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A Study on Antecedents and Consequences of Empathy Ability of Service Employee (서비스 제공자 공감능력의 영향요인과 결과요인에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Yu-Kyung
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.121-142
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    • 2015
  • This study focused on finding how to raise the positive effect of a service employee on the organization by strengthening his sympathetic feeling at the position of business, not the position of customer and how to reduce the negative effect. The specific objectives of the study are: First, the effect factors of the empathy abilities (cognitive empathy, emotional empathy) of a service employee are largely classified as the social support (supervisor support, co-worker support) to the service employee and the self-soothing ability. Therefore, this study tries to verify the relationship between the self-soothing ability, and social support and empathy which are preceding factors of the empathy of a service employee. Second, it also tries to verify the relationship between job stress and empathy ability(cognitive empathy, emotional empathy) of a service employee. As a result of the verification of the study hypothesis, first, the social support was distinguished as supervisor support and co-worker support, and the empathy ability was distinguished as cognitive empathy and emotional empathy. As a result of verifying the relationship between social support and empathy ability, the supervisor support did not have a positive effect on cognitive empathy while the co-worker support did have a positive effect of cognitive empathy. The supervisor support had a positive effect on emotional empathy and the co-worker support had a positive effect on emotional empathy. Second, the self-soothing ability of a service employee had a positive effect on empathy ability and a positive effect on both cognitive empathy and emotional empathy. Finally, the empathy ability(cognitive empathy, emotional empathy) of a service employee was shown to have a negative effect on the job stress of a service employee.

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An Exploratory Study on the Continuity of Consumer Empathy Response -Can Consumer Empathy Response expand on a Self-empathetic basis?- (소비자 공감반응의 연속성에 관한 연구 -소비자 공감반응은 자기 공감적으로 확장할 수 있는가?-)

  • Ock, Jung-Wo
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.75-91
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the application of in-depth interviews in terms of exploration on the basis of the theoretical basis of various aspects of consumer empathy, and the question of whether the consumer can expand to the process of self empathy. Most studies related to consumer empathy divide the responsive dimension of consumer empathy into rational and emotional dimension based on empathy theory, and look at the empathic response perceived by consumers to the stimulus presented from the current point of view. In this study, however, we want to go one step further and confirm that the consumers themselves can ultimately go to the self-empathy stage by forming a creative street of reproduction and redevelopment. As a result of exploratory research through in-depth interviews, it was indirectly confirmed that consumer's empathetic response to specific marketing stimulus exists at the level of creative and self-empathetic as well as the emphasis of previous studies. Based on these findings, this study confirmed that consumer empathetic responses could go beyond a single dimension to form a multidimensional structure and move toward an expanded structure of empathic self-creation. This suggests that consumers' empathic responses should be grasped in terms of continuity of empathic responses rather than explained in a specific dimension. Although this study is meaningful as an early research of exploratory nature, it is necessary to supplement various content validity and refine the research method through subsequent studies. This study is expected to expand the understanding that consumer's empathy can be extended to other people's empathy and to be self-empathy.

The Effects of Repeated Pain Measurement to Injury Pictures on Cognitive and Affective Empathy in Medical Students (통증사진에 대한 반복적 통증평가가 의대생의 인지적 공감과 정서적 공감에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Kwon;Chun, Kyung-Ju;Chang, Chulhun L.;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.402-411
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    • 2017
  • To develop a more efficient computer-based empathy program that enables medical students to increase their empathy levels, and to test its applicability to medical students. We developed PACP (the Pain Assessment Computer Program) for measurement of medical students' levels of recognition of another's pain. An empathy questionnaire was administered to 145 medical students before and after the PACP. In the high empathy group, the scores for cognitive empathy increased significantly after completion of the PACP, while affective empathy scores showed no significant change. In contrast, in the low empathy group, both cognitive and affective empathy scores increased significantly after the PACP. The PACP effectively increased cognitive empathy for the high empathy group, and increased both cognitive and affective empathy, particularly for the low empathy group. Given the fact that existing empathy education programs are time-consuming and costly, and the demand for more efficient empathy education is high, the PACP as a useful tool can be applicable to medical students, particularly those with low empathy in order to enhance their empathic abilities within a short period of time.

Converged Influencing Factors on Compassion Competence in Clinical Nurses (임상간호사의 공감역량에 미치는 융합적 영향요인)

  • Lee, Hyea-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.6 no.5
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this research is to analyze converged factors affecting compassion competence in clinical nurses. This is a descriptive correlation research to examine converged factors affecting compassion competence of clinical nurses. Research objects are 233 nurses working in three general hospitals located in Chungnam province, and who understand the purposes of this research and agree to participate in this research. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, and stepwise multiple regression analysis were used. The variable which has the greatest effect on compassion competence was compassion satisfaction, followed by clinical experience, compassion fatigue, with those 3 variables explaining 34.4% of compassion competence. Therefore it is necessary to develop specific education programs to improve compassion competence of nurses. Since the explaining power of three variables to compassion competence is 34.4%, it is necessary to add more meaningful variables to explain compassion competence of clinical nurses.

