• Title/Summary/Keyword: 굽타

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굽타의 진리 수정론

  • Song, Ha-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Logic
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    • v.1
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    • pp.65-93
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    • 1997
  • 거짓말쟁이 역설에 대한 전통적인 설명은 다음 두 가지로 주어진다. 역설을 일으키는 거짓말쟁이 문장이 자기지시적이기 때문에 역설이 발생하므로 자기지시적 문장을 금함으로써 그 역설을 피할 수 있다는 것이 첫 번째이고, 둘째는 모든 문장을 참이나 거짓이라고 주장하는 진리값에 대한 배중률(principle of bivalence)에 집착하기 때문에 그 역설이 발생한다고 생각하고 제3의 진리값을 갖는 문장이 있음을 인정해야 한다는 것이다. 이러한 전통적인 설명과 달리 진리 개념을 비일관적인 개념으로 보고 진리 술어와 그 외의 술어의 용법상의 차이를 설명함으로써 거짓말쟁이 역설에 대한 새로운 설명을 시도하고자 하는 것이 굽타의 "진리 수정론"이다. 굽타의 진리 수정론에 따르면, 진리 술어 외의 술어들은 그 외연이 고정적으로 산출되고 그 과정은 적용 규칙(rule of application)에 의해서 설명되지만 진리 술어는 순환적 정의처럼 고정된 외연을 만들어내지 못하고 단지 가설적 외연만 만들어 낼 뿐이다. 이렇게 진리술어의 가정적 외연을 산출해내는 과정은 수정규칙(rule of revision)에 의해서 설명된다. 요컨대 진리 수정론은 순환적 개념도 의미를 가질 수 있음을 보여주는 의미론적 구조틀이 있다는 것과 진리개념이 바로 그러한 의미구조틀에 의해서 의미를 갖는 순환적 개념이라는 것이다. 그리고 굽타는 그러한 의미구조 틀을 일정한 규칙을 갖는 함수로 설명하려고 시도한다. 즉 진리개념을 일관적인 것으로 보고 거짓말쟁이 역설을 해결해야 할 병리적 현상으로 보는 진리의 일관성론과 달리 굽타의 진리 수정론은 진리술어 자체가 비일관적이기 때문에 거짓말쟁이 역설은 그 술어의 속성상 자연스러운 것이지 피해야 만할 병리적 현상이 아니라고 주장한다. 필자는 의미론적 역설에 대한 여러 가지 설명 중에서 진리 수정론이 가장 설득력 있는 것으로 인정하고 그에 대한 가능한 반론을 검토하고 그에 대한 답변을 시도했다. 또한 진리 수정론을 통해서 거짓말쟁이 역설을 설명하고 -해결하려는 것이 아니라- 나아가서 진리 개념에 대한 이해를 제공해보려고 시도했다.

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Dicon Interview

  • Korea Database Promotion Center
    • Digital Contents
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    • no.3 s.154
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 2006
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A Study on the Design of Teaching Units for Teaching and Learning of Secondary Preservice Teachers' Mathematising: Reinvention of Bretschneider's Formula (수학화 교수.학습을 위한 교수단원 디자인 연구: 브레트슈나이더 공식의 재발명)

  • Park, Kyo-Sik
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.327-339
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    • 2006
  • In this study, a teaching units for teaching and learning of secondary preservice teachers' mathematising is designed, focusing on reinvention of Bretschneider's formula. preservice teachers can obtain the following through this teaching units. First, preservice teachers can experience mathematising which invent a noumenon which organize a phenomenon, They can make an experience to invent Bretscheider's formula as if they invent mathematics really. Second, preservice teachers can understand one of the mechanisms of mathematics knowledge invention. As they reinvent Brahmagupta's formula and Bretschneider's formula, they understand a mechanism that new knowledge is invented Iron already known knowledge by analogy. Third, preservice teachers can understand connection between school mathematics and academic mathematics. They can understand how the school mathematics can connect academic mathematics, through the relation between the school mathematics like formulas for calculating areas of rectangle, square, rhombus, parallelogram, trapezoid and Heron's formula, and academic mathematics like Brahmagupta's formula and Bretschneider's formula.

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Physical Factors in Relation to Conidial Germination in Alternaria porri, the Incitant of Purple Blotch of Onion (양파검은무늬병균의 포자발아에 마치는 물리적 요인)

  • Gupta, R.B.L.;Pathak, V.N.;Verma, O.P.
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.24 no.3 s.64
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    • pp.135-139
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    • 1985
  • Influence of temperature, relative humidity, spore washing and spore drying on conidial germination of Alternaria porri(Ell.) Cif. was studied. Maximum conidial germination occurred at 100% relative humidity prevailing for 6 hours or more at $25^{\circ}C$. Conidial germination decreased with increase in number of spore washings. Drying of conidia for more than half an hour caused significant decrease in germination. In all the experiments, conidial germinatio increased with increase in incubation period.

