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US Indo-Pacific Strategy through the Lenses of International Political Theories (미(美) 인도태평양전략의 국제정치학적 해석)

  • LEE, SANGYUP
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.5-32
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    • 2019
  • The paper introduces US Indo-Pacific Strategy and discusses its meanings and implications for international security and our strategy. It tries to look at the Indo-Pacific strategy(IPS) through the lenses of international political theories. The paper provides three important observations. First, the US Indo-Pacific strategy is a declaration of the national identity of the US as an Indo-Pacific nation. The paper argues that the IPS reflects the US leadership that would facilitate the formation of, so called, the Indo-Pacific community. In arguing these points, the paper notes that the IPS has rich elements of constructivist approaches including norms and national identity. Second, the paper observes that the IPS report serves as an effective deterrent strategy. The IPS does not call out China as an enemy. But, it tries to deter against a range of actors including China by warning that whoever violates the rules-based order in the region would have consequences. Third, the paper maintains that the IPS is an effort by the US to mitigate the risk of a great power war between the US (an established power) and China (a challenging power) because the IPS articulates the United States's willingness to work with China as long as it plays by the rules. There will be challenges to the US and other countries in the region including South Korea particularly because of economic interdependence. However, the paper argues that the IPS stands for an optimistic sign of the future security in the Indo-Pacific region because it is a manifestation of the US for its national will to defend the status quo characterized as Pax Americana which has been maintained since the end of the Second World War. It also argues that South Korea also can, and should make the most of this opportunity by enhancing our capacity in national defense.

Gray Zone Strategy in Maritime Arena : Theories and Practices (해양에서의 회색지대전략의 이론과 실제)

  • Chung, Samman
    • Strategy21
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    • pp.89-124
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    • 2018
  • 평화를 전쟁의 부재라고 정의할 때 현재 전쟁이 없다면 지금 이 시간은 안전하고 평화로워야 한다. 그러나 지금 현 세상은 비록 공식적으로 선포된 전쟁은 없다고는 하지만 그래도 결코 평화롭다곤 할 수 없을 것이다. 흑해의 크림반도가 노골적인 군사적 침략이 없었지만 결과적으로 러시아의 수중에 떨어졌다. 남중국해의 여러 섬이나 암초들이 정규 군사작전 없이 사실상의 중국의 소유로 기정사실화 되고 있다. 전시 군사적 침략을 통해서만이 확보 가능한 전략적 목표들이 전시도 아니고 그렇다고 평시도 아닌 어중간한 시기에 적 또는 상대의 수중에 떨어지고 있다. 즉, 전시와 평시 사이의 회색지대에서 소위 회색지대전략이라고 부르는 공세적 전역을 통해 이러한 전략적 목표들이 달성되어 지고 있다. 소시지가 너무 커 한입에 다 먹을 수 없으면 잘게 썰어 하나씩 먹으면 결국 전체를 다 먹을 수 있듯이 소규모의 절차적 행동을 단계적으로 실행, 대규모 전투를 통해서만이 확보 가능한 거대하고 중대한 목표를 확보하는 게 회색지대전략의 한 특징이다. 이를 전략적 점진주의(strategic gradualism)라고 한다. 또한 단계적 행동은 누구나 인지할 수 있지만 그러한 점진적 행동의 결과에 대해선 쉽게 간파할 수 없기 때문에 대응자의 입장에선 대부분 특별한 대응책을 세우지 못하고 방치하고 만다는 게 이 전략의 또 다른 특성이다. 즉, 회색지대전략은 특성상 반드시 애매모호성(ambiguity)을 띄고 있다는 것이다. 회색지대에서의 도전자의 행위는 일종의 속임수일 수도 있다. 전략의 본질은 위계, 즉 상대로 하여금 오인, 착각, 부지를 일으키도록 하여 소기의 목적을 달성하는 것이다. 그래서 회색지대전략(gray zone strategy)이라고도 한다. 양육강식의 논리가 작용되는 현실 세계에선 힘이 곧 정의이고 국익이 최고의 선이다. 국가이익은 오직 과정보다는 결과만을 놓고서 정당화된다. 이에 회색지대전략에서도 결과에 대한 유용성만 거론되지 과정상 불법성이나 비도덕성 등은 따지지 않는다. 대부분 이 전략의 애매모호성 때문에 과정 자체를 식별하기가 쉽지 않다. 그래서 대응자의 입장에서도 사전에 예방할 수 있는 선제적 대응전략을 구사하기가 어려운 게 사실이다. 한국도 예외가 아니다. 중국이 해상민병을 이용한 회색지대전략을 구사, 이어도에 대한 도발을 감행할 수도 있다. 일본이 민간 극우파 등을 이용한 회색지대 전략을 구사, 독도에 대한 도발을 감행할 수도 있다. 평화는 거저 존재하지 않는다. 확전을 각오한 사전대비차원의 억지책이 마련되어야 상대의 회색지대전략을 단념시킬 수 있다. 그것도 신뢰성 있는 억지력만이 진정한 평화를 담보할 수 있다. 전략이 있어야 대응계획을 세울 수 있고, 상대는 이럴 때 도발을 단념하게 된다. 대응전략이 없다는 것은 대응계획이 없다는 것을 의미하고, 이러한 무계획은 늘 실패만을 계획하고 있다는 것을 명심해야 할 것이다.