A Phenomenological convergence study on the empathic activity experience of the Compassion ward nurses (공감병동 간호사의 공감활동 경험에 관한 현상학적 융합 연구)

  • Rhee, Ka Young;Tak, Young Ran
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.8 no.7
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    • pp.47-62
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    • 2017
  • This study aimed to provide a convergent understanding of the change of compassion ward nurses in general hospital by analyzing their empathic activity in a subjective and collective way. The data collection was performed from July 21 to August 30, 2016; a total of 6 nurses deemed to have an empathic experience in the compassion ward were interviewed. The results were acquired using Giorgi phenomenological qualitative research methodology on 26 themes and 5 essential categories. The top five categories were as follows: empathy goal, empathy precedent factor, empathy facilitation factor, empathy obstacle factor, and changes after the experience of the compassion ward activity. Our results provide meaningful insights for a better understanding of the essence of empathic experience. Moreover, effective data management under the prospective program improving nurses' empathic abilities can provide high-quality nursing in the future.

The Effects of Empathy on Self-Esteem and Subjective Well-Being (공감 (Empathy)이 자기존중감과 주관적 안녕감에 미치는 영향)

  • Heo, Jae-Hong;Lee, Chan-Jong
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.332-338
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    • 2010
  • Previous studies have investigated the effect of empathy on relations. However, there have been few studies that found the effect of empathy on subjective well-being. This study aimed to investigate relations between empathy and subjective well-being. It was hypothesized that empathy had effects on subjective well-being in the mediation of self-esteem. Heo, J.H. and Lee, C.J. (2010) investigated the psychometric properties of EQ. However they did not do confirmatory analysis. So confirmatory analysis needs to be done in this study. Data was collected from 421 College student (male 192, female 225), and analyzed by SEM and path analysis. Results revealed that 3 factors model of EQ was proper, and EQ had effects on subjective well-being in the mediation of self-esteem. This suggested that empathy be a very important factor in our culture, and fulfillment of cultural task enhance self-esteem, which improve subjectve well-being. And cultural features should be considered in the study of empathy.

Measuring Consumer Empathic Response to Advertising Drama (소비자 공감반응 척도 개발: 이야기 광고를 중심으로)

  • Soh, Hyeonjin
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.133-142
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of the present study is to develop and validate the scale measuring consumer empathic response to advertising drama. Through a series of consumer surveys and factor analyses, the Consumer Empathic Response to Advertising Scale (the CERA scale) containing 11-Likert format items was developed. The CERA scale consists of three factors which are empathic understanding, identification, and vicarious emotional response. The CERA scale improves the content validity of the existing consumer empathy scales by including identification factor which has been ignored.

A Study on the Effect of the Empathy Reading Education on Empathy Ability and Emotional Intelligence (공감독서교육이 공감능력과 정서지능에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Jiae;Cho, Miah
    • Journal of Korean Library and Information Science Society
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.267-292
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to develop an empathy reading education program and to investigate the effects of elementary school students on empathy ability and emotional intelligence. First, in order to select realistic empathy topics for the empathy reading education program, 10 specialist groups were selected and the focus group interview was conducted as well. 10 expert in the development of the empathy reading education program and 12 experts for selecting the importance of the empathy reading education textbook verified the reliability and validity through Delphi investigation and analysis. Second, in order to verify the effects, the empathy reading education program was studied and conducted on 104 grade 5 students in 'A' elementary school in U city, Gyeonggi-do. In conclusion, the empathy reading education program has a positive effect on the empathy ability and emotional intelligence of elementary school students.

The Relationship of the Empathy and Biomedical Ethics Awareness with University Student (대학생의 공감과 생명의료윤리의식의 연관성)

  • We, Ji Hee;Chang, Back Hee;Lim, Myung Ho
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.500-509
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of biomedical ethics awareness, empathy among college students. The participants were 469 university students in South Korea. The average score for biomedical ethics awareness was $2.89{\pm}.21$ ; The average the scores of empathy was $2.41{\pm}.35$. Biomedical ethics awareness showed a positive correlation with empathy(r=.203, p<.001). Emotional empathy showed a significant effect on biomedical ethics awareness. And the empathic concern of emotional empathy showed a significant effect on right to life fetus, artificial abortion, artificial insemination, prenatal diagnosis of fetus, right to life of newborn, euthanasia, brain death of biomedical ethics awareness. The results of this study suggest that biomedical ethics education to the emotional empathy should need for general university students.

RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF A KOREAN EMPATHY CONSTRUCT HATING SCALE (한국인의 공감 측정 도구에 관한 연구)

  • KIM, MOON SIL
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.26-33
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    • 1988
  • 내담자와 상담자간의 관계형성 추진에 관한 연구가 C. Rogers에 의해 시작된 이래, 돕는자 또는 상담자가 가져야 할 주요 조건으로서 공감, 존중, 온정, 확고부동함, 진지성, 자기노출, 직면반응 등을 들고 있으며 이중 둘 또는 세 요소 등을 선택하여 그 효과를 보고 있으나 역시 가장 주요한 요소로써는 공감을 들고 있다. 공감에 관한 연구는 그 본질의 정서적 측면, 인지적 측면 또는 복합적인 측면을 강조하면서 시도되고 있으나 간호원은 돕는자로써 환자의 문제해결을 위한 전수자적 역할을 해야한다는 점을 고려할때 간호현상에서의 공감에 관한 연구는 복합적인 측면을 강조하는 공감이 어 야 한다고 생각한다. 간호학자들도 간호원의 돕는 행위중 주요 요소로써 공감을 들고 있으며 특히 Lamonica는 공감측정을 위한 도구를 개발하였으며 공감이란 환자가 간호원이 환자의 입장을 이해하고 도와준다는 사실을 인지하고 그 고마움을 표현하는 것을 의미한다고 하였다. 본 연구자는 간호원-환자간의 촉진적 관계형성을 위한 교육내용 개발에 대한 기본 연구로써 한국인의 공감 정도를 측정할 수 있는 도구개발의 중요성을 느껴 Lamonica 의 공감측정 도구를 번역하게 되었다. 본 연구의 구체적인 목적은 미국문화권에서 사용되는 공감측정 도구가 한국인에게 적합하고 의미있게 번역되었는지를 확인하고 또한 한국인이 인지한 공감에 대한 탐색을 하는데 있다. 위 목적달성을 위하여 횡문화적 연구과정을 통한 개념분석, 도구 개발에 대한 통계분석을 시도하였다. 한국인의 공감 개념 분석을 위하여 미국 텍사스 오스틴에 있는 한국인에게 공감의 뜻, 동의어, 어떤 경우에 공감을 느꼈는지, 어떤 경우에 비공감적임을 느꼈는지를 물은 결과 한국인이 갖는 공감의 의미는 미국인의 것과 유사하지만 그 표현방법의 차이가 있음을 알게 되었다. 따라서 두 국가에서 사용되는 공감의 의미가 유사하고 또한 간호학자인 Lamonica가 개발한 공감측정 도구를 한국인에게 사용하는데 무리가 없을 것으로 판단되었다. 도구의 번역은 텍사스 주립대학 박사과정 지원생인 임상 심리 학자에게 의뢰하고 그 정확성을 판단하기 위해 인간을 대상으로 하는 학문을 연구하는 한국인(간호학, 사회학, 신문방송, 광고학, 심리학 전공)에게 그 정확성 유무를 물어 최고 27점, 최하 9점중 22점 미만인 문항에 대해서는 미국 간호학자와 의논하여 수정ㆍ보완하였다. 그 후 일반인으로 간주되는 한국인에게 그 도구의 이해 여부를 확인한 후 통계분석을 시도하였다. 대상자는 미국 텍사스 오스틴에 거주하면서 한국을 떠난지 3년 미만인 성인 45명을 대상으로 하였다. 2차에 걸친 자료수집 과정상 5명의 자료는 분석 불가능하다고 판단되어 총 40명의 자료를 spss- X를 이용하여 cronbach's alpha, test-retest stability, intercorrelation matrix 분석을 통한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1) cronbach's alpha는 1차 .9353 2차 .9666으로써 문항의 동질성을 보였고, 3, 4주 간격으로 행한 test-retest stability는 .7619(p=000)이였다. 2) 반면에 intercorrelation matrix에서는 역관계 또는 무관계를 보였으며 84문항중 26문항의 item-to-total correlation값이 .35미만이었고 이 중 16문항은 .30 미만이었다. 이들을 제외한 68문항과 58문항의 각각의 item-to-total correlation간은 .96이었고 test retest stability 역시 .76으로써 84문항 전체에 관한 값과 유사하였다. 3) 역상관 또는 무상관의 값을 보인 문항을 미국 간호학자와 재검토한 결과 본래 문항에서의 단어 의미가 복합적이거나 불분명한 것이었고 또는 미국 문화권에서 사용되는 특이한 용어임을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 한국인 공감 측정 도구의 타당성을 높이기 위해 역통역을 시도하였다. 그후 공감에 관한 연구를 하고 있는 미국 학자에게 그 정확성을 판단하여 최종적으로 58문항이 한국인 공감측정 도구로서 적합하다는 판단을 하였다. 위 결과를 통한 결론 및 제언은 다음과 같다. 인간의 행위는 조건화된 문화권에 따라 다를 수 있으며, 이것은 같은 현상을 인지하는데도 영향을 미치게 되며 본 연구와 같이 어떤 현상에 대한 횡문화적 연구는 그 행위를 이해하는데 도움을 준다. 그러나 한국에서 간호에 대한 연구가 한국적 토착화 과정에 있으므로 그 연구 방법이나 도구사용이 서구의 것을 도입해야 하는 입장을 고려할 때 도구번역 과정은 원래의 의미나 함축성을 내포한 번역이어야 하며 소홀히 해서는 안될 과정임을 재확인되었다. 또한 추후 연구로써 다양한 계층의 다수를 대상으로 한 한국인 공감 측정 도구의 타당성을 재확인해야 하며 요인분석을 시도할 필요성이 있다고 사려된다.

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