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A Study on the Buddha's Life Relief in the Gupta Period at Sarnath, India (인도 굽타시대 사르나트 불전도에 대한 일고찰)

  • KOH, Jeong Eun
    • SUVANNABHUMI
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.21-41
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    • 2009
  • The Art of the Buddha's Life which depicts the life and before-life of Buddha flourished in Sanci and Bharhut in the ancient India and in Gandhara during the Kushan period. More than one hundred scenes from Buddha's life were represented in the form of relief sculpture or wall painting. They are found in Gandhara and Mathura during the Kushan period, Amaravati and Nagarjunakonda during the Satavahana period, in Mathura and Sarnath during the Gupta period, and during the Pala Period. They unfolded in various forms and styles according to the text(Buddhist scripture), layout, and expressive technique. In Mathura, where the Evolution of the Buddha image was made about the same time as in Gandhara during the Kushan period, the Buddha's life was presented in a number of scenes related to the sacred sites; in four or eight scenes. In the case of the Eight Great Events of the Buddha's Life, the four scenes out of eight were different from those that were represented in Sarnath during the Gupta period, manifesting a transitional period. The Gupta period is widely known as the time when the classic artistic style was established. The art of Buddha's Life was produced only in Sarnath during this period, and it was the time when the Eight Great Events of the Buddha's Life was established as iconography, providing a model for those of the Pala period. Also, it was the time when the single image of Buddha was produced such as the 'Buddha delivering his first sermon,' 'Buddha's Enlightenment,' and 'Buddha's Death,' thus showing the emergence of the single Buddha image from the narrative Buddha's life image. In this paper, a general introduction of the relief sculpture of the Buddha's life from Sarnath during the Gupta period was given. The art of Buddha's life gave great influences on that of China, Korea, Japan and Southeast Asia, and can be emphasized as an important subject in understanding the development of the Buddhist art in East Asia. A further study will be made on the art of Buddha's Life of Southeast Asia in the future, which will enhance the understanding of the art of Buddha's Life in East Asia as a whole.

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Generation of Floor Response Spectra Considering Coupling Effect of Primary and Secondary System (부구조시스템의 연계 효과를 고려한 구조물의 층응답 스펙트럼 생성)

  • Cho, Sung Gook;Gupta, Abhinav
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.179-187
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    • 2020
  • Seismic qualification of equipment including piping is performed by using floor response spectra (FRS) or in-structure response spectra (ISRS) as the earthquake input at the base of the equipment. The amplitude of the FRS may be noticeably reduced when obtained from coupling analysis because of interaction between the primary structure and the equipment. This paper introduces a method using a modal synthesis approach to generate the FRS in a coupled primary-secondary system that can avoid numerical instabilities or inaccuracies. The FRS were generated by considering the dynamic interaction that can occur at the interface between the supporting structure and the equipment. This study performed a numerical example analysis using a typical nuclear structure to investigate the coupling effect when generating the FRS. The study results show that the coupling analysis dominantly reduces the FRS and yields rational results. The modal synthesis approach is very practical to implement because it requires information on only a small number of dynamic characteristics of the primary and the secondary systems such as frequencies, modal participation factors, and mode shape ordinates at the locations where the FRS needs to be generated.

Minimization of Packet Delay in a Mobile Data Collector (MDC)-based Data Gathering Network (MDC 기반 데이터 수집 네트워크에서의 패킷지연 최소화)

  • Dasgupta, Rumpa;Yoon, Seokhoon
    • The Journal of the Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.89-96
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    • 2016
  • In this paper, we study mobile data collector (MDC) based data-gathering schemes in wireless sensor networks. In Such networks, MDCs are used to collect data from the environment and transfer them to the sink. The majority of existing data-gathering schemes suffer from high data-gathering latency because they use only a single MDC. Although some schemes use multiple MDCs, they focus on maximizing network lifetime rather than minimizing packet delay. In order to address the limitations of existing schemes, this paper focuses on minimizing packet delay for given number of MDCs and minimizing the number of MDCs for a given delay bound of packets. To achieve the minimum packet delay and minimum number of MDCs, two optimization problems are formulated, and traveling distance and traveling time of MDCs are estimated. The interior-point algorithm is used to obtain the optimal solution for each optimization problem. Numerical results and analysis are presented to validate the proposed method.