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Practical Output Dosimetry with Undefined $N_{dw}{^{Co-60}}$ of Cylindrical Ionization Chamber for High Energy Photon Beams of Linear Accelerator ($N_{dw}{^{Co-60}}$이 정의되지 않은 원통형 이온전리함을 이용한 고에너지 광자선의 임상적 출력선량 결정)

  • Oh, Young-Kee;Choi, Tae-Jin;Song, Ju-Young
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.114-122
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    • 2012
  • For the determination of absorbed dose to water from a linear accelerator photon beams, it needs a exposure calibration factor $N_x$ or air kerma calibration factor $N_k$ of air ionization chamber. We used the exposure calibration factor $N_x$ to find the absorbed dose calibration factors of water in a reference source through the TG-21 and TRS-277 protocol. TG-21 used for determine the absorbed dose in accuracy, but it required complex calculations including the chamber dependent factors. The authors obtained the absorbed dose calibration factor $N_{dw}{^{Co-60}}$ for reduce the complex calculations with unknown $N_{dw}$ only with $N_x$ or $N_k$ calibration factor in a TM31010 (S/N 1055, 1057) ionization chambers. The results showed the uncertainty of calculated $N_{dw}$ of IC-15 which was known the $N_x$ and $N_{dw}$ is within -0.6% in TG-21, but 1.0% in TRS-277. and TM31010 was compared the $N_{dw}$ of SSDL to that of PSDL as shown the 0.4%, -2.8% uncertainty, respectively. The authors experimented with good agreement the calculated $N_{dw}$ is reliable for cross check the discrepancy of the calibration factor with unknown that of TM31010 and IC-15 chamber.

A Study on the Qualitative Evaluation Factors for Mobile Game Company (모바일게임 기업의 정성적 평가요인에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Seok Kyun;Hwangbo, Yun;Rhee, Do Yun
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.125-146
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    • 2013
  • Nowadays, the performance of the mobile game sales is influencing the ranking of game companies listed on KOSDAQ. In the meantime, venture capital companies had focused on online game. Recently, however, they have great interest in mobile games and mobile game companies. In addition, angel investors and accelerators are increasing investment for the mobile game companies. The most important issues for mobile game investor is how to evaluate the mobile game companies and their contents. Therefore, this study derived the evaluation factors for the mobile game company. And research method converged of the opinions of both supply side and demand side of the game industry. Ten professionals who are responsible for the supply of the game industry and CEO group & development experts of game development company were selected for survey in this study. Also ten professionals who are responsible for the demand of the game industry and the investment company were selected for survey in this study. And Delphi technique was performed according to the survey. Management skills, development capabilities, game play, feasibility, operational capabilities has emerged as five evaluation factors to evaluate the mobile game company. And the 20 sub-factors including CEO's reliability were derived. AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process) theory is applied to analyze the importance of the qualitative elements which were derived by Delphi technique. As a result, the analysis hierarchy of evaluation factors for the mobile game company was created. Pair-wise comparison for each element was performed to analyze the importance. As a result, 'Core fun of the game' (12,2%), 'Involvement of the game' (10.3%), 'Security Reliability' (8.9%), 'Core developers' ability' (7.6%) appeared in order of importance. The significance of this study is offering more objective methodology for realistic assessment and importance of elements to evaluate mobile game company.

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Story-based Information Retrieval (스토리 기반의 정보 검색 연구)

