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Convenient Nucleic Acid Detection for Tomato spotted wilt virus: Virion Captured/RT-PCR (VC/RT-PCR) (Tomato spotted wilt virus를 위한 간편한 식물바이러스 핵산진단법: Virion Captured/RT-PCR (VC/RT-PCR))

  • Cho Jeom-Deog;Kim Jeong-Soo;Kim Hyun-Ran;Chung Bong-Nam;Ryu Ki-Hyun
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.139-143
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    • 2006
  • Virion captured reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (VC/RT-PCR) could detect plant virus quickly and accurately. In the VC/RT-PCR, no antibody is needed unlike immuno-captured RT-PCR (IC/RT-PCR) which had been improved method of RT-PCR for plant viruses, and virus nucleic acids can be obtained easily within 30minutes by property of polypropylene PCR tube which is hold and immobilized viral particles on its surface. For the virion capture of Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), the extraction buffer was tested. The optimum macerating buffer for TSWV was 0.01M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 0.5% sodium sulfite. The viral crude sap was incubated for 30 min at $4^{\circ}C$. The virions in the PCR tubes were washed two times with 0.01M PBS containing 0.05% Tween-20. The washed virions were treated at $95^{\circ}C$ immediately for 1 min containing RNase free water and chilled quickly in the ice. Disclosed virions' RNAs by heat treatment were used for RT-PCR. Dilution end point of $10^{-5}$ from plant's crude sap infected with TSWV showed relatively higher detection sensitivity for VC/RT-PCR. During multiple detection using two or more primers, interference was arisen by interactions between primer-primer and plant species. The result of multiplex RT-PCR was influenced by combinations of primers and the kind of plant, and the optimum extraction buffer for the multiplex detection by VC/RT-PCR should be developed.

Biocontrol of Damping-Off(Rhizoctonia solani) in Cucumber by Trichoderma asperellum T-5 (Trichoderma asperellum T-5를 이용한 오이 모잘록병(Rhizoctonia solani)의 생물학적 제어)

  • Ryu, Ji-Yeon;Jin, Rong-De;Kim, Yong-Woong;Lee, Hyang-Burm;Kim, Kil-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.185-194
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    • 2006
  • A fungal strain of Trichoderma having strong chitinolytic activity was isolated from field soil enriched with crabshell for several years. Based on 5.8S rRNA, partial 18S, 28S rRNA genes, ITS1, ITS2 sequence analysis and morphological characteristics, the fungus was identified as Trichoderma asperellum and named as Trichoderma asperellum T-5 (TaT-5). The fungus released lytic enzymes such as chitinase and ${\beta}$-1, 3-glucanse, and produced six antifungal substances in chitin broth medium. To demonstrate the protective effect of TaT-5 against damping-off in cucumber plant caused by Rhizoctonia solani, TaT-5 culture broth (TA), chitin medium (CM) and distilled water (DW) were applied to each pot at 10 days after sowing, respectively. Then, the homogenized hyphae of R. solani were infected to each pot at 1 week after TaT-5 inoculation. During experimental period, fresh weight of shoot and root in cucumber plant more increased at TA treatment compared to other treatments. PR-proteins (${\beta}$-1, 3-glucanase and chitinase) activities in cucumber leaves markedly increased at CM and DW treatments, but the activity slightly increased and then decreased at TA treatment at 3 days after infection of R. solani. The activity of PR-proteins activities in cucumber roots at all treatments decreased with time where the degree of decrement was more alleviated at TA treatment than CM and DW. These results suggest that the lytic enzymes (chitinase and ${\beta}$-1, 3-glucanse) and antifungal substances produced by TaT-5 can reduce the pathogenic attack by R. solani in cucumber plants.

