• Title, Summary, Keyword: 공격성

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Characteristics of Intrusion MO and Perception of Target Hardening of Burglars (침입절도범 재소자의 수법 특성과 타겟하드닝 관련 인식)

  • Park, Hyeonho;Kim, Kang-Il;Kim, Hyo-gun
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.60
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    • pp.33-61
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    • 2019
  • It is quite difficult to actually prove the effectiveness of so-called target-hardening, one of the various strategies used to reduce crime, one of the serious problems in society recently. In particular, three to five minutes is often used as golden time for intruders to give up or stop, which is based on foreign and some indirect research cases in Korea, but there were no studies that more directly identified the average break-in operation time or the abandonment time based on the elapsed time when the shield hardware resists intruders. This study was the first of its kind in Korea to investigate and verify samples of 90 inmates of break-in burglars who were imprisoned in August 2018 by profiling the average criminal experience, education level, age, height and weight of typical Korean professional break-in thieves, and specific criminal methods, average break-in operation time, and the criteria for giving up if not breached. According to the analysis results, in the survey on the number of pre-invasion theft crimes by intruders, many of the respondents who participated in the survey were criminals of professional invasions, and by their physical characteristics, there was not much difference from ordinary adult men. Residential facilities were the highest in the world, followed by commercial and educational facilities. According to the survey on the types of facilities that committed intrusion into residential facilities, it was not safe to say that single-family housing accounted for the largest portion of single-family housing, multi-family housing, apartment high-rise (more than three stories), and apartment low-rise (more than one to three stories) among residential facilities, and that the ratio of apartment high-rise was higher than expected. Based on the average time required to break into a place for an intrusion crime, it is assumed that the psychological time worked in a place where the break-in was difficult, since the break-in was not performed while measuring the time of the break-in operation. In the case of time to give up a crime, more than half of the respondents said they would give up the crime even in less than four minutes, suggesting that a significant number of intrusive crimes can be prevented even if the facility has four minutes of intrusion resistance. This proves that most intruders will give up the break-in if the break-in resistance performance of the security facility is exercised for more than five minutes.

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Biliary Atresia in Korea - A Survey by the Korean Association of Pediatric Surgeons - (담도폐색증 - 대한소아외과학회회원 대상 전국조사 -)

  • Choi, Kum-Ja;Kim, S.C.;Kim, S.K.;Kim, W.K.;Kim, I.K.;Kim, J.E.;Kim, J.C.;Kim, H.Y.;Kim, H.H.;Park, K.W.;Park, W.H.;Song, Y.T.;Oh, S.M.;Lee, D.S.;Lee, M.D.;Lee, S.K.;Lee, S.C.;Jhung, S.Y.;Jhung, S.E.;P.M., Jung;S.O., Choi;Choi, S.H.;Han, S.J.;Huh, Y.S.;Hong, C.;Hwbang, E.H.
    • Advances in pediatric surgery
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.143-155
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    • 2002
  • A survey on biliary atresia was made among 26 members of the Korean Association of Pediatric Surgeons. The members were required to complete a questionnaire and a case registration form for each patient during the twentyone-year period of 1980-2000. Three hundred and eighty patients were registered from 18 institutions. The average number of patients per surgeon was one to two every year. The male to female ratio was 1:1.3. The age of patients on diagnosis with biliary atresia was on average $65.4{\pm} 36.2$ days old. The national distribution was 32.8% in Seoul, 25.3% in Gyoungki-Do, 21.6% in Gyoungsang-Do, 9.27% in Choongchung-Do, etc. in order. The most common clinical presentation was jaundice (98.4%) and change of stool color (86.2%) was second. Two hundred eighty (74.7%) of 375 patients were operated by 80 days of age. Three hundred thirty six (9 1.9%) of 366 patients were operated on by the original Kasai procedure, and 305 (84.3%) of 362 patients were observed by bile-drainage postoperatively. The overall postoperative complication rate was 18.5% and the overall postoperative mortality rate was 6.8%. The associated anomalies were observed in 72 cases (22.5%). One hundred ninty five (64.7%) of 302 patients have been alive in follow-up and 49 (25.1%) have survived over 5 years without problem after operation. Ascending cholangitis, varices and ascites affected survival significantly, and the important long-term prognostic factor was the occurrence of complications.

