• Title, Summary, Keyword: 급성 손상

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Morphological Study of Acute Lung Injury Induced by Interleukin-1$\alpha$ Intratracheally in Young and Old Rats (젊은 흰쥐와 늙은 흰쥐에서 인터루킨-1$\alpha$로 유도된 급성폐손상에 관한 형태학적 연구)

  • 조현국;이영만;박원학
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.139-150
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    • 1997
  • In order to investigate the effect of aging and the $H_2O$$_2$ localization in association with histological, ultrastructural, and cytochemical studies in lung tissue after interleukin-1$\alpha$(IL-1) induced lung injury, an acute lung injury was induced by instillation of IL-1 into the trachea. Both of 4- and 20-months-old male rats, protein contents in IL-1 treated branchoalveolar lavage increased significantly compared to each control rats. Acute lung injury occured by oxidative stress because neutrophils accumulated in vascular lumen and formed the adhesion with endothelial cells. As these cause, tissue proteins were exuded and leukocytes migrated into the alveolar lumen. Neverthless in these lung injury $H_2O$$_2$ localization of IL-1 treated 20 months rats was not different compared to IL-1 treated 4 months rats. After all aging was not a factor to accelate IL-1 induced lung injury. Based on these results, it is suggested that neutrophil infilteration might be an important cause in acute lung injury, and aging is not a factor to change the acute lung injury by oxidative stress.

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Analysis of sports injuries among Korean national players during official training (국가대표 선수들의 훈련 기간 동안 발생한 스포츠 손상 분석)

  • Kim, Eun Kuk;Kim, Tae Gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.555-565
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze sports injuries which occurred in Korea National Team during official training period. All sports injuries are recorded on injury report form by physicians, medical staffs and athletic trainer, and only acute and recurred injuries were analyzed. Total 3,421 injuries were reported, and 1,560 injuries were newly incurred and 1,861 injuries were recurrent with previous history. The frequency of new injuries in male and female athletes was highest in boxing (n=130, 14.5%) and hockey (n=75, 11.3%) respectively. The frequency of recurred injuries in male and female athletes was highest in wrestling (n=147, 14.8%) and fencing (n=103, 11.9%) respectively. Our data provides incidence rates, characteristics of acute and recurrent sports injuries during official training period and thus these results could provide relevant information for the sports injury prevention at Korea National Team player.

Definition and Diagnostic Criteria of Acute Kidney Injury (급성 신손상의 정의와 진단 기준)

  • NamGoong, Mee-Kyung
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.101-106
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    • 2011
  • Acute renal failure means that the word does not contain a mild kidney injury. In addition, the criteria for acute renal failure per researcher are different, and it is difficult in interpreting the results of research on acute renal failure. Therefore, rather than acute renal failure, a new term "acute kidney injury" meaning to include all the levels of injury is introduced. In 2002, to diagnose by means of serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate and urine output, a detailed classification of acute kidney injury, the RIFLE criteria has been proposed. In 2007, the RIFLE criteria by transforming, AKIN criteria has been proposed. The pediatric RIFLE criteria for children has also been proposed. The author reviews here these criteria by comparing them.

Pretreatment of Diltiazem Ameliorates Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury by Suppression of Neutrophilic Oxidative Stress (내독소로 유도된 급성폐손상에서 Diltiazem 전처치가 호중구성 산화성 스트레스에 미치는 효과)