Grotesque Aesthetics with a Focus on Animations of Lee, ae-rim Director (카니발 그로테스크 미학과 이애림 감독의 애니메이션)

  • Oh, Jin-hee
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.81-101
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    • 2017
  • The present study argues that film director Lee Ae-rim animation works depict the world of the grotesque and not only are important sociocultural phenomena but also hold the significance of humor and subversion. The grotesque exhibits the intriguing characteristics of expressing a perspective critical of the existing society through the sensibilities of minorities and is used broadly as a term not only in the aesthetic sense but also designating sociocultural phenomena. Although discussed separately in terms of Mikhail Bakhtin's carnival grotesque and Mary Russo's uncanny grotesque, the grotesque fundamentally rejects existing order and conventions and is externalized through unique expressions, thus opening up a rich possibility for rejection, humor, satire, transformation, and deconstruction of and regarding the authority of the mainstream. Although they constitute a fictional medium, animation films are social products as well so that they are affected by society, culture, and history and stand as important texts that must be interpreted in terms of the relationships between humans' instinctive desires and society and between the overall culture and artistic media. However, the rarity of grotesque portrayals in South Korean animation films also proves that it is a society where even problems that are in themselves sensitive must be manifested ingeniously on a conventional level. South Korean society has a unique history of colonialism and national division and is simultaneously in the unique situation of a society that has undergone growth at a nearly unprecedented rate. Consequently, the society exhibits closed yet dynamic particularity where everyday tension and rigidity, wariness of others and extreme competition are intertwined in a complex manner. Intensively analyzed in the present discussions, director Lee's animation films and are characterized mainly by grotesque images, nonlinear narratives, and vivid depictions. In such a context, these works not only are artistic products of South Korean society but also rejections of a rigid society and share the significance of the aesthetics of the carnival grotesque, which consists of subversive expressions directed at a new world.

A Study on NCS-based Team Teaching Operation in Animation Related Department (애니메이션 관련학과 NCS기반 팀 티칭 운영방안에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Dong-hee;An, Dong-kyu;Choi, Jung-woong
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.31-52
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    • 2017
  • NCS education was created to realize a society in which skills and abilities are respected, such as transcending specifications, establishing recruitment systems, and developing and disseminating national incompetence standards. At the university level, special lectures and job training are being strengthened to raise industrial experts. Especially, in the field of animation, new technologies are rapidly emerging and demanding convergent talents with various fields. In order to meet these social demands, there is a limit to the existing one-class teaching method. In order to solve this problem, it is necessary to participate in a variety of specialized teachers. In other words, rather than solving problems of students' job training and job creation, It is aimed to solve jointly, Team teaching was suggested as a method for this. The expected effects that can be obtained through this are as follows. First, the field of animation is becoming more diverse and complex. The ability to use NCS job-related skills pools can be matched with professors from other departments to enable a wider range of professional instruction. Second, it is possible to use partial professorships in other departments by actively utilizing professors in the university. This leads to the strengthening of the capacity of teachers in universities. Third, it is possible to build a broader and more integrated educational system through cooperative teaching of professors in other departments. Finally, the advantages of special lectures and mentor support of college professors' pools are broader than those of field specialists. A variety of guidance for students can be made with responsible professors. In other words, time and space constraints can be avoided because the mentor is easily met and guided by the university.

Development of Systematic Process for Estimating Commercialization Duration and Cost of R&D Performance (기술가치 평가를 위한 기술사업화 기간 및 비용 추정체계 개발)

