• Title, Summary, Keyword: 계몽주의

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Constructions of Totalitarian Subjectivity in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness (죠셉 콘래드의 『어둠의 속』에 나타난 전체주의적 주체성의 형성)

  • Koo, Seung-pon
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.45
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    • pp.479-496
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    • 2016
  • The aim of this essay was to investigate Marlow's desire for constructing enlightenment subject of knowledge and power sustained by the collusion of imperialism and patriarchy in Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness. Marlow's narrative, based on his journey up the river in Africa to retrieve Kurtz, attempts to conceptualize himself as the subject of the enlightenment reason and rationality. In the novella, collusive network of ideologies of empire and gender contributes to the making of a Western Enlightenment subject. Marlow eulogizes himself for realizing the harsh realities of imperialism, political domination and economic exploitation of the natives in Africa. However, Marlow is a colonial subject who has been ruled by the hierarchical system of thought in the Western logocentrism. He is not aware that his narrative has already been infiltrated by the ideological discourse of the totalitarian enlightenment. His narrative in effect is not a self-congratulatory testimony to truth and realities but a narcissistic and self-defeating document. Marlow unconsciously employs the totalitarian ideologies of empire and gender in order to relegate the African natives to the inhuman existence and to consign women to the sphere of illusion.

Argovian Cantonal School in Aarau and Albert Einstein I (칸톤학교 아라우와 아인슈타인 I)

  • Chung, Byung Hoon
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.233-248
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    • 2019
  • This study shows that the Argovian Cantonal School in Aarau, Switzerland, which Albert Einstein attended from 1895 to 1896, had been closely related to the ideological education controversy in German Gymnasium throughout the 19th century. Due to this controversy, Einstein hardly received a formal science education in Bavaria. Despite the lack of formal education in Germany, he had a habit of self-studying from an early age and continued with this practice all through his life. He had a hard time at the authoritarian school in Munich, but at the democratic school in Aarau, where freedom and autonomy were secured, he was able to achieve emotional stability. For a long time, the city Aarau prevailed as a location of tolerance and multi-culturalism, without religious, regional, and national discrimination. This was possible due to the influence of external and unrestricted social mobility, as well as the Enlightenment from France. As a result, this small public school was able to acquire a mass of qualified human resources from outside of Switzerland. As a consequence of the controversy regarding the educational ideology, the Cantonal School adopted practical thoughts and the Enlightenment that fit the spirit of the times. The school consisted of two independent educational organizations: the Gymnasium, where the 'neuhumanistsch' education for the elite training was conducted, and the 'Gewerbeschule', where a more realistic education system was set up to suit the citizen life. In particular, after 1835, the Gymnasium changed gradually from the pure humanistic education to the 'utraquistisch' ways by introducing practical subjects such as natural history. Thereafter, the Cantonal School became an institution that was able to achieve a genuine humanity, academic, and civic life education. Einstein, who attended the 'technische Abteilung' of the 'Gewerbeschule,' considered this school as a role model of an institution that realized true democracy, and that left an unforgettable impression on him.

A Study of Thoughts Related to the Formation of French Follies in the 18th Century (18세기 프랑스 폴리 형성과 관계있는 사상에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Ran-Soo
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea
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    • v.36 no.7
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2020
  • This paper tried to examine various thoughts related to the formation of French follies in the 18th century. The background in which various kinds of follies were built was related to the learned associations established by Locke, iconography based on ancient Greek and Roman mythologies, French Enlightenment, Rousseauism, Freemasonry, exoticism, and archaeological excavations. After the introduction, chapter two defined the term for the folly, and then tabulated representative folly gardens with major follies there, relating them to the various thoughts described above. Chapter three introduced theories for each thought and examined the cases of follies related to them. In conclusion, the characteristics of follies built in connection with these various thoughts are varied, but nevertheless they had an idea in common. French folly Gardens in the 18th century showed a fantastically alternative world, a kind of utopia beyond the real world, and follies may be interpreted as a sign of a new situation, into which people tried to change the reality with various thoughts.

A Study on Enlightenment's Influence upon the Ideal City of C. N. Ledoux (르두의 이상 도시에 미친 18세기 계몽주의의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Son, Hyson-Ju;Lee, Kang-Up
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.87-101
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    • 1996
  • This study aims at showing how C.N.Ledoux applied architecturally the idea of Enlightenment in the Ideal City. Enlightenment of 18th century not only developed neo-classicism in the field of art, but also brought about the changes of ideology and philosophy of the era. C.N.Ledoux, one of the most influential architects of this period, expressed abstractly and symbolically the essential idea of Enlightenment; the skepticism of God's authority, the liberty and equality of man, charity and the willingness of controlling the power of nature, and so on.

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A Study of the Use of the Family in Enlightenment Discourses: an analysis of Taehan Maeil Sinbo (개화기 계몽담론에 나타난 ′가족′에 대한 단상 - 대한매일신보를 중심으로 -)

  • 전미경
    • Journal of Korean Home Management Association
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.87-99
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    • 2002
  • This is a study of discourses on the family used during the Enlightenment period in Korea. To this end, 1 have conducted a qualitative analysis of the editorials taken from the Taehan Maeil Sinbo of that period. The major findings are as follows: First, these Enlightenment period discourses claimed that civilized nations evolved from a family in primitive society. This concept of family is different from the concept of family in a Confucian society. Civilized societies believed the family is less important than the nation. At that time, Korean Press used the term bumoguk (Parental nation) to refer to the nation in an attempt to equate national loyalty to filial piety. Second, the Enlightenment period claimed that the nation belonged in the Public sphere while the family belonged in the private sphere. However, it was stated that it was the duty of the family to discipline the members and make them into good citizens. Finally, Enlightenment discourses used familyism as the basis of their arguments.