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Studies on the Immunization Against Newcastle Disease II. Investigation on the Immune Effect by Different Vaccination Route with $B_1$ Strain (뉴캣슬병 면역에 대한 검토 II. 접종경로를 달리하여 $B_1$ Strain을 응용한 면역효과 검토)

  • 이학철;정유열
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 1981
  • The experiment was carried out to observe whether the route of administration of allantoic aminiotic fluid obtained from the chicken embryo infected with $B_1$ virus would affect the protectivity of brids against the challenge exposure of a virulent strain of ND virus. Four groups of birds of 30 days of age were immunized intranassally (0.1 $m\ell$), intramuscularly (1.0 $m\ell$), by spray administration (0.00015 $m\ell$/1㎤) or via drinking water(10.0 $m\ell$), with 1 in 100 dilution of th. fluid containing $B_1$ virus titre of 10$\^$8.5/ELD$\_$50/ per $m\ell$ and all the immunized birds, after 15 days of vaccination, were challenged intramuscularly with 1.0$m\ell$ of 10,000 MLD per $m\ell$ of a virulent ND virus. The results obtained are summerized as follows: 1. Good immunity was induced when 1 in 100 dilution of allantoaminiotic fluid with $B_1$ virus titre of 10$\^$8.5/ELD$\_$50/$m\ell$was applied to 30 day old chicks intramuscularly, intranasally and by spray application, but it was not the case when the allantomiotic fluid was diluted to 1 in 1,000. The ID$\_$50/ of birds immunized with 1 in 100 dilution of allantoaminiotic fluid by various routes of administration such as intramuscular Injection, spray application and intranasal instillation were 10$\^$2.8/>10$\^$4.l and/>10$\^$4.2/ 2. The high protectivity against the challenge exposure with a virulent Newcastle disease virus with 10,000 MLD/$m\ell$ were observed when the birds were immunized with a live vaccine of 10$\^$8.5/ ELD$\_$50/$m\ell$ by intramuscular injection, intranasal instillation or spray application, and the rates by different routes of application were 92.62%, 95.33% and 93.75%, respectively. On the contrary, no good immunity was induced in the groups of birds immunized via drinking water with the live vaccine, the rate of protection against the challenge exposure being 47.18%.

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Chemical Reactions in Surfactant Solutions (Ⅳ) : Micellar Rate Effect on Reactions of Hydroxide and o-Iodosobenzoate Ions with Organic Phosphinates (계면활성제 용액속에서의 화학반응 (제 4 보) : $OH^-$ 및 o-Iodosobenzoate 이온에 의한 유기 포스피네이트의 탈인산화 반응에 미치는 CTAX 미셀의 영향)

  • Hong, Yeong Seok;Kim, Hyeon Muk
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.38 no.10
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    • pp.753-762
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    • 1994
  • Dephosphorylation of diphenyl- or isopropylphenyl-4-nitrophenylphosphinate (DPNPIN or IPNPIN) mediated by $OH^-$ or o-iodosobenzoate ion ($IB^-$) are relatively slow in aqueous solution. The reactions in CTAX micellar solutions are, however, very accelerated, because CTAX micelles can accommodate both reactants in their Stern layer in which they can easily react, while hydrophilic $OH^-$(or $IB^-$) and hydrophobic phosphinates are not mixed in water. Even though the concentrations (> $10^{-3}$ M) of $OH^-$(or $IB^-$) in CTAX solutions are much larger amounts than those ($6{\times}10^{-6}$ M) of phosphinates, the rate constants of the dephosphorylations are largely influenced by change of the concentration of the ions, which means that the reactions are not followed by the pseudo first order kinetics. In comparison to effect of the counter ions of CTAX in the reactions, CTACl is more effective on the dephosphorylation of DPNPIN (or IPNPIN) than CTABr due to easier expelling of $Cl^-$ ion by $OH^-$(or $IB^-$) ion from the micelle, because of easier solvation $Cl^-$ ion by water molecules. The reactivity of IPNPIN with $OH^-$(or $IB^-$) is lower than that of DPNPIN. The reason seems that the 'bulky' isopropyl group of IPNPIN hinders the attack of the nucleophiles. The mechanism of reaction of IPNPIN with IB- ion concluded as 'nucleophilic' instead of 'general basic' by a trapping experiment and a measured kinetic isotope effect.