  • Jun, Seoung-Pyo;Choi, Daeheon;Park, Hyun-Woo;Seo, Bong-Goon;Park, Do-Hyung
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.139-160
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    • 2017
  • Technology commercialization creates effective economic value by linking the company's R & D processes and outputs to the market. This technology commercialization is important in that a company can retain and maintain a sustained competitive advantage. In order for a specific technology to be commercialized, it goes through the stage of technical planning, technology research and development, and commercialization. This process involves a lot of time and money. Therefore, the duration and cost of technology commercialization are important decision information for determining the market entry strategy. In addition, it is more important information for a technology investor to rationally evaluate the technology value. In this way, it is very important to scientifically estimate the duration and cost of the technology commercialization. However, research on technology commercialization is insufficient and related methodology are lacking. In this study, we propose an evaluation model that can estimate the duration and cost of R & D technology commercialization for small and medium-sized enterprises. To accomplish this, this study collected the public data of the National Science & Technology Information Service (NTIS) and the survey data provided by the Small and Medium Business Administration. Also this study will develop the estimation model of commercialization duration and cost of R&D performance on using these data based on the market approach, one of the technology valuation methods. Specifically, this study defined the process of commercialization as consisting of development planning, development progress, and commercialization. We collected the data from the NTIS database and the survey of SMEs technical statistics of the Small and Medium Business Administration. We derived the key variables such as stage-wise R&D costs and duration, the factors of the technology itself, the factors of the technology development, and the environmental factors. At first, given data, we estimates the costs and duration in each technology readiness level (basic research, applied research, development research, prototype production, commercialization), for each industry classification. Then, we developed and verified the research model of each industry classification. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. Firstly, it is reflected in the technology valuation model and can be used to estimate the objective economic value of technology. The duration and the cost from the technology development stage to the commercialization stage is a critical factor that has a great influence on the amount of money to discount the future sales from the technology. The results of this study can contribute to more reliable technology valuation because it estimates the commercialization duration and cost scientifically based on past data. Secondly, we have verified models of various fields such as statistical model and data mining model. The statistical model helps us to find the important factors to estimate the duration and cost of technology Commercialization, and the data mining model gives us the rules or algorithms to be applied to an advanced technology valuation system. Finally, this study reaffirms the importance of commercialization costs and durations, which has not been actively studied in previous studies. The results confirm the significant factors to affect the commercialization costs and duration, furthermore the factors are different depending on industry classification. Practically, the results of this study can be reflected in the technology valuation system, which can be provided by national research institutes and R & D staff to provide sophisticated technology valuation. The relevant logic or algorithm of the research result can be implemented independently so that it can be directly reflected in the system, so researchers can use it practically immediately. In conclusion, the results of this study can be a great contribution not only to the theoretical contributions but also to the practical ones.

A study on the changes of the Screen quota system as a Film policy in Korea (한국의 영화정책과 스크린 쿼터제의 변천에 대한 연구)

  • Cho, Hee-Moon
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.982-991
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    • 2006
  • The screen quota system is one of the most controversial issues in the Korean film industry. There are two different points of view regarding the system. Some say it is highly effective to protect and nurture Korean movies. However, others argue that it hurts the duality of the Korean movies. The number of days, for which Korean movies have to play on local screens, has been reduced to 73, starting on July 1st, 2006. Actually, it is 50 percent fewer than the previous year. In facL Korea has implemented the screen quota. system two times. First, it was practiced from 1935 to 1945, during the Japanese colonial period. This was to regulate imported movies, especially American ones, as the Japanese government was to use movies for the political propaganda. In 1935, the number of foreign movies screened had to be less than three fourths of the total. And they gradually reduced the size by two thirds in 1936, and again by half in 1937. After the attack on Pearl Harbor when the Pacific War happened, Japan completely banned importing American movies in Korea. The reason why it regulated the imported foreign films is to increase the number of domestic movies, both Japanese and Korean. It was for making propaganda films fur carrying the war. The second practice of the screen quota is from 1967 to the present year. It was designed to boom the Korean film industry. However, the competitive power of Korean films has not been improved in spite of the practice of the system. Moreover, the film industry has gone through the depression. Korean film agencies have occupied the Korean film market thanks to the protection by government. The founding of the film agencies has been strongly regulated. So has importing foreign movies. Under the special protection like this, Korean film agencies have been enjoying the monopoly In the mean time, they have pursued income not by making quality movies but by importing foreign movies. As a result, cinema audiences turn away form Korean films and prefer foreign movies. Furthermore, the screen quota system hurts the relationship between film producers and distributors, imposing the duties only on theaters. In short, the screen quota system has satisfied neither film producers, theater runners, nor film goers. In other words. the excessive protection has weakened the competitive power of Korean film industry.