  • You, Eun-Soon;Park, Seung-Bo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.81-96
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    • 2013
  • Video information retrieval has become a very important issue because of the explosive increase in video data from Web content development. Meanwhile, content-based video analysis using visual features has been the main source for video information retrieval and browsing. Content in video can be represented with content-based analysis techniques, which can extract various features from audio-visual data such as frames, shots, colors, texture, or shape. Moreover, similarity between videos can be measured through content-based analysis. However, a movie that is one of typical types of video data is organized by story as well as audio-visual data. This causes a semantic gap between significant information recognized by people and information resulting from content-based analysis, when content-based video analysis using only audio-visual data of low level is applied to information retrieval of movie. The reason for this semantic gap is that the story line for a movie is high level information, with relationships in the content that changes as the movie progresses. Information retrieval related to the story line of a movie cannot be executed by only content-based analysis techniques. A formal model is needed, which can determine relationships among movie contents, or track meaning changes, in order to accurately retrieve the story information. Recently, story-based video analysis techniques have emerged using a social network concept for story information retrieval. These approaches represent a story by using the relationships between characters in a movie, but these approaches have problems. First, they do not express dynamic changes in relationships between characters according to story development. Second, they miss profound information, such as emotions indicating the identities and psychological states of the characters. Emotion is essential to understanding a character's motivation, conflict, and resolution. Third, they do not take account of events and background that contribute to the story. As a result, this paper reviews the importance and weaknesses of previous video analysis methods ranging from content-based approaches to story analysis based on social network. Also, we suggest necessary elements, such as character, background, and events, based on narrative structures introduced in the literature. We extract characters' emotional words from the script of the movie Pretty Woman by using the hierarchical attribute of WordNet, which is an extensive English thesaurus. WordNet offers relationships between words (e.g., synonyms, hypernyms, hyponyms, antonyms). We present a method to visualize the emotional pattern of a character over time. Second, a character's inner nature must be predetermined in order to model a character arc that can depict the character's growth and development. To this end, we analyze the amount of the character's dialogue in the script and track the character's inner nature using social network concepts, such as in-degree (incoming links) and out-degree (outgoing links). Additionally, we propose a method that can track a character's inner nature by tracing indices such as degree, in-degree, and out-degree of the character network in a movie through its progression. Finally, the spatial background where characters meet and where events take place is an important element in the story. We take advantage of the movie script to extracting significant spatial background and suggest a scene map describing spatial arrangements and distances in the movie. Important places where main characters first meet or where they stay during long periods of time can be extracted through this scene map. In view of the aforementioned three elements (character, event, background), we extract a variety of information related to the story and evaluate the performance of the proposed method. We can track story information extracted over time and detect a change in the character's emotion or inner nature, spatial movement, and conflicts and resolutions in the story.

Forest Policy of Democratic People's Republic of Korea Represented in RodongShinmun (「로동신문」에 드러난 북한의 산림정책)

  • Song, Minkyung;Park, Mi-Sun;Youn, Yeo-Chang
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.123-148
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    • 2012
  • Deforestation and forest degradation in Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) accelerated from the mid 1980s through the economic crisis in 1990s and is still happening. DPRK has conducted afforestation and reforestation activities against this trend. However there are not many official documents on achievement of forest rehabilitation in DPRK. "Rodong Shinmun," as an official newspaper published by North Korean Workers Party, represents governmental policies and is one of a few accessible information on DPRK which is available in Republic of Korea (ROK). This paper aims to investigate the national forest policies of the DPRK represented in Rodong Shinmun. Total of 499 articles using the word 'Sanlim (forest)' and 'Rimsan (forest product)' in the title of articles were selected for content analysis. The national forest plans and forest policy instruments contained in the selected articles were analyzed. The subjects of represented forest policies were classified into four groups; forestation, forest management, land management and forest protection or conservation. The focus of forest policy was changed from economic utilization of forest resources such as timber production in the 1990s to forest protection in the 2000s. Rodong Shinmun reported more frequently about regulatory instruments and informational instruments than the economic instruments. Official commendation and awards were the main incentives given to the people who contributed to forestry achievements. In particular, forest policies were emphasized by Kim Il Sung and Kim Jong Il and afforestation and forest protection were described as patriotic activities in the Rodong Shinmun. In conclusion, this research revealed that Rodong Shinmun plays a role as a means for introducing, propagating and instigating forest policies in the society of the DPRK. The findings help to understand the forest policies of the DPRK which could be useful when designing development aids for DPRK.

