen from this study that the proposed method for the scale-up factor can provide reliable and economical results regardless of the orientation of the principal axes of the structures.

Impact of Rising Global Temperatures on Growth, Mineral Composition, and Photosynthesis in Radish in a Winter Cropping System (월동무의 생장, 무기성분 조성과 광합성에 미치는 온도 상승의 영향)

  • Oh, Soonja;Moon, Kyung Hwan;Song, Eun Young;Son, In-Chang;Wi, Seung Hwan;Koh, Seok Chan
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.38-45
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    • 2017
  • We investigated the effects of rising temperatures on the photosynthesis, mineral composition, and growth of radish (Raphanus sativus var. hortensis) in a winter cropping system using a temperature gradient tunnel to predict the impact of rising global temperatures. Vegetative growth, including shoot and root fresh and dry weights, shoot length, and root length and diameter, was high under elevated temperatures (ambient $+4^{\circ}C$ and $+7^{\circ}C$) compared with ambient temperature. At elevated temperatures, the N, P, Ca, Mg, and Fe contents were high in shoots, whereas in roots, the K, Ca, Mg, and Fe contents were high and the Cu content was low. The maximum photosynthetic rates ($22.1{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ at ambient temperature $+4^{\circ}C$ and $22.9{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$ at ambient temperature $+7^{\circ}C$) at elevated temperatures were more than twice that ($9.7{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$) at ambient temperature, whereas the water use efficiency was lower at elevated temperatures. These results suggest that rising global temperatures will lead to increased mineral absorption and photosynthesis in radish in winter cropping systems, subsequently favoring plant growth, although the water requirements will be high.

A study on the fire characteristics according to the installation type of large smoke exhaust port in a small cross sectional tunnel fire (소단면 대심도 터널 화재시 대배기구의 설치형태에 따른 화재특성 연구)

  • Choi, Pan-Gyu;Baek, Doo-San;Yoo, Ji-Oh;Kim, Chang-Yong
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.201-210
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    • 2019
  • Recently, due to the efforts to mitigate traffic congestion and expansion of space efficiency, the construction of underground roads has been increased in big-scale cities. Since tunnels in the city have a higher chance for a fire leading to a great tragedy during a severe traffic jam than mountain tunnels, it is highly likely that it will be constructed as a tunnel, having a small cross section, for small vehicles. However, if they are constructed as such small-vehicle tunnels, it would be possible to reduce the design fire intensity while the concentration of harmful gases would increase due to a reduction in the small cross sectional area, led by a decrease in the tunnel height. In this study, behaviors of fire smoke by the installation interval and format of large-scale exhaust-gas ports were examined and compared in the analysis of temperatures and CO concentrations of a tunnel and its results were as the following. Although there were no significant differences in the smoke spreading distance between installation intervals, but in this study, 100 m was found to be the most effective installation interval. The smoke exhaustion performance was found to be excellent in the order of $4m{\times}3m$, $6m{\times}2m$, and $3m{\times}2m$ (2 lane) of the smoke spreading distance. Although there was no significant difference in the smoke spreading distance between formats of large-scale exhaust-gas ports, it was found that the smoke spreading distance was larger than other cases when it was $3m{\times}2m$ in the fire growing process. The analysis of smoke spreading distances by the aspect ratio showed that a smoke spreading distance was shorted when its the smoke spreading distance was found to be shorter when its traverse distance was relatively longer than its longitudinal distance.

Meat Quality and Sensory Properties of Korean Native Black Goat by Different Castration Age (거세시기에 따른 재래흑염소 육의 육질 및 관능적 특성)

  • Kim, Byung-Ki;Hwang, Eun-Gyeong;Kim, Su-Min
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.419-426
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of different castration ages on meat quality and sensory properties of Korean native black goats over 410 days. For the experiment, 32 heads of goat (eight heads/4 treatment) were subjected to either a control (5 month non-castration), T1 (7 month castration), T2 (5 month castration) or T3 (3 month castration). The total weight gain for Korean native black goats was highest in the T2 group after feeding for 410 days and the weight gain/day tended to be similar to the total weight gain. The total feeding amounts were lowest (410.82 kg) in T3; however, the feed intake ratio was 16.39 in T2, indicating that it had the best feed efficiency among groups. The cooking loss and drip loss of the Korean native black goats was highest in the control, being 35.53% and 2.08%, respectively (p<0.05), while the total cholesterol of the treatments was higher than that of the control (p<0.05). Moreover, the overall sensory evaluation of the treatment groups was low, indicating that there was more meat flavor when compared to the controls in terms of juiciness, tenderness, flavor, texture, black goat off-flavor and overall evaluation (p<0.05). T2 was found to have the best meat flavor upon sensory evaluation. Additionally, the meat color of the control showed the highest $L^*$ value and Hue value, while T3 showed the highest $a^*$ value (3.61) and T2 showed the highest $b^*$ value and Chroma. The composition of fatty acids was 53.76% oleic acid in T2, while the amounts of Mono-unsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) were highest in T1 and T2 (p<0.05). As a result, the MUFA/SFA ratios of T1 and T2 were higher than those of the control (p<0.05). In conclusion, it is most advantageous to castrate Korean native black goats at the age of 5 months for the best performance and meat quality.