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The Trend of Aviation Terrorism in the 4th Industrial Revolution Period and the Development Direction for Domestic Counter Terrorism of Aviation (제4차 산업혁명 시대의 항공 테러리즘 양상 및 국내 항공테러 대응체계 발전방향)

  • Hwang, Ho-Won;Kim, Seung-Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.155-188
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    • 2017
  • On the one hand, the 4th Industrial Revolution provides a positive opportunity to build a new civilization paradigm for mankind. However, on the other hand, due to the 4th Industrial Revolution, artificial intelligence such as 'Goggle Alpha Go' revolutionized and even the human ability was replaced with a 'Silicon Chip' as the opportunity to communicate decreases, the existence of human beings is weakened. And there is a growing concern that the number of violent crimes, such as psychopath, which hunts humans as games, will increase. Moreover, recent international terrorism is being developed in a form similar to 'Psychopathic Violent-Crime' that indiscriminately attacks innocent people. So, the probability that terrorist organizations abuse the positive effects provided by the Fourth Industrial Revolution as means of terrorism is increasing. Therefore, the paradigm of aviation terrorism is expected to change in a way that attacks airport facilities and users rather than aircraft. Because airport facilities are crowded, and psychopathic terrorists are easily accessible. From this point of view, our counter terrorism system of aviation has many weak points in various aspects such as: (1) limitations of counter-terrorism center (2) inefficient on-site command and control system (3) separated organization for aviation security consultation (4) dispersed information collection function in government (5) vulnerable to cyber attack (6) lack of international cooperation network for aviation terrorism. Consequently, it is necessary to improve the domestic counter terrorism system of aviation so as to preemptively respond to the international terrorism. This study propose the following measures to improve the aviation security system by (1) create 'Aviation Special Judicial Police' (2) revise the anti-terrorism law and aviation security law (3) Strengthening the ability respond to terrorism in cyberspace (4) building an international cooperation network for aviation terrorism.

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A Case of Pulmonary Paragonimiasis with Recurrent Pleural Effusion and Cured by Four Cycles of Chemotherapy (세 차례 재발하여 4회 약물 요법으로 치료한 폐흡충증 1예)

  • Cho, Gye Jung;Lim, Jung Hwan;Chae, Dong Ryeol;Chi, Su Young;Ban, Hee Jung;Yoon, Byeong Kab;Kwon, Yong Soo;Oh, In Jae;Kim, Kyu Sik;Kim, Yu Il;Lim, Sung Chul;Kim, Young Chul
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.66 no.6
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    • pp.451-456
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    • 2009
  • Paragonimiasis is a parasitic infection that occurs following the ingestion of infectious Paragonimus metacercariae, which occurs as a result of eating raw or undercooked freshwater crabs or crayfish. Pulmonary paragonimiasis is the most common clinical manifestation of this infection. Human paragonimiasis occurs sporadically. We experienced a case of pulmonary paragonimiasis in a 35-year-old woman with left lower chest pain. The patient had hypereosinophilia and a pleural effusion. The diagnosis was confirmed by positive ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) that detected Paragonimiasis westermani antibody in the serum. We treated the patient with praziquantel for two days at a daily dosage of 75 mg/kg. Left pleuritic pain and pleural effusion improved after treatment. However, similar symptoms and pleural effusion developed recurrently for the first 3 courses of treatment with praziquantel. Upon the fourth round of treatment, the patient made a full recovery.