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A Multimodal Profile Ensemble Approach to Development of Recommender Systems Using Big Data (빅데이터 기반 추천시스템 구현을 위한 다중 프로파일 앙상블 기법)

  • Kim, Minjeong;Cho, Yoonho
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.93-110
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    • 2015
  • The recommender system is a system which recommends products to the customers who are likely to be interested in. Based on automated information filtering technology, various recommender systems have been developed. Collaborative filtering (CF), one of the most successful recommendation algorithms, has been applied in a number of different domains such as recommending Web pages, books, movies, music and products. But, it has been known that CF has a critical shortcoming. CF finds neighbors whose preferences are like those of the target customer and recommends products those customers have most liked. Thus, CF works properly only when there's a sufficient number of ratings on common product from customers. When there's a shortage of customer ratings, CF makes the formation of a neighborhood inaccurate, thereby resulting in poor recommendations. To improve the performance of CF based recommender systems, most of the related studies have been focused on the development of novel algorithms under the assumption of using a single profile, which is created from user's rating information for items, purchase transactions, or Web access logs. With the advent of big data, companies got to collect more data and to use a variety of information with big size. So, many companies recognize it very importantly to utilize big data because it makes companies to improve their competitiveness and to create new value. In particular, on the rise is the issue of utilizing personal big data in the recommender system. It is why personal big data facilitate more accurate identification of the preferences or behaviors of users. The proposed recommendation methodology is as follows: First, multimodal user profiles are created from personal big data in order to grasp the preferences and behavior of users from various viewpoints. We derive five user profiles based on the personal information such as rating, site preference, demographic, Internet usage, and topic in text. Next, the similarity between users is calculated based on the profiles and then neighbors of users are found from the results. One of three ensemble approaches is applied to calculate the similarity. Each ensemble approach uses the similarity of combined profile, the average similarity of each profile, and the weighted average similarity of each profile, respectively. Finally, the products that people among the neighborhood prefer most to are recommended to the target users. For the experiments, we used the demographic data and a very large volume of Web log transaction for 5,000 panel users of a company that is specialized to analyzing ranks of Web sites. R and SAS E-miner was used to implement the proposed recommender system and to conduct the topic analysis using the keyword search, respectively. To evaluate the recommendation performance, we used 60% of data for training and 40% of data for test. The 5-fold cross validation was also conducted to enhance the reliability of our experiments. A widely used combination metric called F1 metric that gives equal weight to both recall and precision was employed for our evaluation. As the results of evaluation, the proposed methodology achieved the significant improvement over the single profile based CF algorithm. In particular, the ensemble approach using weighted average similarity shows the highest performance. That is, the rate of improvement in F1 is 16.9 percent for the ensemble approach using weighted average similarity and 8.1 percent for the ensemble approach using average similarity of each profile. From these results, we conclude that the multimodal profile ensemble approach is a viable solution to the problems encountered when there's a shortage of customer ratings. This study has significance in suggesting what kind of information could we use to create profile in the environment of big data and how could we combine and utilize them effectively. However, our methodology should be further studied to consider for its real-world application. We need to compare the differences in recommendation accuracy by applying the proposed method to different recommendation algorithms and then to identify which combination of them would show the best performance.

Analysis of the Investment Suitability relative to the Landscape Elements Construction Costs within the Residents' Value Recognition in the Apartment - Focused on a Public Institutional Apartment Complex near the Capital Area - (아파트 단지 조경요소별 입주민의 가치인지도 대비 공사비 측정의 상대적 적정성 분석 - 공공기관 시행 수도권 분양아파트를 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Sang-Jin;Cho, Se-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.177-187
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    • 2016
  • This study started with the question, "Is the cost of landscape construction work in residential areas measured by public enterprises, 'in response to the needs of consumers?" The study analyzed whether the landscape construction expenditure is being introduced at an appropriate ratio according to the value the residents have regarding landscape elements. Following this, research was conducted for the purpose of providing basic data for improving the efficiency of formulating apartment landscape construction costs in the future. This research proceeded based on a questionnaire survey of residents of apartments, and the content of the questionnaire used frequency analysis and descriptive statistics research methods. To take a look at a comparative analysis of value recognition, in particular, a comparative analysis was performed based on the actual input cost based on the ratio of landscape elements by layer. Conclusions were found as follows: First, the degree of interest in the apartment landscape of the tenants was high, and the value of the landscape was high but realistic satisfaction appeared comparatively low. Second, the awareness of residents' values regarding landscape elements appeared to give "plantings" more value than "facilities". Thirdly, as a result of a mutual comparison between the values recognized by the resident regarding landscape elements and the construction input fee, depending on the landscape elements, it appeared that there is a difference in the ratio of up to 52 times from 1.25. Fourth, the fact that there is a difference in the relative proportion of value recognition and inputting construction cost indicates that it is not possible to respond to the needs of tenants during the construction cost development process. It also shows that the utility of inputting construction costs is low. Therefore, a macro-level examination such as reflecting the existing inflation rate is necessary to develop the efficient landscape construction cost of apartment such as the awareness of the value of the residents regarding landscape elements, out of the customary construction cost formulation method based on the microscopic dimensions of the consumer side.

