• Title, Summary, Keyword: 과거피폭

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Change of Frequency of Chromosome Aberration by Time Interval after Radiation Therapy (방사선 치료후 시간경과에 따른 염색체이상 빈도의 변화)

  • Kim, Mi-Sook;Yi, Chun-Ja;Ha, Sung-Whan;Song, Myung-Jae;Kim, Hee-Jeun
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.51-68
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    • 1994
  • It is good method to use frequency of chromosome aberration in Lymphocytes for a biological dosimetry in cases of accidental exposure to radiation. But in cases of past exposure, biological dosimetry is limited because the frequency of aberration decreases by time after exposure. To provide a basic data for estimation of past radiation exposure, the changing pattern of frequency of unstable chromosome aberration by time interval after exposure was studied. Observation was made on peripheral lymphocytes of 41 blood samples from 20 patients treated for uterine cervical carcinoma and endometrial carcinoma. The patients received 50.4Gy radiation to whole pelvis. Elapsed times after the completion of radiation therapy were 1 day, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 52, 104, 156, 208, 260 and 520 weeks. All the blood sample were microcultured. The Ydr, Qdr and Qdra were calculated from frequency of unstable aberration. Ydr did not decrease for 3 weeks after radiation therapy, and thereafter, decreased very rapidly and reached 0.05 at two years after radiation therapy and decreased very slowly until 5 years after radiation therapy. Relationship between unstable chromosome aberration and time interval after radiation therapy was described as $Ydr=0.259{\times}exp(-0.0429T)+0.0560{\times}exp(-0.00106T)$ (time in weeks) Qdr remained constant at 1.51 until 24 weeks after radiation therapy and then decreased to 1.17 at 52 weeks. Therafter, it did not change. Qdra remained constant at 1.10 for 12 weeks after radiation therapy and decreased to 0.81 at 52 weeks. Thereafter, it remained constant. Two superimposed exponential Ydr disappearance rate suggests that it is possible to calculate the past exposure dose. When the elapsed time after exposure is short, Qdr and Qdra are useful papameters for biological dosimetry for past radiation exposure.

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Evaluation of the Usefulness of 3D Printed Shielding Materials Using Monte Carlo Simulation during Mammography (유방 X선 검사 시 몬테카를로 시뮬레이션을 이용한 3D 프린팅 차폐재료의 효용성 평가)

  • Cho, Yong In
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.295-301
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    • 2020
  • Radiation exposure exposed during mammography, which is performed for early examination of breast cancer, has also been suggested as a cause of carcinogenesis in the past, and scattered rays generated during examination may cause unnecessary radiation exposure to surrounding organs. In this study, the Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the human organ doses exposed during conventional mammography, and to estimate the dose reduction effect for each organ when using 3D printing materials for radiation protection by scattered rays. As a result of organ dose evaluation, the breast on the opposite side of the examination was about 22.0% of the breast on the test side and about 58.6% on the eye, which was highly influenced by the scattering-ray. When using the 3D printing shield to protect it, the breast on the opposite side of the test showed an effective dose reduction effect at a thickness of 1 mm.

A Study on the Application of Two-dosimeter Algorithm to Estimate the Effective Dose in an Inhomogeneous Radiation Field at Korean Nuclear Power Plants (원전 불균일 방사선장하에서 유효선량 평가를 위한 복수선량계 알고리즘 적용방안 연구)

  • Kim, Hee-Geun;Kong, Tae-Young
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.151-160
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    • 2008
  • In Korean nuclear power plants (NPPs), two thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were provided to workers who work in an inhomogeneous radiation field; one on the chest and the other on the head. In this way, the effective dose for radiation workers at NPPs was determined by the high deep dose between two radiation dose from these TLDs. This represented a conservative method of evaluating the degree of exposure to radiation. In this study, to prevent the overestimation of the effective dose, field application experiments were implemented using two-dosimeter algorithms developed by several international institutes for the selection of an optimal algorithm. The algorithms used by the Canadian Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and American ANSI HPS N13.41, NCRP (55/50), NCRP (70/30), EPRI (NRC), Lakslumanan, and Kim (Texas A&M University) were extensively analyzed as two-dosimeter algorithms. In particular, three additional TLDs were provided to radiation workers who wore them on the head, chest, and back during maintenance periods, and the measured value were analyzed. The results found no significant differences among the calculated effective doses, apart from Lakshmanan's algorithm. Thus, this paper recommends the NCRP(55/50) algorithm as an optimal two-dosimeter algorithm in consideration of the solid technical background of NCRP and the convenience of radiation works. In addition, it was determined that a two-dosimeter is provided to a single task which is expected to produce a dose rate of more than 1 mSv/hr, a difference of dose rates depending on specific parts of the body of more than 30%, and an exposure dose of more than 2 mSv.