A Comparative study of Korea and US Intelligence Systems: Focusing on Environment, Intelligence Organizations and Activities (한국과 미국의 정보체계 비교연구 - 환경, 정보조직 및 활동을 중심으로 -)

  • Seok, Jaewang
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.58
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    • pp.107-135
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this paper is to compare and analyze the similarities and differences between the security environment, information organization and information activities of Korea and the United States. The comparison will provide insight into Korea and other national intelligence agencies, as well as methodological advances in information research, by providing insight into the overall information and a broad understanding As the history, culture and national power of Korea and the U.S. are different, the organization and activities of intelligence agencies are also different. First of all, in terms of environment, the U.S. carries out intelligence activities for national interest and security in a wide range of areas ranging from North American continental countries to South America, the Middle East, Asia and Asia, while South Korea's intelligence activities are mainly aimed at North Korea and neighboring countries around the Korean Peninsula. In terms of information organization, U.S. intelligence agencies are separate, whereas domestic and foreign intelligence agencies are separate, whereas Korean intelligence agencies are a type of integrated intelligence agency that combines information and investigation, unlike the U.S. In the U.S., the U.S. also operates as an intelligence community, and there are many flexible organizations such as non-tier organizations and centers. Intelligence activities by U.S. intelligence agencies are mainly focused on analysis and overseas processing activities, while Korean intelligence agencies still account for a large portion of domestic information activities. Despite these differences, Korea's intelligence agency was created by imitating U.S. intelligence agencies, and thus has similar aspects in terms of evaluation of security, organization and activities. However, this similarity is shared by all intelligence agencies, so the article will focus on analyzing differences. Finally, for the development of Korean intelligence agencies, the establishment of an intelligence community and efficient control of the National Assembly will be proposed.

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A Study on Understanding of Middle-East Terrorism : Focusing on Islamic Fundamentalism (이슬람 원리주의를 통해 본 중동지역테러리즘의 이해)