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Pathological studies on the morphological and functional changes of lymphomyeloid tissues overpopulated with melano- macrophage centers in tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (나일틸라피아 임파조직내 Melanomacropage center의 형성과다(形成過多)에 따른 형태(形態) 및 기능변화(機能變化)에 관한 병리학적(病理學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Han, Kyu-Sik;Kim, Jee-Young;Jeong, Hyun-Do;Huh, Min-Do
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.119-134
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    • 1995
  • To induce an overpopulated melanomacrophage centers(MMCs) within spleen and kidney in tilapias, two methods were applied through the intraperitoneal inoculation of V. anguillarum FKC with a repeated dose of saline(the 1st induction group), and of colloidal carbon (the 2nd induction group). In the 1st group, both number and size of MMCs were slightly increased in spleen and head kidney. However in the 2nd group the two hemopoietic tissues were nearly occupied with quite a large number of MMCs. Regardless of induction groups, many of MMCs were confined within the walls of blood vessels in the spleen. Especially in the 2nd group, the MMCs without fibrous capsules often had concentrically or eccentrically located, thin-walled lumens of vessels, which strongly suggests to be ellipsoids. In head kidney, nearly all MMCs were located within or just around the lymphocytic areas but the precise relationship to blood vessel wall was not obvious. Despite of such overpopulated MMCs, no histopathological degenerative findings in hemopoetic parenchymas of both organs were recognized. To evaluate the effect on defensive function, tilapias of the 2nd group were challenged with E. tarda. Susceptabilities to E. tarda were never increased but rather significantly decreased compared to control. Weekly antibody titres in sera were determined for all induction groups, in which the titres in the 1st and 2nd groups were 4 or 8 times higher than in the control, and then remained high until the 4th week. Also with the hemopoietic function, cellular compositions of peripheral blood were analyzed at weekly intervals but no significant changes resulted. From those results, it is suggested that overcrowding of MMCs would not lead to any morphological as well as functional deteriorations of spleen and head kidney but have an intimate association with enhancement of protective immune system in tilapias.

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Immune response of eel against fish pathogen, Edwardsiella tarda (어류 병원성 세균 Edwardsiella 에 대한 뱀장어의 면역 반응)

  • Park, Soo Il;Choi, Yoon-Jeong;Lee, Joo-Seok
    • Journal of fish pathology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 1993
  • To study the immune responses of the japanese eel. Anguilla japonica, fish were injected intraperitoneally with several types of Edwardsiella tarda antigen, i. e., FKC(formalin killed cells), HKC(heat killed cells) or LPS(lipopolysaccharide), and the changes of immunocytes numbers, phagocytosis and agglutination titre in the peripheral blood of the fish were investigated. The number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood of eels were decreased until 6 hours after injection, and then were turn to normal levels after 24 hours of injection. However, the level were slightly increased and were remained after 24 hours. The number of neutrophils of FKC, HKC or LPS injected fish were the highest at 12 hours after injection and were decreased slowly after that. Three weeks after the injections, the agglutination of antibody titre of all immunized groups were reached at 128 and were remained this level thereafter. However 6 weeks after the injections, that in HKC injected fish were dropped the level up to 4. Fish were injected with LPS and the blood from the fish were bled after 12 hours. Then the blood were incubated with E. tarda. Six hours after incubation, the phagocytic index was reached the highest level, 28.3. One week after the LPS injection, the blood were again bled and incubated with E. tarda. The phagocytic index at this time was 3.9. The phagocytic indexes of the fish injected with FKC and HKC, treted as same LPS injected fish as above, were 18.8 and 10.7, respectively. The phagocytic index of the control fish was 1.2. The antibacterial activities of normal antiserum against E. tarda were shown for both FKC and LPS injected fish, but not for HKC injected fish. The RPS(relative percentage of survival) of HKC, FKC and LPS injected fish in the challenge test were 10%, 20% and 30%, respectively. These results suggest that the effect of protection of the eel which were injected with antigen were varied with the method of preparation of the antigen.