Chromosomal Aberrations Induced in Human Lymphocytes by in vitro Irradiation with $^{60}Co\;{\gamma}-rays$ (체외 방사선조사시 인체 말초혈액 임파구의 염색체이상 빈도에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Yong-Chan;Ha, Sung-Whan
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 1993
  • As guides to decision-making in the management of the victims in case of acute whole body or partial body radiation exposure, we studied the relationship between radiation dose and the frequency of chromosomal aberrations observed in peripheral lymphocytes that were irradiated in vitro with $^{60}Co\;{\gamma}-rays$ at doses ranging from 2Gy to 12Gy. The yields of cells with unstable chromosomal aberrations (dicentric chromosomes, ring chromosomes, and acentric fragment pairs) were 32% at 2Gy, 47% at 4Gy, 80% at 6Gy, 94% at 8Gy, and 100% at 10Gy and over. Ydr, which reflect average dose to the whole body in case of acute whole body exposure, were 1.373 at 2Gy, 0.669 at 4Gy, 1.734 at 6Gy, 2.773 at 8Gy, 3.746 at 10Gy and 5.454 at 12Gy. The relationship between radiation dose (D) and the frequency of dicentric plus ring chromosomes per cell(Ydr) could be expressed as $Ydr=9.322{\times}10^{-2}/Gy {\times}D+2.975{\times}10^{-2}/Gy^2{\times}D^2$. Qdr, which are used in estimating dose of partial body exposure and dose of past exposure, were 1.166 at 2Gy, 1.436 at 4Gy, 2.173 at 6Gy, 2.945 at 8Gy, 3.746 at 10Gy and 5.454 at 12Gy. To see how confidently this dosimetry system may be used, we obtained Qdr values from those who received one fraction of homogenous partial body irradiation of 1.BGy, 2.5Gy, and 7.OGy therapeutically; in vivo Qdr values were 1.109, 1.222 and 2.222 respectively. The estimated doses calculated from these in vivo Qdr values using the equation $Qdr=Ydr/(1- e^{-Ydr})$ were 1.52Gy, 2.48Gy, and 6.54Gy respectively, which were very close to the doses actually given.

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프레스다이용 코일스프링의 신뢰성평가 및 고장분석 사례 발표