The Past and Future of Public Engagement with Science and Technology (참여적 과학기술 거버넌스의 전개와 전망)

  • Kim, Hyomin;Cho, Seung Hee;Song, Sungsoo
    • Journal of Science and Technology Studies
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.99-147
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    • 2016
  • This paper critically reviews the previous discussion over public engagement with science and technology by Science and Technology Studies literatures with a focus on justification and acceptance. Recent studies pointed out that the "participatory turn" after the late 1990s was followed by confusion and disagreement over the meaning and agency of public engagement. Their discussion over the reproduction of the ever-present boundary between science and society along with so-called late modernity and post-normal science and sometimes through the very processes of public engagement draws fresh attention to the old problem: how can lay participation in decision-making be justified, even if we agree that privileging the position of experts in governance of science and technology is no longer justified? So far STS have focused on two conditions for participatory turn-1) uncertainties inherent in experts' ways of knowing and 2) practicability of lay knowledge. This paper first explicated why such discussion has not been logically sufficient nor successful in promoting a wide and well-thought-out acceptance of public engagement. Then the paper made a preliminary attempt to explain what new types of expertise can support the construction and sustainment of participatory governance in science and technology by focusing on one case of lay participation. The particular case discussed by the paper revolves around the actions of a civil organization and an activist who led legal and regulatory changes in wind power development in Jeju Special Self-governing Province. The paper analyzed the types of expertise constructed to be effective and legitimate during the constitution of participatory energy governance and the local society's support for it. The arguments of this paper can be summarized as follows. First, an appropriate basis of the normative claim that science and technology governance should make participatory turn cannot be drawn from the essential characteristics of lay publics-as little as of experts. Second, the type of 'expertise' which can justify participatory governance can only be constructed a posteriori as a result of the practices to re-construct the boundaries between factual statements and value judgment. Third, an intermediary expertise, which this paper defines as a type of expertise in forming human-nonhuman associations and their new pathways for circulations, made significant contribution in laying out the legal and regulatory foundation for revenue sharing in Jeju wind power development. Fourth, experts' conventional ways of knowing need to be supplemented, not supplanted, by lay expertise. Ultimately, the paper calls for the necessity to extend STS discussion over governance toward following the actors. What needs more thorough analysis is such actors' narratives and practices to re-construct the boundaries between the past and present, facts and values, science and society. STS needs a renewed focus on the actual sites of conflicts and decision-making in discussing participatory governance.

The Effects of Self-Congruity and Functional Congruity on e-WOM: The Moderating Role of Self-Construal in Tourism (중국 관광객의 온라인 구전에 대한 자아일치성과 기능일치성의 효과: 자기해석의 조절효과를 중심으로)

  • Yang, Qin;Lee, Young-Chan
    • The Journal of Information Systems
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.1-23
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    • 2016
  • Purpose Self-congruity deals with the effect of symbolic value-expressive attributes on consumer decision and behavior, which is the theoretical foundation of the "non-utilitarian destination positioning". Functional congruity refers to utilitarian evaluation of a product or service by consumers. In addition, recent years, social network services, especially mobile social network services have created many opportunities for e-WOM communication that enables consumers to share personal consumption related information anywhere at any time. Moreover, self-construal is a hot and popular topic that has been discussed in the field of modem psychology as well as in marketing area. This study aims to examine the moderating effect of self-construal on the relationship between self-congruity, functional congruity and tourists' positive electronic word of mouth (e-WOM). Design/methodology/approach In order to verify the hypotheses, we developed a questionnaire with 32 survey items. We measured all the items on a five-point Likert-type scale. We used Sojump.com to collect questionnaire and gathered 218 responses from whom have visited Korea before. After a pilot test, we analyzed the main survey data by using SPSS 20.0 and AMOS 18.0, and employed structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses. We first estimated the measurement model for its overall fit, reliability and validity through a confirmatory factor analysis and used common method bias test to make sure that whether measures are affected by common-method variance. Then we tested the hypotheses through the structural model and used regression analysis to measure moderating effect of self-construal. Findings The results reveal that the effect of self-congruity on tourists' positive e-WOM is stronger for tourists with an independent self-construal compared with those with interdependent self-construal. Moreover, it shows that the effect of functional congruity on tourists' positive e-WOM becomes salient when tourists' self-construal is primed to be interdependent rather than independent. We expect that the results of this study can provide important implications for academic and practical perspective.