  • Park, Gi-Beom;Kang, Min-Wan;Jun, Yong-Tae
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.12
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    • pp.149-175
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study is to understand and analyze the character of Islamic fundamentalism and Middle-Ease Terrorism. The aim of Islamic fundamentalism is reconstruction of Ummah(Muslim Unity), thee early society of Muhammad's age. Islamic movement insist to restore the spirit of Islam and purify the society of Islam from the United State and Western world. Now, Islamic fundamentalism movement as a new ideology, appeals to muslim in the world. The concept of modern national state from the Western countries do not accord with the traditional Islamic principles of reign and a spirit of nationalism. On the other hand, Islamic movement have no legitimacy in the system of modern state which govern the Arab world, regardless of the form of government. For this reasons, Islamic fundamentalist have an insecure position and their political activities. It is yet far from their purpose, to reconstruct the muslim unity, to realize the Islamic political principle close to their practical methods. Yet Islamic fundamental movement have not overcome the system of secular state. The Middle East terrorism supported by government might be eradicated by America's anti-terrorism policy. However, it will be serious and spread all over the world that the terrorist attack against the U. S. and western countries is acted by militant warriors of Islamic fundamentalism, uniting Arab and Islamic people's emotions against America and western countries. There are some reasons that we need to focus on the Arab and Islamic fundamentalism. We need to get out of misunderstanding and discrimination about Islamic religion and culture from America's and Western' standard Which are only their new world order. The discrimination of America and western nations against muslim could make other ideologies, opposite to the world peace. There are a lot of foreign workers from Islam countries in Korea. We need to give consideration and attention to them for the our globalization and world peace. It is time to consider what to do for the nation's profit(economical, political, strategic)with right understanding. We are not safe and free from the terrorism yet.

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An Analysis of Terrorism against Korea to Overseas and its Implications - Focusing on the companies advancing to overseas - (한국을 대상으로 한 국제테러리즘의 분석과 시사점 - 해외진출기업을 중심으로 -)

  • Chang, Suk-Heon;Lee, Dae-Sung
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.28
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    • pp.153-179
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    • 2011
  • Korea has been a victim of State supporting terrorism by North Korea even before international society realize the terrorism threats because of 9.11 in US. However, state supporting terrorism against South Korea by North Korea went along with East/West Cold War System by US and the Soviet Union. It is because socialism that Kim Il-sung who established a separate government in North Korea with the political, economic, social and military support of the Soviet Union selected as his political ideology justifies terrorism as the tool to complete the proletariat revolution. North Korea's state supporting terrorism is being operated systematically and efficiently by military of North Korea. It gives big worries to international society not only by performing terrorism against Korea but also by dispatching terrorists and exporting terrorism strategies to the third world countries. In this situation, terrorism against Korea has met a new transition point at 9${\cdot}$11 in US. As South Korea is confronting North Korea and the war has not ended but suspended, the alliance between US and Korea is more important than anything else. Because of this Korea decided to support the anti-terrorism wars against Afghanistan and Iraq of US and other western countries and send military force there. The preface of the anti-terrorism war has begun as such. On October 7, 2001, US and UK started to attack Afghanistan and Taleban government in Afghanistan was dethroned on December 7, 2001. US and western countries started a war against Iraq on March 20, 2003. On April 9, 2003 Baghdad, the capital of Iraq fell, and Saddam Hussein al-Majid al-Awja government was expelled. During the process, the terrorism threat against South Korea has expanded to Arab terrorists and terrorism organizations as well as North Korea. Consequently, although Korean government, scholars and working level public servants made discussions and tried to seek countermeasures, the damages are extending. Accordingly, terrorism against Korean companies in overseas after 9${\cdot}$11 were analyzed focusing on Nation, Region, Victimology, and Weapons used for the attacks. Especially, the trend of terrorism against the Korean companies in overseas was discussed by classifying them chronologically such as initiation and termination of anti-terrorism wars against Afghanistan and Iraq, and from the execution of Iraqi President, Saddam Hussein al-Majid al-Awja to December 2010. Through this, possible terrorism incidents after the execution of Osama bin Laden, the leader of Al-Qaeda, on May 2, 2011 were projected and proposals were made for the countermeasures.

