• Title, Summary, Keyword: 굽타

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굽타의 진리 수정론

  • Song, Ha-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Logic
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    • v.1
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    • pp.65-93
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    • 1997
  • 거짓말쟁이 역설에 대한 전통적인 설명은 다음 두 가지로 주어진다. 역설을 일으키는 거짓말쟁이 문장이 자기지시적이기 때문에 역설이 발생하므로 자기지시적 문장을 금함으로써 그 역설을 피할 수 있다는 것이 첫 번째이고, 둘째는 모든 문장을 참이나 거짓이라고 주장하는 진리값에 대한 배중률(principle of bivalence)에 집착하기 때문에 그 역설이 발생한다고 생각하고 제3의 진리값을 갖는 문장이 있음을 인정해야 한다는 것이다. 이러한 전통적인 설명과 달리 진리 개념을 비일관적인 개념으로 보고 진리 술어와 그 외의 술어의 용법상의 차이를 설명함으로써 거짓말쟁이 역설에 대한 새로운 설명을 시도하고자 하는 것이 굽타의 "진리 수정론"이다. 굽타의 진리 수정론에 따르면, 진리 술어 외의 술어들은 그 외연이 고정적으로 산출되고 그 과정은 적용 규칙(rule of application)에 의해서 설명되지만 진리 술어는 순환적 정의처럼 고정된 외연을 만들어내지 못하고 단지 가설적 외연만 만들어 낼 뿐이다. 이렇게 진리술어의 가정적 외연을 산출해내는 과정은 수정규칙(rule of revision)에 의해서 설명된다. 요컨대 진리 수정론은 순환적 개념도 의미를 가질 수 있음을 보여주는 의미론적 구조틀이 있다는 것과 진리개념이 바로 그러한 의미구조틀에 의해서 의미를 갖는 순환적 개념이라는 것이다. 그리고 굽타는 그러한 의미구조 틀을 일정한 규칙을 갖는 함수로 설명하려고 시도한다. 즉 진리개념을 일관적인 것으로 보고 거짓말쟁이 역설을 해결해야 할 병리적 현상으로 보는 진리의 일관성론과 달리 굽타의 진리 수정론은 진리술어 자체가 비일관적이기 때문에 거짓말쟁이 역설은 그 술어의 속성상 자연스러운 것이지 피해야 만할 병리적 현상이 아니라고 주장한다. 필자는 의미론적 역설에 대한 여러 가지 설명 중에서 진리 수정론이 가장 설득력 있는 것으로 인정하고 그에 대한 가능한 반론을 검토하고 그에 대한 답변을 시도했다. 또한 진리 수정론을 통해서 거짓말쟁이 역설을 설명하고 -해결하려는 것이 아니라- 나아가서 진리 개념에 대한 이해를 제공해보려고 시도했다.

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A Study on the Design of Teaching Units for Teaching and Learning of Secondary Preservice Teachers' Mathematising: Reinvention of Bretschneider's Formula (수학화 교수.학습을 위한 교수단원 디자인 연구: 브레트슈나이더 공식의 재발명)

  • Park, Kyo-Sik
    • School Mathematics
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.327-339
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    • 2006
  • In this study, a teaching units for teaching and learning of secondary preservice teachers' mathematising is designed, focusing on reinvention of Bretschneider's formula. preservice teachers can obtain the following through this teaching units. First, preservice teachers can experience mathematising which invent a noumenon which organize a phenomenon, They can make an experience to invent Bretscheider's formula as if they invent mathematics really. Second, preservice teachers can understand one of the mechanisms of mathematics knowledge invention. As they reinvent Brahmagupta's formula and Bretschneider's formula, they understand a mechanism that new knowledge is invented Iron already known knowledge by analogy. Third, preservice teachers can understand connection between school mathematics and academic mathematics. They can understand how the school mathematics can connect academic mathematics, through the relation between the school mathematics like formulas for calculating areas of rectangle, square, rhombus, parallelogram, trapezoid and Heron's formula, and academic mathematics like Brahmagupta's formula and Bretschneider's formula.

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Physical Factors in Relation to Conidial Germination in Alternaria porri, the Incitant of Purple Blotch of Onion (양파검은무늬병균의 포자발아에 마치는 물리적 요인)

  • Gupta, R.B.L.;Pathak, V.N.;Verma, O.P.
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.135-139
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    • 1985
  • Influence of temperature, relative humidity, spore washing and spore drying on conidial germination of Alternaria porri(Ell.) Cif. was studied. Maximum conidial germination occurred at 100% relative humidity prevailing for 6 hours or more at $25^{\circ}C$. Conidial germination decreased with increase in number of spore washings. Drying of conidia for more than half an hour caused significant decrease in germination. In all the experiments, conidial germinatio increased with increase in incubation period.

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Generation of Floor Response Spectra Considering Coupling Effect of Primary and Secondary System (부구조시스템의 연계 효과를 고려한 구조물의 층응답 스펙트럼 생성)

  • Cho, Sung Gook;Gupta, Abhinav
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.179-187
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    • 2020
  • Seismic qualification of equipment including piping is performed by using floor response spectra (FRS) or in-structure response spectra (ISRS) as the earthquake input at the base of the equipment. The amplitude of the FRS may be noticeably reduced when obtained from coupling analysis because of interaction between the primary structure and the equipment. This paper introduces a method using a modal synthesis approach to generate the FRS in a coupled primary-secondary system that can avoid numerical instabilities or inaccuracies. The FRS were generated by considering the dynamic interaction that can occur at the interface between the supporting structure and the equipment. This study performed a numerical example analysis using a typical nuclear structure to investigate the coupling effect when generating the FRS. The study results show that the coupling analysis dominantly reduces the FRS and yields rational results. The modal synthesis approach is very practical to implement because it requires information on only a small number of dynamic characteristics of the primary and the secondary systems such as frequencies, modal participation factors, and mode shape ordinates at the locations where the FRS needs to be generated.

Manufacturing Technique of Gulbulsaji Four Surface Buddha Statue - Mainly for Seomyeon Amita Three Buddha Statues - (굴불사지 사면석불 별조제작기법에 대한 고찰 - 서면 아미타삼존상을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim Jeong-hwa
    • KOMUNHWA
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    • no.62
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    • pp.59-85
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    • 2003
  • Unified Silla Era, when buddhist sculpture had its prevailing era, was an era of the most beautiful cultural art of Korean history of art. Especially in the era of King Gyeongdeok, it was era of combined Indian Gupta Culture and Chinese Tang Culture, and

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Cryopreservation of Oocytes and Embryos by Vitrification (유리화 방법에 의한 난자와 수정란의 동결보존)

  • Gupta, Mukesh Kumar;Lee, Hoon-Taek
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.267-291
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    • 2010
  • Life can be kept in suspended animation either before fertilization at oocyte stage or after fertilization at different stages of embryonic development for a variety of reasons. It not only has potential applications in fertility preservation and management in human but also has important roles in the preservation and management of animal genetic resources, low-cost international movement of selected genetics, and rapid dissemination of germplasm through assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and genetic engineering. Currently, slow-freezing and vitrification are the two approaches by which oocytes and embryos can be cryopreserved for long-term storage. Both of these methods have their own advantages and disadvantages but allow the cryopreservation of oocytes and embryos with comparable efficiency. Vitrification of oocyte and embryos, although proven successful just 13 years after slow-freezing, is generally considered an emerging technology and appears to slow gain acceptance in both animal and human ART despite having controversial storage and contamination issues. In this manuscript, we discuss the basic techniques of oocyt/embryo cryopreservation and review the current status and recent developments in vitrification.