  • Go, Se-Hyeon;Park, Sang-Yong;Jang, Jin-Man;Lee, Won-Sik
    • Proceedings of the Korean Reliability Society Conference
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    • pp.239-246
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    • 2006
  • 프레스다이용 코일스프링은 자동차 및 전자제품의 외형생산에 필요한 금형 내에 장착되는 금형용 스프링으로서 녹아웃 및 스트리퍼 등에 사용되고 있다. 프레스다이용 코일스프링이 사용 중 파손 시에는 고가인 금형의 손상 및 생산성에 영향을 미칠 수도 있기 때문에 사용 환경에서의 신뢰성확보가 요구되어지고 있다. 특히 중(重)하중 및 극중(極重)하중용 스프링은 과거 현장에서 파손사례가 자주 발생함으로 인해 외산을 선호하는 경향이 있는 형편이다. 이에 국산 스프링의 신뢰성검증 및 확보를 위해 신뢰성기반구축사업을 통해 신뢰성평가기준(RS D 0014)가 제정되었으며, 이 평가기준에 의거하여 국내 업체의 제품에 대해 신뢰성평가를 실시하였다. 프레스다이용 코일스프링의 파손원인은 주로 반복하중에 의한 피로파손과 일정한 변위의 변형으로 발생하는 코일스프링 자유높이의 축소로 크게 구분되어질 수 있다. 시험결과 주 파손양상은 피로에 의한 균열발생이었으며, 코일 끝단부와 끝단부 직하부의 코일과의 마찰에 의한 균열발생이 주원인이었다. 즉, 코일의 끝단면과 직하면 코일이 연속적으로 부딪침으로써 발생한 변형 및 마모에 의해 표면균열이 발생하고, 표면균열에서 반복적인 부하하중이 가해짐으로써 피로균열 진전을 통해 점차적으로 파손이 진행되어졌음을 알 수 있었다. 본 발표에서는 기준에 의거하여 로하중용 프레스 다이용 코일스프링을 평가한 신뢰성평가시험 결과에 대해 보고하고, 파단면 관찰과 외산제품과의 미세조직 및 조성 등의 비교분석결과 등을 기초로 파손원인을 분석한 결과에 대해 보고하고자 한다.제고할 수 있을 것으로 기대한다.X>$CdCl^+,\;CdSO_4$ 등이 형성되었다. 수은의 경우는 해수 및 증류수를 용출용매로 이용한 모든 경우에서 납, 구리, 카드뮴과는 달리 대부분 침전하였다. 더욱이 해수에 존재하는 고농도 염소($Cl^-$)와의 수착으로 인해 finite solid인 calomel($Hg_2Cl_2$)이 형성되어 대부분 침전(SI=0)되기 때문에 납, 구리, 카드뮴 보다 더 낮은 환경이동성을 갖을 것으로 사료된다. 상기 실험결과 용출용매로 증류수와 해수를 이용했을 때, 제강 슬래그에서 용출되는 납, 구리, 카드뮴, 수은의 용출 경향의 차이를 확인할 수 있었고 이에 따라서, 납, 구리, 카드뮴의 용출 유해성은 낮기 때문에 해양구조물로의 제강슬래그 유효이용은 적합할 것으로 판단되었다.im80%$로 계산되었다. 열형광선량계로 측정된 방사선량은 각각 1.8, 1.2, 0.8, 1.2, 0.8 (70 cm 거리) cGy로 측정되었으며, 환자의 복부 표면에서의 서베이메터를 이용한 측정량은 10.9 mR/h였다. 차폐구조물의 사용 시 전체 치료 동안에 태아선량은 약 1 cGy 정도로 평가되었다. 결론 : AAPM Report No.50의 자료에 따르면, 임산부의 방사선 치료 시 태아의 방사선 피폭선량은 5 cGy 이하일 경우에 방사선 피폭에 따른 태아의 위험이 거의 없는 것으로 제시되고 있다. 본원에서 차폐 구조물을 설치하였을 경우에 측정된 태아선량은 약 1 cGy로 측정되었고, 고안된 차폐구조물

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An Investigation on the Technical Background for Carbon-14 Monitoring in Radioactive Effluents (원자력시설의 Carbon-14 방사성유출물에 대한 감시배경의 조사)

  • Kim, Hee-Geun;Kong, Tae-Young;Jeong, Woo-Tae;Kim, Seok-Tae
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.195-200
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    • 2009
  • effluents to the environment. The activity of carbon-14, one of the radioactive effluents, in the environment is already high level and its effect on radiation exposure to the public and the environment is insignificant; thus, NPPs did not perform the carbon-14 monitoring in effluents in the past. By the way, effluents of noble gas and particulate radioactive materials originated from nuclear fuels has been continuously reduced due to both the advancement of manufacturing and integrity technology for nuclear fuels and the improvement of operation methods of NPPs. Futhermore, the portion of dose assessment by tritium and carbon-14 to the public has been relatively increased because the lower limit of detection for low-energy beta sources, such as tritium and carbon-14, is low due to the advancement of radiation detection technology. In this paper, the technical background for carbon-14 monitoring in nuclear facilities was investigated using United States technical reports and papers. This paper also reviews whether carbon-14 monitoring is necessary or not based on the investigated documents.