  • Jang, Yoo Suk;Lee, Young Man;Ahn, Wook Su;Lee, Sang Chae;Kim, Kyung Chan;Hyun, Dae Sung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.60 no.4
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    • pp.437-450
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    • 2006
  • Background : Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by severe inflammatory pulmonary edema of unknown pathogenesis. To investigate the pathogenesis of ARDS associated with neutrophilic oxidative stress, the role of phospholipase $A_2$ ($PLA_2$) was evaluated by the inhibition of calcium channel. Methods : In Sprague-Dawley rats, acute lung injury (ALI) was induced by the instillation of E.coli endotoxin (ETX) into the trachea. At the same time, diltiazem was given 60 min prior to tracheal instillation of ETX. Parameters of ALI such as lung and neutrophil $PLA_2$, lung myeloperoxidase (MPO), BAL neutrophils, protein, surfactant were measured. Production of free radicals from neutrophils was measured also. Morphological studies with light microscope and electron microscope were carried out and electron microscopic cytochemistry for detection of free radicals was performed also. Results : Diltiazem had decreased the ALI parameters effectively in ETX given rats and decreased the production of free radicals from neutrophils and lung tissues. Morphological studies denoted the protective effects of diltiazem. Conclusion : Diltiazem, a calcium channel blocker, was effective in amelioration of ALI by the suppression of neutrophilic oxidative stress mediated by $PLA_2$ activation.

Effects of Various Nootropic Candidates on the Impaired Acquisition of Ethanol-treated Rats in Step-through Test (에탄올 급성 투여로 유발된 학습획득 손상에 미치는 수종 뇌기능개선 후보 물질의 작용)

  • Lee Soon-Chul;Kim Eun-Joo;You Kwan-Hee;Kang Jong-Seong;Moon Yang-Sun
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 1999
  • Effects of single and repeated administration of various nootropic candidates were examined on impaired acquisition by single oral administration of 3 g/kg ethanol (EtOH) in step through test. The inhibitory effect of EtOH on acquisition was significantly reduced by single picrotoxin, but not affected by diazepam, acetyl-L-carnitine and apomorphine. Single or repeated red ginseng total saponin and deprenyl, single piracetam, repeated N-methyl-D-glucamine, but not single or repeated protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol and centrophenoxine significantly ameliorated the impairment of acquisition by EtOH. On the other hand, the inhibitory effect of repeated red ginseng total saponin but not that of repeated N-methyl-D-Glucamine, was significantly blocked by pretreatment of $\alpha$-methyl-$\rho$-tyrosine, a inhibitor of catecholamine synthesis. Whereas, the inhibitory effect of repeated deprenyl on EtOH amnesia was exaggerated by $\alpha$-methyl-$\rho$-tyrosine. These results suggest that the amelioration processes of drugs on ethanol amnesia involve complex mechanism between the central GABAergic and dopaminergic neuronal activity in memory and learning, although the effects of repeated drugs administration are not yet clear.

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The Relationship between Bone Bruise in MR-Imaging and the Degrees of Acute Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury (급성 전방십자인대 손상 시 자기공명영상에서 나타나는 골멍과 전방십자인대 손상 정도의 관계)

  • Jeong, Hwa-Jae;Shin, Hun-Kyu;Ko, Chun-Suk;Kim, Jang-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Arthroscopy Society
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.17-25
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the relationship between appearance and size of bone bruise and severity of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), furthermore, to identify the mechanism of ACL injury by analyzing the footprint of bone bruise. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five subjects who was taken an MRI within 6 weeks after acute ACL injury were studied. All MRI showed ACL injury and associated bone bruises. Bone bruises were analyzed using Costa-Paz classification based on appearance and location and also scored using Kornaat bone bruise grading system based on size and location. The severity of the ACL injury was graded using a 4-point system (ie, grade 0-3) with oblique coronal MRI. Results: There was statistically significant correlation between Costa-Paz classification of bone bruises in lateral femoral condyle and grade of ACL injury. There were more type 2 lesions in partial tear group (grade 1, 2), however, type 3 lesions of Costa-Paz classification in complete tear group (P=0.037). Significant positive correlations were observed between Kornaat total bone bruise score and grade of ACL injury (P=0.014). Most common ACL injury mechanism was pivot shift injury. Other mechanisms were clip valgus injury, phantom foot injury, and hyperextension injury. Conclusion: It is highly suggested that appearance and size of bone bruise is related to severity of ACL injury after acute ACL injury. The foot print of bone bruise provides valuable clues to identify ACL injury mechanism.