Effect of Mixed-Sowing of Legume and Applying of Cattle Manure on the Productivity, Feed Values and Organic Hanwoo Carrying Capacity of Rye (Secale cereale L.) (콩과 사료작물의 혼파와 우분의 시용이 호밀의 생산성, 사료가치 및 단위면적당 유기한우 사육능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Myeong-Gon;Jo, Ik-Hwan;Hwangbo, Soon
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.457-468
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of mixed-sowing of legume forage and applying of cattle manure on the productivity of rye in order to produce the organic roughage to be effectively reducing the environmental contamination and to provide Hanwoo rearing farmer with safe organic animal products. The present study also aimed to evaluate optimal applying level of cattle manure and carrying capacity of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) per unit area. The annual amount of crude protein (CP) of rye in Gyeongju were higher than those of in Gyeongsan and Yeongju, and the mixed-sowing of forage pea was the highest (p<0.05) compared with the single-sowing. The amount of CP were increased proportionately corresponded to the applying level of fermented cattle manure, and found significantly (p<0.05) high at the level of 100 and 150 kg/ha groups. With feed value of forage, CP was tended to be higher in the mixed-sowing of legume than the single-sowing of rye at the wintering experimental sites of legume, and in particular the forage peas was higher (p<0.05) than other crops. Carrying capacity of organic Hanwoo (head/ha) was higher (p<0.05) in Gyeongju (3.28 head) than that in Gyeongsan (1.94) and Yeongju (1.50). The carrying capacity in the single-sowing of rye also was lower than that in the mixed-sowing of legume, and the forage peas was the highest among the mixed-sowing groups (p<0.05). Overall, the present results showed that it would be recommended to take into account the wintering for mix-sowing of legume. The fermented cattle manure may be applied for legume in the wintering unavailable regions. In addition, the applying the fermented cattle manure at the level of 100~150kg/ha and the mix-sowing of legume with forage peas may increase the productivity per unit area and feed value including CP for improving carrying capacity of organic Hanwoo.

Policy Direction for The Farmland Sizing Suitable to Regional Trait (지역특성을 반영한 영농규모화사업의 발전방향-충남지역을 중심으로-)

  • Shim, Jae-Sung
    • The Journal of Natural Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.83-121
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to examine how solid the production foundation of rice in Chung-Nam Province is, and, if not, to probe alternative measures through the size of farms specializing in rice, of which direction would be a pivot of rice industry-oriented policy. The results obtained can be summarized as follows : 1. The amount of rice production in Chung-Nam Province is highest in Korea and the size of paddy field area is the second largest : This implying that the probability that rice production in Chung-Nam Province would be severely influenced by a global trend of market conditions. The number of farms specializing in rice becoming the core group of rice farming account for 7.7 percent of the total number of farm household in Korea. Average field area financial support which had been input to farm household by Government had a noticeable effect on the improvement of the policy of farm-size program. 2. Farm-size program in Chung-Nam Province established from 1980 to 2002 in creased the cultivation size of paddy field to 19,484 hectares, and this program enhanced the buying and selling of farmland and the number of farmland bargain reached 6,431 household and 16,517 hectares, respectively, in 1995-2002. Meanwhile, long-term letting and hiring of farmland appeared so active that the bargain acreage reached 6,970 hectares, and farm involved was 7,059 households, however, the farm-exchange-and-unity program did not satisfy our expectation, because the retirement farm operators reluctantly participated to sell their farms. Another reason that had delayed the bargain of farms rested on the general category of social complication attendant upon the exchange and unity operation for scattered farm. Such difficulties would work negative effects out to carry on the target of farm-size work in general. 3. The following measures were presented to propel the farm-size promotion program : a. Occupation shift project, followed by the social security program for retirement and elderly farm operators, should be promptly established and also a number of types of incentives for promoting the letting and hiring work and farm-exchange-and-unity program would also be set up. b. To establish the effective key system of rice production, all the farm operators should increase the unit area yield of rice and lower the production cost. To do so, a great deal of production teams of rice equipped with managerial techniques and capabilities need to be organized. And, also, there should be appropriate arrays of facilities including information system. This plan is desirable to be in line with a diversity of the structural implement of regional integration based on farm system building. c. To extend the size of farm and to improve farm management, we have to devise the enlargement of individual size of farm for maximized management and the utilization of farm-size grouping method. In conclusion, it can be said that the farm-size project in Chung-Nam Province which has continued since the 1980s was satisfactorily achieved. However, we still have a lot of problems to be solved to break down the barrier for attainment of the desirable farm-size operation work.. Farm-size project has fairly close relation with farm specialization in rice and, thus, the positive support for farm household including the integrated program for both retirement farmers and off-farm operators should be considered to pursue the progressive development of the farm-size program, which is key means to successful achievement of rice farming enforcement in Chung-Nam Province.

