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The Policy of Park Asset Transfers in England: A Move toward Community Ownership and Park Management (커뮤니티의 공원 소유와 관리·운영 방안으로서 영국의 공원 커뮤니티자산이전 정책)

  • Kim, Yeun-Kum
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.108-119
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    • 2015
  • Recently, the ways in which individual communities own and manage parks have been both discussed and realized in America and England. Some benefits of these asset transfers are that local governments can reduce the financial cost of management as well as improve the service of the parks. In addition, communities can develop these parks as unique assets. Ultimately, this is a new understanding of parks as community commons. This study examines the policy of park asset transfers to communities in England. These transfers, which involve reallocating land and building management and/or ownership from the public sector to a community group, are part of a policy agenda known as "Big Society", which aims to create a "small government" within a "big society". The agenda is pursued by both the English Conservative and Unionist Party governments. Eight case studies of community park asset transfers in England were examined in this study, under three categories-transfer process, partnership among stakeholders, and financial structure-and synthesized along three issues-financial contribution, level of public transparency, and closeness of the relationship between park and community. In some cases, new community groups were created specifically to receive park assets, while in other communities, existing groups became the park trustees. For most parks, community groups raise park maintenance funding through diverse methods; however, these groups are often not entirely financially independent from local government. Thus, many park trustees have already created, or are planning to create, other assets from which parks can benefit. Second, some efforts for public transparency include trusts that are registered as charities, of which their public nature is admitted officially. These trusts resolve important decisions through boards of trustees, in an effort to promote income-generating business while not excluding users. Ultimately, a close relationship between park and community empowers the community to participate in managing and maintaining the park; in turn, the park's capacities are improved. Current struggles include the many limits involved in communities accepting ownership and management of a park, and a lack of local government experience regarding public-private management and maintenance of a public asset. This study, however, details interesting policy implications for Korean community involvement as well as diverse financial methods to facilitate park management.

2010 Inter-laboratory Comparison Study on Nutrient Analysis in Seawater (2010년 국내 해수 중 영양염 분석 실험실간 상호비교실험 연구)

  • Moon, Cho-Rong;Rho, Taekeun;Kang, Dong-Jin;Kahng, Sung-Hyun;Cho, Sung Rok;Kim, Eun-Soo;Lee, Jung Moo;Park, Eun Ju;Shin, Jin-Sun
    • The Sea
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2015
  • An inter-laboratory comparison campaign on nutrient analysis in seawater was carried out in 2010. Sets of three sterilized seawater samples (Bottle 130, 131, 132) which have enough homogeneity and stability were distributed to 10 laboratories. Participants analyzed the nutrients in their own laboratories (nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, and silicate) at least 5 times and reported the results. Statistical treatments were applied to the results to assess the precision for each laboratory and the discrepancy among laboratories. Most laboratories show within 10% of precision in all nutrient results. Degrees of scattering described as discrepancy among laboratories and relative percent difference values were 4~63% and 0.04~2217%, respectively. The statistical analysis shows that the difference among the laboratories may due to the systematic error rather than random error. When the results were corrected by the results of bottle 130 as a reference material, the degrees of scattering and the relative percent difference were improved significantly. As a result, since most participants show satisfactory precision for nutrient analyses, a use of reference materials which have homogeneity and stability was strongly recommended to improve the comparability of nutrient data.

The Strategy of Characterizing Space that uses Anti-House as a Metaphor for Character's Self-Defense Mechanism - Focusing on the TV Series and the Theater version of - (캐릭터의 자아방어기제를 은유하는 '안티돔' 공간의 성격화 전략 - <에반게리온>의 TV 시리즈와 극장판 를 중심으로 -)

  • Yang, Se-Hyeok;Ryu, Beom-Yeol
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.75-106
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    • 2015
  • Animations characterize space as a strategy to effectively show the inner conflicts of characters and to highlight the theme. During the process of inner conflict, characters unconsciously use defense mechanism to protect their egos from the fear that came from deficiency, and because of the self-deceptive quality of self-defense mechanism, the reality is distorted and conflicts get intensified. This study focuses on the concept of anti-house, the space where conflicts get intensified, analyzes animations to find out the aspect of inner conflict, and interprets the characteristic of space that is used for metaphoric structure frame. Also, it aims to reveal how the defense mechanism, which intensifies the inner conflict of characters, is characterized as anti-house. The analysis in this study was mainly done with the TV series, , and the theater version of . It is because the characters have serious deficiency from broken home and have a psychological quality of closed boundary that is symbolized as 'A.T. field'. Especially, the core character, 'Shinji Ikari', shows how a character uses compulsive self-defense mechanism to deal with inner conflict and as a result, goes through ego-collapse and then introspection. This process of the character's experience is the core of the whole plot. Through analysis, the relationship between the character's self-defense mechanism and the space, anti-house(which expands to Anti-city), was inferred. The space is made up of three axes, x-axis of horizontal space, y-axis of vertical space, and in the sense that all the space has no exit, z-axis of deeper contradictory space. This thesis started with the decision that is the most suitable work in analyzing the metaphorical relationship between self-defense mechanism and anti-house. There was limitation, however, as the typical characteristics of Japanese animations, pedantic composition and the possibility of broad interpretation, hindered clear verification. Hopefully, this limitation will be overcome by following studies and this study is expected to show the importance of space in interpreting the text of animations, and to serve as database for other creative works.