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Severe Hemorrhage Induced Expressions of Ferritin and Heme Oxygenase-1 In Leukocytes (출혈로 인한 폐 염증세포에서의 ferritin과 heme oxygenase-1의 발현)

  • Kwon, Jung-Wan;Park, Yoon-Yub
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.19 no.7
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    • pp.878-885
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    • 2009
  • Serum ferritin levels are elevated in subjects with acute lung injury (ALI), and abnormalities in plasma and lung iron chemistry have also been demonstrated in ALI and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Stress-inducible heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), as well as ferritin, had shown anti-inflammatory actions. Biomarkers for early detection in patients who are likely to develop ARDS would give several therapeutic chances to the patients. In order to verify the predictability in severe hemorrhage-induced ALI in rats, we measured serum ferritin and HO-1 concentrations before and after hemorrhage. Severe hemorrhages significantly increased the number of leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissue myeloperoxidase activity. Both serum ferritin and HO-1 levels increased following hemorrhage, but ferritin levels were elevated earlier than HO-1. In BAL cell immunohistochemical studies, ferritin and HO-1 expressions increased after hemorrhage and localized in the cytoplasm of leukocytes. These findings suggest that inflammatory leukocytes in BAL fluid can secrete ferritin and HO-1, and serum ferritin levels might be more valid factor in predicting ARDS than HO-1 levels in hemorrhage-induced ALI.

Alteration of Growth Factor Expression after Acute Ischemic Renal Injury (급성 허혈성 신손상 후 여러 성장인자 발현의 변화)

  • Koe, Yang Sim;Lee, Soo Yeon;Kim, Won;Cho, Soo Chul;Hwang, Pyoung Han;Kim, Jung Soo;Lee, Dae-Yeol
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.46 no.7
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    • pp.687-694
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : Regeneration and repair after ischemic renal injury appears to be modulated by circulating or locally produced growth factors. This study examined the changes of serum insulin like growth factor(IGF-I) and renal expression of IGF-I and II, vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF), transforming growth $factor-{\beta}$($TGF-{\beta}$), and connective tissue growth factor(CTGF) during the active regeneration period after acute ischemic injury. Methods : Sera and kidney tissue samples(whole kidney, cortex, outer medullae and inner medullae) were obtained before and after one, three, five and seven days of 40 minutes bilateral renal pedicle clamping. Acute renal failure was assessed by measuring the concentration of serum creatinine. Serum IGF-I level was measured by radioimmunoassay. The mRNA expression in kidney was measured by RT-PCR. The distribution of IGF-I and CTGF was detected by immunohistochemistry. Resuts : Serum IGF-I concentration after one day following acute ischemic renal injury was significantly decreased compared to preischemic value. The mRNA levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, $TGF-{\beta}1$ and VEGF in whole kidney were temporally decreased on day one of ischemic injury. IGF-I and IGF-II expressions in outer medullae were significantly decreased on day one after ischemic injury. $TGF-{\beta}1$, CTGF and VEGF expressions were markedly decreased in medullae after one day of ischemic injury compared to other kidney sections. IGF-I was markedly decreased in cortical tubules on day one of uremic rat. CTGF was markedly increased on tubule within three days of ischemic injury. Conclusion : These findings suggest that IGFs, $TGF-{\beta}1$ and CTGF may involve in the pathogenesis or the recovery from acute ischemic renal injury.

Presumptive Role of Neutrophilic Oxidative Stress in Oxygen-induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats (흰쥐에서 고농도 산소 흡입에 의한 급성 폐손상 시 호중구성 산화성 스트레스의 역할)

  • Moon, Yongsuck;Kim, Jihye;Lee, Young Man
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.65 no.6
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    • pp.464-470
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    • 2008
  • Background: This study examined the role of neutrophilc oxidative stress in an $O_2-induced$ acute lung injury (ALI). Methods: For 48 h, experimental rats were exposed to pure oxygen (normobaric hyperoxia) in a plastic cage. Forty-eight hours after $O_2$ breathing, the rats were sacrificed and the parameters for ALI associated with neutrophilic oxidative stress were assessed Results: Normobaric pure oxygen induced ALI, which was quite similar to ARDS. The $O_2-induced$ neutrophilic oxidative stress was identified by confirming of the increase in lung myeloperoxidase, BAL neutrophils, malondialdehyde (MDA), cytosolic phospholipase $A_2$ ($cPLA_2$) activity in the lung, histological changes and BAL cytospin morphology. Conclusion: In part, ALI-caused by oxygen is affected by neutrophils especially by the generation of free radicals.