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Mechanisms of Cold Injury and Cultural Practices for Reducing Damage of Rice (벼 냉해발성 기작과 피해 경감대책)

  • Lee, Moon-Hee;Park, Nam-Kyu;Park, Suk-Hong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.34 no.s02
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    • pp.34-44
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    • 1989
  • The stability of rice cultivation in Korea is largely depended on climatic conditions, especially, low temperature at the period of early growth stage and after heading. The improvement of cold tolerant varieties and appropriate cultural practices in rice are very effective to minimize the cold damage. This paper is summarized the mechanism and counterplans of cold injury of rice plants. The paddy area having commonly cold injury in Korea is approximately 15, 522ha in 1,709 sites on the national scale. The cold damage at seedling stage in nursery bed appeared to poor germination, leaf discoloration, dead seedlings and seedling rot ect.. At the vegetative stage, the decreased tiller number due to poor rooting and the delayed heading caused by slow growth and panicle differentiation are commonly showed. The cold injury at early reproductive stage appeared to the degeneration of spikelets and rachis - branches, while that at meiosis stage showed to increased sterility due to poor development of pollen and shortened panicle length with delaying heading, therefore the grain yield is largely decreased. The cold damage at heading and ripening stages showed to poor pollination and fertilization, low panicle exsertion, poor grain filling and finally grain quality became low. To minimize the cold injury to rice plants by low temperature, following counterplans would be recommonded ; Improvement of the cold toelrant rice varieties for the regions of midmountains and alpines. Raising healthy seedlings at upland nursery beds and by using of growth regulators such as ABA, Fuchiwang and Tachiace. Soil improvement and organic matter application to reduce cold damage by increasing water and fertilizer holding capacities in the paddy field having commonly cold water and in the place where cold damage is regularly occurred. Appropriate fertilization for raising healthy rice plants to tolerate under low temperature condition. Water management to increase water temperature in the paddy such as depth watering, round channels and polyethylene tubes around the field. Establishment of the optimum cultivation time of rice based on minimum, mean and maximum temperatures at different regions with appropriate rice varieties.

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Freshwater Fish Utilization of Fishway Installed in the Jangheung Dam (장흥댐에 설치되어 있는 어도와 담수어류의 이용 분석)

  • Yoon, Ju-Duk;Kim, Jeong-Hui;Joo, Gea-Jae;Seo, Jin-Won;Pak, Hubert;Jang, Min-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.264-271
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    • 2011
  • At the Jangheung multipurpose dam, which is on the Tamjin River, a trapping and trucking operation was established to maintain continuous upstream migration of fish,. To facilitate fish gathering, installation of an effective fishing trap was required. In this study, we evaluated the fish trap, established at the Jangheung dam, using PIT (Passive Integrated Transponder) telemetry. A total of 254 individuals from 15 species were monitored. Among these tagged species, 36 individuals from 6 species (Carassius auratus, C. cuvieri, Zacco temminckii, Z. platypus, Pungtungia herzi, and Pseudobagrus koreanus) were detected; a 14.2% detection rate. C. auratus recorded the highest detection rate of 44.2% while P. herzi was 14.3%. Z. temminckii and Z. platypus showed relatively low detection, 5% and 7.7% respectively. Some of individuals from C. auratus and Z. platypus did not pass through the antenna at the first attempt but were continuously detected on multiple days. There were no statistical differences in body size (total length, standard length and body weight) of individuals that did or did not swim into the trap (Mann-Whitney U test, p>0.05). Fish mainly swam into the trap during outflow of water from the dam (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.001) and showed a higher detection frequency in daytime than nighttime (Mann-Whitney U test, p<0.001). Thus, for fish movement into the trap, external factors such as outflow from dam and time of day have important roles. Based on detection rate, not all fishes showed upstream migration but represented selective migration. Consequently, the establishment of flexible outflow strategies that take into consideration ecological characteristics of fishes should required for improving the efficiency of fishway.