Critical Issues and Practical Strategies in Technology Education: Technology Education Practitioners' Perception in South Korea (기술교육의 쟁점과 실천 전략: 우리나라 기술교육 현장 전문가의 인식)

  • Sung, Eui-Suk;Kwon, Hyuk-Soo
    • 대한공업교육학회지
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.189-208
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this research was to investigate the critical issues and practical strategies that Korean technology teachers perceived. To accomplish the purpose of this study, a qualitative study was conducted to identify critical issues and practical strategies of Korean technology education targeted on Korean technology teachers. A purposeful sampling for choosing technology teachers was used for this study with three selection conditions: 1) 'Excellent Korean technology teacher' award winning teachers, or 2) technology teachers actively involved in both on-line and off-line teachers' association, and 3) leaders in local technology teachers' association. This study conducted exploratory in-depth interviews with selective 15 technology teachers regarding critical issues and practical strategies of Korean technology teachers. The interpretation of the interview content was conducted by two researchers using the thematic analysis which analyzed the frequency of concepts, words, and meanings held from collected data. In the conclusion, critical issues researchers identified were 1) curriculum problems, 2) education environment and facilities problems, 3) teachers' problems, 4) students' problems, 5) related research institution and college problems, 6) social problems. Secondly, Korean technology teachers agreed with following practical strategies 1) separating technology education from home economic education, 2) sharing practices on managing and improving educational environment and laboratory for technology education, 3) actively involving in technology teachers' group, 4) motivating students using hands-on activity 5) improving the quality and the quantity on technology teachers preparatory institution, 6) advertising the values of technology education to the public. Lastly, the positive factors to succeed technology education were 1) technology education satisfying social needs and 2) technology teachers' will or passion toward improving their technology classrooms. The negative factors to hinder technology education were 1) low self-respect of Korean technology teachers and 2) rejection or retarded acceptance toward social transition. Several recommendations based the conclusion were suggested as 1) implementing supplementary study toward selected critical issues and 2) conducting exemplary case studies regarding concrete practical strategies for improving challenges of Korean technology education.

〈 Field Action Report 〉 The Strategies to Address Regional Health Inequalities in Gyeongsangnam-Do: Health Plus Happiness Plus Projects (〈사례보고〉 경상남도 지역 간 건강불평등 완화사업: 건강플러스 행복플러스 사업)

  • Jeong, Baek-Geun;Kim, Jang-Rak;Kang, Yune-Sik;Park, Ki-Soo;Lee, Jin-Hyang;Jo, Sun-Rae;Seo, Gi-Deok;Joo, Sang-Jun;Oh, Eun-Suk;Kim, Seung-Jin;Jo, Seong-Jin;Kim, Seung-Mi;Yeum, Dong-Mun;Sim, Mi-Young
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.36-51
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: This study was conducted to implement Health Plus Happiness Plus projects in Gyeongsangnam-Do and assess the policy implications of initiatives to address regional health inequalities. Methods: Health Plus Happiness Plus projects were started as strategies to address regional health inequalities in Gyeongsangnam-Do. The principles of these projects are taken from the Health Action Zones initiatives in England: participation, partnership, resource concentration in project areas. The time period for these projects is from 2010 to 2017, and the total budget is 5.6 billion won. In 2010, a 6.8 hundred million won total budget was invested in 17 project areas. Such investments fell into four broad categories: establishment of the means and local framework; survey development to analyze the health determinants; development of an education and training center; and establishment of a technical support center. Results: Education and training programs for practitioners and coordinators were provided, and project teams and project promotion committees were established in project areas. Health survey result briefing meetings were held, and 17 health committees were established in project areas. Conclusions: Health Plus Happiness Plus projects have some problems in relation to participation and partnerships, however, if these principled projects are performed continuously, they will contribute to a reduction of standardized mortality rate and regional health inequalities in Gyeongsangnam-Do and the improvement of residents' well-being in project areas.