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A Study on the Institutional Improvement Directions of Industrial Security Programs: Focused upon Policies and Practices in the U.S. (산업보안의 제도적 발전방안 연구: 미국 사례를 중심으로)

  • Choi, Justin Jin-Hyuk
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.22
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    • pp.197-230
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    • 2010
  • This study examined the institutional improvement directions of industrial security programs, particularly focusing upon policies and practices in the U.S., to enhance the effectiveness of industrial security programs in Korea. This study also aimed to investigate the significance of institutional and/or policy implementations in preventing economic espionage attempt. Data leakage and/or loss of trade secrets in corporations has been a scary proposition and a serious headache to both the CEOs and the CSOs(Chief Security Officers). Security professionals or practitioners have always had to deal with data leakage issues that arise from e-mail, instant messaging(IM), and other Internet communication channels. In addition, with the proliferation of wireless and mobile technology, it's now much easier than ever for loss by data breaches to occur, whether accidentally or maliciously or even by an economic espionage attempt. The researcher in this study used both a case study and a comparative research to analyze the different strategies and approaches between the U.S. and Korea in regard of implementing policies to mitigate damages by economic espionage attempts and prevent them from occurring. The researcher first examined the current policies and practices in the U.S. in terms of federal government's and agencies' approach and strategies on industrial security programs and their partnerships with private-commercial-sectors. The purpose of this paper is to explain and suggest selected findings, and a discussion of actions to be taken on implementing a proactive and tactical approach to enhance the effectiveness of industrial security programs to fight against information loss or data leaks. This study used case reviews, literatures, newspapers, articles, and Internet resources relating to the subject of this study for triangulation of data. The findings during this research are as follows. This research suggests that both the private and the governmental sector should closely cooperate in the filed of industrial security to strengthen its traditional prevention strategies and reduce opportunities of economic espionage as well. This study finally recognizes both the very importance of institutional development led by the Government in preventing economic espionage attempts and its effectiveness when properly united with effective industrial security programs.

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A study on Operation Rules of Korean Air Defence Identification Zone (한국 방공식별구역 운영규칙에 관한 고찰)

  • Kwon, Jong-Pil;Lee, Yeong H.
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.189-217
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    • 2017
  • Declaration of Air Defense and Identification Zones started with the United States in 1950, which was followed by declaration of KADIZ by the Republic of Korea in 1951. Initial ADIZ were solely linked with air defense missions, but their roles have changed as nations around the globe manifested a tendency to expand their influence over maritime resources and rights. In particular, China declared ADIZ over the East China Sea in October 2013 and forced all passing aircraft to submit flight plan to ATC or military authority, saying failure of submission will be followed by armed engagement. China announced it would declare another zone over the South China Sea despite the ongoing conflict in the area, clearly showing ADIZ's direct connection with territorial claim and EEZ and that it serves as a zone within which a nation can execute its rights. The expanded KADIZ, which was expanded in Dec 15, 2013 in response to Chinese actions, overlaps with the Chinese ADIZ over the East China Sea and the Japanese ADIZ. The overlapping zone is an airspace over waters where not only the Republic of Korea but also of China and Japan argue to be covering their continental shelf and EEZ. Military conventions were signed to prevent contingencies among the neighboring nations while conducting identifications in KADIZ, including the overlapping zone. If such military conventions and practice of air defense identification continue to be respected among states, it is under the process of turning into a regional customary law, although ADIZ is not yet recognized by international law or customary law. Moreover, identification within ADIZ is carried out by military authorities of states, and misguided customary procedures may cause serious negative consequences for national security since it may negatively impact neighboring countries in marking the maritime border, which calls for formulation of operation rules that account for other state activities and military talks among regional stake holders. Legal frameworks need to be in place to guarantee freedom of flights over international seas which UN Maritime Law protects, and laws regarding military aircraft operation need to be supplemented to not make it a requirement to submit flight plan if the aircraft does not invade sovereign airspace. Organizational instructions that require approval of Chairman of Joint Chiefs of Staff for entrance and exit of ADIZ for military aircraft need to be amended to change the authority to Minister of National Defense or be promoted to a law to be applicable for commercial aircraft. Moreover, in regards to operation and management of ADIZ, transfer of authority should be prohibited to account for its evolution into a regional customary law in South East Asia. In particular, since ADIZ is set over EEZ, military conventions that yield authority related to national security should never be condoned. Among Korea, China, Japan and Russia, there are military conventions that discuss operation and management of ADIZ in place or under negotiation, meaning that ADIZ is becoming a regional customary law in North East Asia region.