A study on an application of 'Virtual Reality Therapy' concerning a technology of real-time interaction. (실시간 상호작용 기술의 '가상현실치료' 적용에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hwan
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.81-97
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    • 2011
  • The technology of 'Virtual Reality' has placed in advanced tools for human beings' joy and anger together with sorrow and pleasure in our generation. It has recently tried in a variety ways to use as an implication for treatment in the field of Cognitive Psychology. Especially, it widely approaches to human in terms of that a sense of reality in a virtual world through the five senses should reinterpret the meaning of cognition in the real world. Based on this paradigm shift, it allows for new treatment using the technology of virtual reality. A typical example is a field of Therapy in order to overcome panic disorder. It has advantages that in particular development of flexible interaction technologies in a virtual space can lead patients to experience psychological environments rather than physical one. the interaction technology provides environments in which users' five senses can be actively stimulated, it is very useful that information from the experiences in the virtual world allows people to learn through real experiences by renewing potential energies, advantages of Virtual Reality Therapy can be customized treatment by depending on symptoms in patients with panic disorder and are capable of differentiate application for the cure at each stage. It is to treat by leading patients to get accustomed to environments and situations in real world through care process with each symptom and stage. It is helpful that based on A Human-Sensibility Ergonomics, technologies like immersive virtual reality equipment, force-relative feedback and stereophonic sound, and like stimulating the sense of smell make people to induce experiences by stimulating human's five senses. There are many advantages of immersion in virtual world in that the phenomenon such as challenge, interaction, reality, illusion, and cooperation is expanded. As an application for therapy by growing such augmented reality, virtual space and sharing of data through the Internet and also inexpensive its availability have recently expanded the base. There are other benefits of Virtual Reality Therapy offering active interaction environments for cognitive experience which can provide appropriately adjusted environments for patients who are hard to overcome the real situation because of phobia. In addition to that it is safe and economical and patients' confidentiality is assured. Moreover, due to the principles of applying real-time navigation the Virtual Reality Therapy makes modification and supplementation easier and also it can reduce cybersickness because of the supply of Lenticular allowing people to see stereoscopy without eyeglasses, which makes sense of presence clearer. On top of that due to the development of interactive technologies, it is becoming close to sense of reality similar to real world by leading users to navigate by themselves and to operate objects in a virtual space. This paper will therefore examine, although it is of limited, characteristics of application of virtual reality technology based on A Human-Sensibility Ergonomics used for treatment for a disorder. this paper will analyse a range of its application and problems and it will suggest the future possibilities.

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Phosphodiesterase III Inhibitor Cilostazol Protects Amyloid β-Induced Neuronal Cell Injury via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Activation (Amyloid β에 의해 유도된 신경세포 손상에 대한 phosphodiesterase III inhibitor인 cilostazol의 신경보호 효과)

  • Park, Sun-Haeng;Kim, Ji-Hyun;Bae, Sun-Sik;Hong, Ki-Whan;Choi, Byung-Tae;Shin, Hwa-Kyoung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.647-655
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    • 2011
  • The neurotoxicity of aggregated amyloid ${\beta}$ ($A{\beta}$) has been implicated as a critical cause in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It can cause neurotoxicity in AD by evoking a cascade of apoptosis to neuron. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of cilostazol, which acts as a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, on $A{\beta}_{25-35}$-induced cytotoxicity in mouse neuronal cells and cognitive decline in the C57BL/6J AD mouse model via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-${\gamma}$ activation. $A{\beta}_{25-35}$ significantly reduced cell viability and increased the number of apoptotic-like cells. Cilostazol treatment recovered cells from $A{\beta}$-induced cell death as well as rosiglitazone, a PPAR-${\gamma}$ activator. These effects were suppressed by GW9662, an antagonist of PPAR-${\gamma}$ activity, indicative of a PPAR-${\gamma}$-mediated signaling. In addition, cilostazol and rosiglitazone also restored PPAR-${\gamma}$ activity levels that had been altered as a result of $A{\beta}_{25-35}$ treatment, which were antagonized by GW9662. Furthermore, cilostazol also markedly decreased the number of apoptotic-like cells and decreased the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Intracerebroventricular injection of $A{\beta}_{25-35}$ in C57BL/6J mice resulted in impaired cognitive function. Oral administration of cilostazol (20 mg/kg) for 2 weeks before $A{\beta}_{25-35}$ injection and once a day for 4 weeks post-surgery almost completely prevented the $A{\beta}_{25-35}$-induced cognitive deficits, as did rosiglitazone. Taken together, our findings suggest that cilostazol could attenuate $A{\beta}_{25-35}$-induced neuronal cell injury and apoptosis as well as promote the survival of neuronal cells, subsequently improving cognitive decline in AD, partly because of PPAR-${\gamma}$ activation. The phosphodiesterase III inhibitor cilostazol may be the basis of a novel strategy for the therapy of AD.