A Study on Legal Issues with Airline Over-booking Practice (항공권 초과예약의 법률적 문제에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Jun-Sik;Hwang, Ho-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.143-166
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    • 2012
  • This paper deals in depth with airline over-booking practices and legal questions therefrom in the light of public interests. Chapter I as an introduction gives clear ideas of what are the over-booking, fact-revealing current state of denied boarding and nature of the problems inherent but veiled in those practices. In Chapter II, it is reviewed whether legal instruments for DBC(Denied Boarding Compensation) are adequately equipped for airline passengers in R. O. K. Upon the results of the review that international law to which Korea is a party, domestic law and administrative preparedness for the DBC are either null or virtually ineffective, the Chapter by contrast illustrates how well the U. S. and the E. U. safeguard civil rights of their passengers from such an 'institutionalized fraud' as the over-booking. In Chapter III on which a main emphasis lies, it is examined whether the over-booking practice constitutes a criminal offense: Fraud. In section 1, the author identifies actus reus and mens rea required for fraud then compares those with every aspect of the over-booking. In conjunction with the structural element analysis, he reviews the Supreme Court's precedents that lead the section into a partial conclusion that the act of over-booking judicially constitutes a crime of fraud. Despite the fulfillment of drawing up an intended answer, the author furthers the topic in section 2 by arguing a dominant view from Korean academia taking opposite stance to the Supreme Court. The commentators assert, "To consummate a crime of fraud, there must be property damage of the victim." For this notion correlates with a debate on legally protected interest in criminalization of fraud, the section 2 shows an argument over 'Rechtgut' matters specific to fraud. The view claims that the Rechtgut comes down rather to 'right to property' than 'transactional integrity' or 'fair and equitable principles'. However, the section concludes that the later values shall be deemed as 'freedom in economic decision-making' which are the benefit and protection of the penal law about fraud. Section 3 demonstrates the self-contradiction of the view as it is proved by a conceptual analysis that the infringement on freedom in economic decision-making boils down to the 'property damage'. Such a notion is better grounded in section 4 by foreign court decisions and legislation in its favour. Therefore, this paper concludes that the airline's act of over-booking is very likely to constitute fraud in both theory and practice.

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Field Application of Waterworks Automatic Meter Reading and Analysis of Household Water Use (상수도 원격검침시스템의 현장 적용성 평가 및 가정용수 사용량 분석)

  • Joo, Jin Chul;Ahn, Hosang;Ahn, Chang Hyuck;Ko, Kyung-Rok;Oh, Hyun Je
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.34 no.10
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    • pp.656-663
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    • 2012
  • After the construction of waterworks automatic meter reading with 15 mm diameter digital water mater with magnetoresistance sensor developed in this study at 96 households of apartment complexes located in Incheon-City B-Gu S-Dong, the feasibility of field application of waterworks automatic meter reading was evaluated. The field application of waterworks automatic meter reading was performed from July to December in 2011, and average reception rate was as low as 84.6% due to the instable wibro networks, the existence of communication blackout and temporary malfunction of router. After the extraction of 10 households with one to five residents out of 96 households by using stratified random sampling method and analysis of domestic water use, it was found that domestic water use was significant at August and showed a decreasing trend at September, followed by increase in domestic water use at November and decrease in domestic water use at December. This phenomenon should be attributed to weather factors (temperature, humidity, etc.), which significantly affected domestic water use. Similar trend in domestic water use in terms of weather factors was obtained in case of Liter per capita day of water use after the extraction of 30 households out of 96 households by using stratified random sampling method. After analysis of Liter per capita day for 96 households, single residents increases resulted in reduction of domestic water usage by about 14% of Liter per capita day. These results might be due to the fact that domestic water usage such as laundry, beverages, catering, cleaning, etc. should be required for even the household with one resident, whereas domestic water usage for those common utilization can be significantly saved for the household with more than one resident.

A Case Study of the Performance and Success Factors of ISMP(Information Systems Master Plan) (정보시스템 마스터플랜(ISMP) 수행 성과와 성공요인에 관한 사례연구)