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Analysis and Improvement Strategies for Korea's Cyber Security Systems Regulations and Policies

  • Park, Dong-Kyun;Cho, Sung-Je;Soung, Jea-Hyen
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.18
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    • pp.169-190
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    • 2009
  • Today, the rapid advance of scientific technologies has brought about fundamental changes to the types and levels of terrorism while the war against the world more than one thousand small and big terrorists and crime organizations has already begun. A method highly likely to be employed by terrorist groups that are using 21st Century state of the art technology is cyber terrorism. In many instances, things that you could only imagine in reality could be made possible in the cyber space. An easy example would be to randomly alter a letter in the blood type of a terrorism subject in the health care data system, which could inflict harm to subjects and impact the overturning of the opponent's system or regime. The CIH Virus Crisis which occurred on April 26, 1999 had significant implications in various aspects. A virus program made of just a few lines by Taiwanese college students without any specific objective ended up spreading widely throughout the Internet, causing damage to 30,000 PCs in Korea and over 2 billion won in monetary damages in repairs and data recovery. Despite of such risks of cyber terrorism, a great number of Korean sites are employing loose security measures. In fact, there are many cases where a company with millions of subscribers has very slackened security systems. A nationwide preparation for cyber terrorism is called for. In this context, this research will analyze the current status of Korea's cyber security systems and its laws from a policy perspective, and move on to propose improvement strategies. This research suggests the following solutions. First, the National Cyber Security Management Act should be passed to have its effectiveness as the national cyber security management regulation. With the Act's establishment, a more efficient and proactive response to cyber security management will be made possible within a nationwide cyber security framework, and define its relationship with other related laws. The newly passed National Cyber Security Management Act will eliminate inefficiencies that are caused by functional redundancies dispersed across individual sectors in current legislation. Second, to ensure efficient nationwide cyber security management, national cyber security standards and models should be proposed; while at the same time a national cyber security management organizational structure should be established to implement national cyber security policies at each government-agencies and social-components. The National Cyber Security Center must serve as the comprehensive collection, analysis and processing point for national cyber crisis related information, oversee each government agency, and build collaborative relations with the private sector. Also, national and comprehensive response system in which both the private and public sectors participate should be set up, for advance detection and prevention of cyber crisis risks and for a consolidated and timely response using national resources in times of crisis.

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The Effect on Air Transport Sector by Korea-China FTA and Aviation Policy Direction of Korea (한·중 FTA가 항공운송 부문에 미치는 영향과 우리나라 항공정책의 방향)