Patient's 'Right Not to Know' and Physician's 'Duty to Consideration' (환자의 모를 권리와 의사의 배려의무)

  • Suk, HeeTae
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.145-173
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    • 2016
  • A patient's Right to Self-Determination or his/her Right of Autonomy in the Republic of Korea has traditionally been understood as being composed of two elements. The first, is the patient's Right to Know as it pertains to the physician's Duty to Report [the Medical Situation] to the patient; the second, is the patient's Right to Consent and Right of Refusal as it pertains to the physician's Duty to Inform [for Patient's Consent]. The legal and ethical positions pertaining to the patient's autonomous decision, particularly those in the interest of the patient's not wanting to know about his/her own body or medical condition, were therefore acknowledged as passively expressed entities borne from the patient's forfeiture of the Right to Know and Right to Consent, and exempting the physician from the Duty to Inform. The potential risk of adverse effects rising as a result of applying the Informed Consent Dogma to situations described above were only passively recognized, seen merely as a preclusion of the Informed Consent Dogma or a denial of liability on part of the physician. In short, the legal measures that guarantee a patient's 'Wish for Ignorance' are not currently being understood and acknowledged under the active positions of the patient's 'Right Not to Know' and the physician's 'Duty to Consideration' (such as the duty not to inform). Practical and theoretical issues arise absent the recognition of these active positions of the involved parties. The question of normative evaluation of cases where a sizable amount of harm has come up on the patient as a result of the physician explaining to or informing the patient of his/her medical condition despite the patient previously waiving the Right to Consent or exempting the physician from the Duty to Inform, is one that is yet to be addressed; that of ascertaining direct evidence/legal basis that can cement legality to situations where the physician foregoes the informing process under consideration that doing so may cause harm to the patient, is another. Therefore it is the position of this paper that the Right [Not to Know] and the Duty [to Consideration] play critical roles both in meeting the legal normative requirements pertaining to the enrichment of the patient's Right to Self-Determination and the prevention of adverse effects as it pertains to the provision of [unwanted] medical information.

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A Study to Compare between Groups Glassified by Demographic Characteristic into Effects of Word of Mouth and Methods of Sales Promotion in Intention of Watching Movies (개봉 전 후 영화의 구전효과와 판촉방식에 따른 인구통계학적 집단 간의 차이에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Yang Sug;Lee, Bo Young
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2015
  • It's important to analyse effects of word of mouth for making its impact higher in performance of motions pictures. And it's required to combine variety sales activities like free gift, promotion goods and price discount with word of mouth for the box office of film. The purpose of this study is to compare between groups classified by demographic characteristic into effects from word of mouth and methods of sales promotion in intention of watching film. On the other hand existing studies on sales activity and word of mouth were one-sided in theoretical background, a meaning of this study is theorizing a social phenomenon about sales promotion of movie giving actual examples that currently are effected by production company, Movie theaters, distribution company and affiliated company. For this purpose, it conducted a survey targeting 500 students in B university in Seoul city and 379 answers got received, and it proceeded this study with 369 answers except 10 inaccurate ones. Creating questionnaires with Likert 5 point scale, it decided that case of substantial inclination was 5 points and inverse one is 1 point. Doing analysis T and ANOVA according to male and female, kinds of major study and number of average monthly watching movie, it analysed the test results after comparison analysis between classified group. The results are summarized as follows: First, offering premiums is more effective by masculine than feminine, but situation of free gift is an opposite result. Second, there are no differences of effects word of mouth and methods of sales promotion by majority departments. Third, there are much differences between groups classified by average number of watching film in a month into effects from word of mouth and methods of sales promotion. Group of watching film more 3 times in a month is more effective than the other groups in intension of watching film by word of mouth. Fourth, word of mouth is great factor to increase intention of watching film and second one is discount on the price.

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