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Nuclear Terrorism and Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism(GICNT): Threats, Responses and Implications for Korea (핵테러리즘과 세계핵테러방지구상(GICNT): 위협, 대응 및 한국에 대한 함의)

  • Yoon, Tae-Young
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.26
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    • pp.29-58
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    • 2011
  • Since 11 September 2001, warnings of risk in the nexus of terrorism and nuclear weapons and materials which poses one of the gravest threats to the international community have continued. The purpose of this study is to analyze the aim, principles, characteristics, activities, impediments to progress and developmental recommendation of the Global Initiative to Combat Nuclear Terrorism(GICNT). In addition, it suggests implications of the GICNT for the ROK policy. International community will need a comprehensive strategy with four key elements to accomplish the GICNT: (1) securing and reducing nuclear stockpiles around the world, (2) countering terrorist nuclear plots, (3) preventing and deterring state transfers of nuclear weapons or materials to terrorists, (4) interdicting nuclear smuggling. Moreover, other steps should be taken to build the needed sense of urgency, including: (1) analysis and assessment through joint threat briefing for real nuclear threat possibility, (2) nuclear terrorism exercises, (3) fast-paced nuclear security reviews, (4) realistic testing of nuclear security performance to defeat insider or outsider threats, (5) preparing shared database of threats and incidents. As for the ROK, main concerns are transfer of North Korea's nuclear weapons, materials and technology to international terror groups and attacks on nuclear facilities and uses of nuclear devices. As the 5th nuclear country, the ROK has strengthened systems of physical protection and nuclear counterterrorism based on the international conventions. In order to comprehensive and effective prevention of nuclear terrorism, the ROK has to strengthen nuclear detection instruments and mobile radiation monitoring system in airports, ports, road networks, and national critical infrastructures. Furthermore, it has to draw up effective crisis management manual and prepare nuclear counterterrorism exercises and operational postures. The fundamental key to the prevention, detection and response to nuclear terrorism which leads to catastrophic impacts is to establish not only domestic law, institution and systems, but also strengthen international cooperation.

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Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Fermented Garlic Powder on Immune Responses, Blood Components, and Disease Resistance against Principal Fish Disease of Juvenile Olive Flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus in Low Temperature Season (저수온기 넙치 치어에 있어서 발효마늘분말의 사료 내 첨가가 면역반응, 혈액성분 및 주요 어병세균에 대한 질병저항성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sung-Sam;Song, Jin-Woo;Lim, Se-Jin;Jeong, Joon-Bum;Jeon, You-Jin;Yeo, In-Kyu;Lee, Kyeong-Jun
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.337-346
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    • 2010
  • We report non-specific immune responses and disease resistance against Vibrio anguillarum, Streptococcus iniae and Edwardsiella tarda by dietary supplementation of fermented garlic powder (FGP) in olive flounder for the first time. Four isonitrogenous (45% crude protein) and isocaloric (17.1 MJ/kg) diets were formulated to have 0%, 0.5%, 1% and 2% of the FGP (G-0, G-0.5, G-1 and G-2). The experimental diets were fed to juvenile olive flounder averaging 23.4 g in triplicate groups (90 fish/group) in a flow-through system. After a five-week feeding trial, healthy fish with similar sizes from each tank were selected and injected with 1 ml of three bacteria each to evaluate disease resistance of the fish. During the 5-week feeding trial, the weight gain, specific growth rate, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and survival of the fish were not significantly affected by the experimental diets. However, feed intake was significantly lower (P<0.05) in the fish fed the G-2 diet compared with the control group. Hemoglobin, myeloperoxidase activity, cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were not different between the dietary groups. However, hematocrit, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) activity, and lysozyme activity were increased (P<0.05) with an increment of dietary FGP. Plasma triglyceride of the fish fed the G-0.5 diet was significantly lower than that of fish fed the control diet. The cumulative mortality was lower in the fish fed diets containing FGP compared with the control group in the challenge test except for the bacteria Edwardsiella tarda. The results in this study indicate that dietary supplementation of FGP can enhance the non-specific immune responses and disease resistance of olive flounder against V. anguillarum and S. iniae.