Antiinflammatory Effects of Heparin in Hemorrhage or LPS Induced Acute Lung Injury (출혈성 및 내독소 투여로 유발된 급성폐손상에서 heparin의 항염증효과)

  • Kim, Jae Yeol;Choi, Jae Chul;Lee, Young Woo;Jung, Jae Woo;Shin, Jong Wook;Park, In Won;Choi, Byoung Whui
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.60 no.1
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2006
  • 배경 : 급성 폐손상은 폐내, 외의 원인질환들에 의해 폐포-모세혈관의 투과성이 증가하며, 폐부종에 의해 급성 저산소성 호흡곤란이 유발되는 증후군이다. 헤파린은 항응고작용 외에 자체적으로 항염증효과를 가지고 있으나, 염증성질환에 헤파린을 투여하면 출혈성 합병증이 발생하기 때문에 실제로 임상에서 이용하는데 제약이 있다. 하지만 헤파린에서 2-O와 3-O sulfate를 제거하면, 항응고 효과가 제거되고 항염증효과는 지니고 있는 비항응고성 헤파린 (nonanticoagulant heparin)으로 변화한다. 본 연구에서는 흰쥐에게 내독소 (LPS)를 투여하거나, 출혈성 쇼크를 일으켜서 유발된 급성폐손상에서 비항응고성 헤파린의 치료효과를 살펴보았다. 방법 : 각 군당 5 마리 이상의 흰쥐 (Balb/c mouse)를 이용하였다. 미정맥 (tail vein)을 통해 생리식염수 또는 비항응고성 헤파린 (50 mg/kg)을 투여한 직후에 내독소를 복강으로 투여하거나 (1 mg/kg), 심장천자를 통해 총 혈액의 1/3 정도로 제거하여 출혈성 쇼크를 유도하여 급성폐손상을 유발하였다. 내독소 투여 또는 출혈성 쇼크 유발 1 시간 후에 흰쥐를 희생시키고 폐를 적출하였고, 폐의 염증성 변화는 사이토카인 ($TNF-{\alpha}$, MIP-2, $IL-1{\beta}$)을 측정하여 살펴보았고, 폐손상의 정도는 myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay와 wet-to-dry weight ratio를 측정하여 알아보았다. 결 과 : 내독소를 투여한 흰쥐의 폐에서 대조군의 폐에 비해 사이토카인의 발현이 증가하고 ($TNF-{\alpha}$; $196.1{\pm}10.8$ vs $83.7{\pm}18.4pg/ml$, MIP-2; $3,000{\pm}725$ vs $187{\pm}26pg/ml$, $IL-1{\beta}$; $6,500{\pm}1167$ vs $266{\pm}25pg/ml$, p<0.05, respectively), 폐의 MPO 활성이 증가하였다 ($27.9{\pm}6.2$ vs $10.5{\pm}2.3U/g$ of lung protein, p<0.05). 출혈성 쇼크를 일으킨 흰쥐의 폐에서 대조군의 폐에 비해 사이토카인의 발현은 증가되지 않았으나, MPO 발현은 증가되었다 ($16.5{\pm}3.2$ vs $10.5{\pm}2.3U/g$ of lung protein, p<0.05). 내독소 투여 또는 출혈성 쇼크에 의해 급성폐손상이 유발된 흰쥐에서 생리적 식염수를 투여하거나 비항응고성 헤파린을 투여한 군 사이에 사이토카인의 발현이나 MPO 활성에 의미있는 차이는 관찰되지 않았다. 결론 : 이상의 결과로 비항응고성 헤파린은 내독소를 투여하거나 출혈성 쇼크를 일으키고 한 시간 뒤에 측정한 흰쥐의 급성폐손상에서 의미있는 치료효과를 보이지 않았다.