A Study on Ecological Characteristics and Changes of Vegetation in Hamyangsangrim (함양상림 식생의 생태적 특성 변화 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Wook;Lee, Seung-Joo;Lee, Soo-Dong;Kim, Ji-Seok;Han, Bong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.537-549
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to provide data for the basic research to found the effective conservation and management plan for the Hamyangsangrim designated as Natural Monument No. 154 and surround areas by analyzing the ecological characteristics such as landuse and actual vegetation, plant community structure, soil chemical property and also to identify the tendency of the ecosystem changes through comparison with past studies. According to analysis the results, the landuse and actual vegetation of survey site was classified as 8 types which were forest, artificial greenspace, plaza and open-space, bare ground and the pavement, water bodies, facilities, agricultural land and etc.. It was also categorized as 38 types according to detailed characteristic. 15 kinds of forest vegetation community types comprising silva were classified among them. The changes of actual vegetation showed little variation that the Quercus serrata-Carpinus tschonoskii forest was the most widely distributed in 2003(forest area ratio is 48.3%) and 2010(forest area ratio is 48.1%), whereas, the Quercus serrata forest declined a more dramatic from 11.6% to 23.2%. The Quercus serrata-Carpinus tschonoskii forest increased sharply(11.6% ${\rightarrow}$ 23.2%) and also the Quercus serrata-Zelkova serrata forest increased steadily(2.2% ${\rightarrow}$ 7.9%). The agricultural land around forest was transformed into artificial green zone. Moreover, water bodies, bare ground and the pavement of areas have increased. In addition, the urbanized area has decreased because the damaged areas inside forest have been restored to the woodlands. According to the result of typical 6 types vegetation communities change, the middle layer trees grew up to the canopy layer trees and was formed the canopy layer structure. The middle layer trees expanded their forces widely. Also new species appeared. And the shrub individuals also more dramatically increased due to the growth of shrubs. The force of Quercus serrata declined as well. However the force of Carpinus tschonoskii and Zelkova serrata expanded and increased in the forest. It must be the result of the ecological vegetation succession and environmentally soundly health recovery by influence of the projects of forest surrounding environment improvement and limitation of access to forest have managed and maintained since 2003. Those sorts of changes seems to be going to develop continuously. In the future Carpinus tschonoskii and Zelkova serrata will not be only codominant in the canopy layer but also Carpinus Tschonoskii, Zelkova serrata, Meliosma myriantha, Sapium japonicum. Styrax obassia and Acer pseudo-sieboldianum will be codominant in the middle layer. As a result, the forest's codominance species are going to be changed such like that.

Geological Characteristics of Extra Heavy Oil Reservoirs in Venezuela (베네주엘라 초중질유 저류층 지질 특성)

  • Kim, Dae-Suk;Kwon, Yi-Kyun;Chang, Chan-Dong
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.83-94
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    • 2011
  • Extra heavy oil reservoirs are distributed over the world but most of them is deposited in the northern part of the Orinoco River in Venezuela, in the area of 5,500 $km^2$, This region, which has been commonly called "the Orinoco Oil Belt", contains estimated 1.3 trillion barrels of original oil-in-place and 250 billion barrels of established reserves. The Venezuela extra heavy oil has an API gravity of less than 10 degree and in situ viscosity of 5,000 cP at reservoir condition. Although the presence of extra heavy oil in the Orinoco Oil Belt has been initially reported in the 1930's, the commercial development using in situ cold production started in the 1990's. The Orinoco heavy oil deposits are clustered into 4 development areas, Boyaco, Junin, Ayachoco, and Carabobo respectively, and they are subdivided into totally 31 production blocks. Nowadays, PDVSA (Petr$\'{o}$leos de Venzuela, S.A.) makes a development of each production block with the international oil companies from more than 20 countries forming a international joint-venture company. The Eastern Venezuela Basin, the Orinoco Oil Belt is included in, is one of the major oil-bearing sedimentary basins in Venezuela and is first formed as a passive margin basin by the Jurassic tectonic plate motion. The major source rock of heavy oil is the late Cretaceous calcareous shale in the central Eastern Venezuela Basin. Hydrocarbon materials migrated an average of 150 km up dip to the southern margin of the basin. During the migration, lighter fractions in the hydrocarbon were removed by biodegradation and the oil changed into heavy and/or extra heavy oil. Miocene Oficina Formation, the main extra heavy oil reservoir, is the unconsolidated sand and shale alternation formed in fluvial-estuarine environment and also has irregularly a large number of the Cenozoic faults induced by basin subsidence and tectonics. Because Oficina Formation has not only complex lithology distribution but also irregular geology structure, geological evolution and characteristics of the reservoirs have to be determined for economical production well design and effective oil recovery. This study introduces geological formation and evolution of the Venezuela extra heavy oil reservoirs and suggest their significant geological characteristics which are (1) thickness and geometry of reservoir pay sands, (2) continuity and thickness of mud beds, (3) geometry of faults, (4) depth and geothermal character of reservoir, (5) in-situ stress field of reservoir, and (6) chemical composition of extra heavy oil. Newly developed exploration techniques, such as 3-D seismic survey and LWD (logging while drilling), can be expected as powerful methods to recognize the geological reservoir characteristics in the Orinoco Oil Belt.