An Analysis of Domestic Experimental Results for Soil-to-Crops Transfer Factors of Radionuclides (주요 핵종의 토양-작물체 전이 계수의 국내 실험 결과에 대한 분석)

  • Jun, In;Choi, Young-Ho;Keum, Dong-Kwon;Kang, Hee-Seok;Lee, Han-Soo;Lee, Chang-Woo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.211-217
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    • 2006
  • For more realistic assessment of Korean food chain radiation doses due to the operation of nuclear facilities, it is required to use domestically produced data for radionuclide transfer parameters in crop plants. This paper analyzed results of last about 10 year's studies on radionuclide transfer parameters in major crop plants by the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute, comparing with the published international data, and consequently suggested the proper parameters to use. The trends of transfer parameter shows normal distributions if we have a lot of experimental data, but some radionuclides showed enormous variations with the environment of experimental, crops and soils. These transfer factors can be used to assess realistic radiation doses or to predict the doses in crops for normal operation or accidental release. Some kinds of parameter can be produced as conservatives or fragmentary results because soil-to-plant transfer factors were measured through greenhouse experiments which sometimes showed improper field situations. But these parameters mentioned in this paper can be representative of the status of Korean food chain than that of foreign country.

Evaluation of Effective Dose in Dental Radiography (치과 방사선 검사에서 유효선량 평가)

  • Han, Su-Chul;Lee, Bo-Ram;Shin, Gwi-Soon;Choi, Jong-Hak;Park, Hyok;Park, Chang-Seo;Chang, Kye-Yong;Kim, Bo-Ram;Kim, You-Hyun
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.27-33
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    • 2011
  • Along with the developments of science technology, up-to-date medical radiation equipments are introduced. Those equipments has brought many progresses in diagnosing patients not only in the quantitative aspects but in the qualitative ones. Especially, in the case of dental radiography, patients can be exposed more than CT, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). In this study, we used human phantom and TLD-100H to measure the organ dose in each dental radiography and computed the effective dose according to ICRP (International Committee for Radioactivity Prevention) 60, 103. We measured the effective dose to be 5.1 and $29.5{\mu}Sv$ in the panoramic radiography and 11.2 and $14.4{\mu}Sv$ in the cephalometric radiography respectively. We also executed the CBCT and CT test on the maxillaries and the mandibles and found the amounts of effective dose were 53.7, 209.6, 129, and $391.5{\mu}Sv$ respectively in the CBCT and $93.3{\mu}$, 139.5, 282.7 and $489.7{\mu}Sv$ in the CT test. Consequently, it was shown that the effective dose in the CBCT test was lower than one in the CT test, but was higher in both panoramic and cephalometric radiography.

Estimation of the Moisture Maximizing Rate based on the Moisture Inflow Direction : A Case Study of Typhoon Rusa in Gangneung Region (수분유입방향을 고려한 강릉지역 태풍 루사의 수분최대화비 산정)

  • Kim, Moon-Hyun;Jung, Il-Won;Im, Eun-Soon;Kwon, Won-Tae
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.40 no.9
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    • pp.697-707
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    • 2007
  • In this study, we estimated the PMP(Probable Maximum Precipitation) and its transition in case of the typhoon Rusa which happened the biggest damage of all typhoons in the Korea. Specially, we analysed the moisture maximizing rate under the consideration of meteorological condition based on the orographic property when it hits in Gangneung region. The PMP is calculated by the rate of the maximum persisting 12 hours 1000 hPa dew points and representative persisting 12 hours 1000 hPa dew point. The former is influenced by the moisture inflow regions. These regions are determined by the surface wind direction, 850 hPa moisture flux and streamline, which are the critically different aspects compared to that of previous study. The latter is calculated using statistics program (FARD2002) provided by NIDP(National Institute for Disaster Prevention). In this program, the dew point is calculated by reappearance period 50-year frequency analysis from 5% of the level of significant when probability distribution type is applied extreme type I (Gumbel distribution) and parameter estimation method is used the Moment method. So this study indicated for small basin$(3.76km^2)$ the difference the PMP through new method and through existing result of established storm transposition and DAD(Depth-Area-Duration). Consequently, the moisture maximizing rate is calculated in the moisture inflow regions determined by meteorological fields is higher $0.20{\sim}0.40$ range than that of previous study. And the precipitation is increased $16{\sim}31%$ when this rate is applied for calculation.