  • Park, So-Hyun;Lee, Kuk-Hie;Gu, Bon-Jae;Kim, Min-Seog
    • Information Systems Review
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.85-103
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    • 2012
  • ISMP is a method of writing clearly the user requirements in the RFP(Request for Proposal) of the IS development projects. Unlike the conventional methods of RFP preparation that describe the user requirements of target systems in a rather superficial manner, ISMP systematically identifies the businesses needs and the status of information technology, analyzes in detail the user requirements, and defines in detail the specific functions of the target systems. By increasing the clarity of RFP, the scale and complexity of related businesses can be calculated accurately, many responding companies can prepare proposals clearly, and the level of fairness during the evaluation of many proposals can be improved, as well. Above all though, the problems that are posed as chronic challenges in this field, i.e., the misunderstanding and conflicts between the users and developers, excessive burden on developers, etc. can be resolved. This study is a case study that analyzes the execution process, execution accomplishment, problems, and the success factors of two pilot projects that introduced ISMP for the first time. ISMP performance procedures of actual site were verified, and how the user needs in the request for quote are described was examined. The satisfaction levels of ISMP RFP for quote were found to be high as compared to the conventional RFP. Although occurred were some problems such as RFP preparation difficulties, increased workload, etc. due to the lack of understanding and execution experience of ISMP, in overall, also occurred were some positive effects such as the establishment of the scope of target systems, improved information sharing and cooperation between the users and the developers, seamless communication between issuing customer corporations and IT service companies, reduction of changes in user requirements, etc. As a result of conducting action research type in-depth interviews on the persons in charge of actual work, factors were derived as ISMP success factors: prior consensus on the need for ISMP, the acquisition of execution resources resulting from the support of CEO and CIO, and the selection of specification level of the user requirements. The results of this study will provide useful site information to the corporations that are considering adopting ISMP and IT service firms, and present meaningful suggestions on the future study directions to researchers in the field of IT service competitive advantages.

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A Study on Interactive Animation Production as Public Art : Focusing on an Case of the Live Window Animation, (공공예술로서의 인터랙티브 애니메이션 제작 연구 : 라이브 윈도우 애니메이션 <북극곰 파오> 사례를 중심으로)

  • Chang, Wook-Sang;Yu, Seung-Cheol
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.153-172
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    • 2013
  • There are many cases that messages of boring contents of most contents with public interests appear on the surface. Audiences don't think these contents are interesting. It is true that animations cannot be generally boring when delivering messages of public interests. was produced to focus on making audiences experience that a global warming story, the boring and textbook contents is interesting. And it was composed by the multiform story to realize narration through audiences' participation by utilizing the characteristics of live windows, not just watching the animation. This paper examines the differences between theaters and live window through the case that was produced and examples which utilized interaction for audiences' participation based on this. It analyzes the differences between environments according to characteristics of places and audiences in the differences between the theaters and live window, examines the examples to utilize interaction focusing on the process that narration is gradually changed as response to user environment design and interaction for unspecified individuals, and suggests direction that animation should move forward as public art based on the results to show the animation in Millano Piazza. According to the characteristics of live windows, the audiences of are people in the streets who are heading for different destinations, not the ones who come to theaters to watch the animation. Showing the animation with narration to them was a new attempt. When it began to show it in Millano Piazza, the audiences were very satisfied with the experiences that the stories were changed as they participated in it by themselves and naturally thought of global warming problems. You cannot know how the message of change people's habits and thoughts for the present, but this attempt was an opportunity that animations play the social role. Many animations are being produced in the world. Most of them are being done to aim at theaters, TVs, and film festivals. They should meet audiences through more various methods. One of them is animations as public art. And can be the new attempt in this sense. And in the future, animations as public art should make efforts to show you interesting experiences that you can share thoughts to be able to live together. As art of various media is changing to the one which considers public interests, animations can be new types of public art by integrating them with various technologies.

The Inflow of the Creative-Class and Forming of Cultural Landscape on the Kyunglidan-Gil (경리단길 창조계급의 유입과정과 문화경관 형성요인)

  • Yang, Hee eun;Son, Yong-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.158-170
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    • 2013
  • With the recent 'Creative economy' and 'Cultural prosperity' coming to the fore as a new code to build up a city or a region, it is necessary to focus on strengthening the regional creative capacity as well as developing spontaneous regional culture. In such trend this research aims to explore the Kyunglidan-gil, Seoul, Korea in which creative-class are appearing autogenously in clusters and forming new cultural landscape, to identify the factors of their accumulation and changing aspect of cultural landscape. This study has the following purposes: First, Investigating the historical context of the Kyunglidan-gil's landscape. Second, considering the process of the creative-class being flowed into the Kyunglidan-gil as the subject leading to the modification of the region. Third, their activity was analyzed to consider the unique aspect of forming the cultural landscape at the Kyunglidan-gil. Regarding why the creative-class should flow in, results of the study drew five factors including region in issue compared to inexpensive rents, coexistence with nature, quiet atmosphere seeming isolated from the urban confusion, location possible to test and share individual materials one likes, and a site with synergy effect of activity through the network with acquaintances. Also, five characteristics of cultural landscape forming by the people's activity were drawn - space of communication for increasing creativity, temporary and flexible spatial use, expression of one's identity and taste, distinguishing, and positive use of the existing facilities. Like this, by exposing the 'creative-class', a subject of the leader in changing process of the Kyunglidan-gil, this research identified the aspect of forming cultural landscape.