Counter-terrorism Safety Measures in Public Facilities (다중이용시설의 대테러 안전대책)

  • Kim, Du-Hyun;Ahn, Kwang-Ho
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.22
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    • pp.37-64
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    • 2010
  • Since the September 11, 2001, the motives and objectives of terrorism that have been targeted at hard targets such as key national facilities have now shifted towards soft targets such as subways, department stores, and tourist hotels; the attacks on these soft targets are steadily increasing. Simultaneous, unconventional, and indiscriminate terrorist attacks on civilians has also increased. In November, 2010, nearly forty states of the G20 and B20 (Business 20) will join in international summits to be hosted in Seoul. This coming July, an additional 350 troops will be deployed to Afghanistan for the sustainment of public security. Such events are sensitive topics, and there is the possibility of terrorist movement. Korea has successfully hosted various international events such as the APEC and ASEM Summits, and the 2002 Korea-Japan World Cup. The experiences from these events must be applied to ensure the safety of public facilities against the dangers of terrorism. First, counter-terrorism center must be established for the long-term, above the General Officer level to ensure the safety and efficiency of multilateral, international summits, as well as promoting policies and legislation aimed at preventing terrorism. Second, a terrorist threat management system must be secured and safety measures must be emphasized. Third, a fundamental structure must be established for the prevention of terrorism on public facilities, as well as legal and government action against the new threat of IED. Fourth, the police and fire fighting networks' must have a firm rapid response posture on the scene of an attack. Fifth, the state of mentality on the recognition of terrorist threats must be changed and restructured by promoting to and educating the population. Sixth, prevention measures must be established via research and academia. Seventh, for the guarantee of security in public facilities, safety management should employ cutting edge technology such as the 3D SICS and further develop and apply such technology. All methods and resources must be fully utilized for the establishment and strengthening terrorism prevention measures.

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Experimental Pathogenesis of Pullorum Disease with the Local Isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar. enterica subspecies Pullorum in Pullets in Bangladesh

  • Haider, M.G.;Chowdhury, E.H.;Khan, M.A.H.N.A.;Hossain, M.T.;Rahman, M.S.;Song, H.J.;Hossain, M.M.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.341-350
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    • 2009
  • The research work was carried out to study the pathogenesis covering the clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesions in different organs, and reisolation and identification of the organisms after experimental infection with the local isolate of Salmonella enterica serovar. enterica subspecies (S.) Pullorum at different time interval of the experiment during the period February 2006 to December 2006. One hundred pullets (seronegative to S. Pullorum of 12 weeks age were purchased and divided into 5 (A, B, C, D and E) groups and each group consisted of 20 birds. Four groups (A, B, C and D) were infected orally with a dose of $10^6\;CFU$, $10^7\;CFU$, $2{\times}10^7\;CFU$, $10^8\;CFU$ of S. Pullorum, respectively, and one group (E) was treated as uninfected control. The used methods were necropsy and histopathology, culture of bacteria, staining and biochemical test of Salmonella. Five birds from each group were randomly selected and sacrificed $1^{st}$ week, $2^{nd}$, $3^{rd}$ and $4^{th}$ weeks of post infection (PI). From all the groups, the bacteriological samples (crop, liver, lung, heart, spleen, bile duodenum, ceca and blood) were collected with pre enriched in buffered peptone water in sterile poly bags. Liver, lungs, heart, spleen, intestine, etc. were collected in 10% buffered-formalin for histopathological examination. No clinical signs, gross and histopathological lesions were found in control group and no S. Pullorum was reisolated. Clinical sign of experimentally infected with S. Pullorum in pullets were loss of appetite (100%), slight depression (75%), ruffled feathers (85%), diarrhea (60%) and loss of weight (100%) in chickens. The feed intake and body weight at different weeks after PI differed significantly (p<0.01) among the groups. Grossly, the highest recorded lesion was button-like ulcer in the ceca (80%) and the lowest was white nodules in lungs (1.25%). S. Pullorum were reisolated from crop (91.25%), liver (91.25%), lung (83.75%), heart (71.25%), spleen (87.75%), bile (33.25%), duodenum (92.50%), ceca (97.50%) and from different group of infection (61.25%). The highest microscopic findings were intestinal and cecal mucosa and submucosa exhibited infiltration of mononuclear cells and congestion (96.25%), and the lowest finding was nodule formation in the lungs (3.75%). The pattern of the disease production by local isolate of S. Pullorum in Bangladesh is almost similar with other isolates in different countries.