  • Lee, Kang-Bin
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.83-138
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    • 2017
  • Korea-China FTA entered into force on the 20th of December 2015, and one year elapsed after its effectuation as the FTA with China, our country's largest trading partner. Therefore, this study looks at the trends of air transport trade between Korea and China, and examines the contents of concessions to the air transport services sector in Korea-China FTA, and analyzes the impact on the air transport sector by Korea-China FTA, and proposes our country's aviation policy direction in order to respond to such impact. In 2016 the trends of air transport trade between Korea and China are as follows : The export amount of air transport trade to China was 40.03 billion dollars, down by 9.3% from the last year, and occupied 32.2% of the total export amount to China. The import amount of air transport trade from China was 24.26 billion dollars, down by 9.1% from the last year, and occupied 27.7% of the total import amount from China. The contents of concessions to the air transport services sector in Korea-China FTA are as follows : China made concessions to the aircraft repair and maintenance services and the computer reservation system services with limitations on market access and national treatment in the air transport services sector of the China Schedule of Specific Commitments of Korea-China FTA Chapter 8 Annex. Korea made concessions to the computer reservation system services, selling and marketing of air transport services, and aircraft repair and maintenance without limitations on market access and national treatment in the air transport services sector of the Korea Schedule of Specific Commitments of Korea-China FTA Chapter 8 Annex. The impact on the air transport sector by Korea-China FTA are as follows : As for the impact on the air passenger market, in 2016 the arrival passengers of the international flight from China were 9.96 million, up by 20.6% from the last year, and the departure passengers to China were 9.90 million, up by 34.8% from the last year. As for the impact on the air cargo market, in 2016 the exported goods volumes of air cargo to China were 105,220.2 tons, up by 6.6% from the last year, and imported goods volumes from China were 133,750.9 tons, up by 12.3% from the last year. Among the major items of exported air cargo to China, the exported goods volumes of benefited items in the Tariff Schedule of China of Korea-China FTA were increased, and among the major items of imported air cargo from China, the imported goods volumes of benefited items in the Tariff Schedule of Korea of Korea-China FTA were increased. As for the impact on the logistics market, in 2016 the handling performance of exported air cargo to China by domestic forwarders were 119,618 tons, down by 2.1% from the last year, and the handling performance of imported air cargo from China were 79,430 tons, down by 4.4% from the last year. In 2016 the e-commerce export amount to China were 109.16 million dollars, up by 27.7% from the last year, and the e-commerce import amount from China were 89.43 million dollars, up by 72% from the last year. The author proposes the aviation policy direction of Korea according to Korea-China FTA as follows : First, the open skies between Korea and China shall be pushed ahead. In June 2006 Korea and China concluded the open skies agreement within the scope of the third freedom and fourth freedom of the air for passenger and cargo in Sandong Province and Hainan Province of China, and agreed the full open skies of flights between the two countries from the summer season in 2010. However, China protested against the interpretation of the draft of the memorandum of understanding to the air services agreement, therefore the further open skies did not take place. Through the separate aviation talks with China from Korea-China FTA, the gradual and selective open skies of air passenger market and air cargo market shall be pushed ahead. Second, the competitiveness of air transport industry and airport shall be secured. As for the strengthening methods of the competitiveness of Korea's air transport industry, the support system for the strengthening of national air carriers' competitiveness shall be prepared, and the new basis for competition of national air carriers shall be made, and the strategic network based on national interest shall be built. As for the strengthening methods of the competitiveness of Korea's airports, particularly Incheon Airport, the competitiveness of the network for aviation demand creation shall be strengthened, and the airport facilities and safety infrastructure shall be expanded, and the new added value through the airport shall be created, and the world's No.1 level of services shall be maintained. Third, the competitiveness of aviation logistics enterprises shall be strengthened. As for the strengthening methods of the competitiveness of Korea's aviation logistics enterprises, as the upbringing strategy of higher added value in response to the industry trends changes, the new logistics market shall be developed, and the logistics infrastructure shall be expanded, and the logistics professionals shall be trained. Additionally, as the expanding strategy of global logistics market, the support system for overseas investment of logistics enterprises shall be built, and according to expanding the global transport network, the international cooperation shall be strengthened, and the network infrastructure shall be secured. As for the strengthening methods of aviation logistics competitiveness of Incheon Airport, the enterprises' demand of moving in the logistics complex shall be responded, and the comparative advantage in the field of new growth cargo shall be preoccupied, and the logistics hub's capability shall be strengthened, and the competitiveness of cargo processing speed in the airport shall be advanced. Forth, in the subsequent negotiation of Korea-China FTA, the further opening of air transport services sector shall be secured. In the subsequent negotiation being initiated within two years after entry into force of Korea-China FTA, it is necessary to ask for the further opening of the concessions of computer reservation system services, and aircraft repair and maintenance services in which the concessions level of air transport services sector by China is insufficient compared to the concessions level in the existing FTA concluded by China. In conclusion, in order to respond to the impact on Korea's air passenger market, air cargo market and aviation logistics market by Korea-China FTA, the following policy tasks shall be pushed ahead : Taking into consideration of national air carriers' competitiveness and nation's benefits, the gradual and selective open skies shall be pushed ahead, and the support system to strengthen the competitiveness of air transport industry and airport shall be built, and entry into aviation logistics market by logistics enterprises shall be expanded, and the preparations to ask for the further opening of air transport services sector, low in the concessions level by China shall be made.

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