• Title, Summary, Keyword: 개벌

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Change of Butterfly Communities After Clear Cutting in Gwangneung Forest (광릉숲에서 개벌 후 나비군집의 변화)

  • Lee, Cheol Min;Kwon, Tae-Sung
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.347-354
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to clarify the change of butterfly community after clear cutting. Butterfly survey was conducted in clear cutting area, forest road, and forest using line transect method from May to November in 2011. A total of 32 species and 398 individuals of butterflies were observed. Abundance of food niche breadth and habitat type was significantly higher in clear cutting area than in forest. Estimated species richness and species diversity were significantly higher in clear cutting area than in forest. In clear cutting area, Leptidea amurensis and Argynnis niobe, vulnerable species, were abundant. This result suggests that grasslands formed by clear cutting play an important role to increase butterfly diversity in forest ecosystem.

Variation of Suspended Solid Concentration, Electrical Conductivity and pH of Stream Water in the Regrowth and Rehabilitation Forested Catchments, South Korea (개벌 재생림유역과 사방지 혼효림유역에서 강수시 계류수의 부유물질농도 및 전기전도도와 pH 변화)

  • Jun, Jaehong;Kim, Kyongha;Yoo, Jaeyun;Choi, Hyung Tae;Jeong, Yongho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.96 no.1
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    • pp.21-28
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to investigate how the qualities of the stream water vary during the event in the regrowth and rehabilitation catchments in Yangju, Gyeonggido, from June to September 2005. During the observation periods, we sampled the stream water continuously by an auto-sampler (ISCO, 6712FR). The sampled waters were analyzed for suspended solid concentration, electrical conductivity and pH. The suspended solid concentration during the event increased concurrently with the stream flow. The peak of suspended solid concentration usually precedes the peak flow. The maximum value of suspended solid concentration was 420.89 mg/l in the event 1 at the regrowth catchment. Among the events simultaneously sampled at both catchments, the maximum values of suspended solid concentration were 212.8 mg/l and 58.24 mg/l in the event 3 at the regrowth and rehabilitation catchment respectively. The maximum value of EC in each event showed in the early stage of rising limb. EC decreased during the rising limb, and then showed minimum value at peak flow. EC gradually increased to pre-event value after minimum one. pH varied in similar pattern with EC. The maximum value of suspended solid concentration during each event was 2.8 to 4.3 times higher at the regrowth catchment than at the rehabilitation catchment. And the EC during each event was higher at the regrowth catchment than at the rehabilitation catchment. This results indicate that a disturbed forest soil during clear cutting at regrowth catchment still has been unstable.

Clearcutting Effects on Soil Nitrogen Mineralization in Quercus rubra and Pinus resinosa Stands (루브라참나무림과 레시노사소나무림의 토양 질소 무기화에 있어서 개벌의 영향)

  • Kim, Choonsig
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.84 no.2
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    • pp.198-206
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    • 1995
  • The objective of this study was to determine the rate of nitrogen mineralization at clearcut and uncut in oak(Quercus rubra L.) and pine(Pinus resinosa Ait.) stands. The study sites were located in northern Lower Michigan, U.S.A. Nitrogen mineralization rates in the top 15cm of mineral soil were examined during the 1991 and 1992 growing seasons(May-October) using an in situ buried tag technique. diet nitrogen mineralization in oak stands over the course of both growing seasons was 67kg/ha in the clearcut and 30kg/ha in the uncut stands. In contrast, net nitrogen mineralization in pine stands was 27kg/ha and 13kg/ha for the same treatments. Total net nitrogen mineralization rates were always higher in oak stands than in pine stands. Extractable $NO_3^-$ before and after one month soil incubation in both oak and pine stands was generally not detectable in the uncut stands, but in the pine clearcut treatment(nitrification over the course of both growing seasons : 3.3kg/ha). The results indicated that : 1) substantial increases in the amount of available soil nitrogen occurred following clearcuts in both stands : and 2) the loin rates of nitrification may be an important mechanism for retention of nitrogen in both oak and pine stands.

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Natural Regeneration of Tree Species after Clear-cutting in a Coniferous Plantation (침엽수(針葉樹) 인공조림지(人工造林地) 개벌(皆伐) 후의 교목류(喬木類) 천연갱신(天然更新))

  • Sin, Chang-Seop;Kim, Hong-Eun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.95 no.4
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    • pp.501-506
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    • 2006
  • To study the regeneration process of tree species after clear cutting, we investigated the density of seedling occurred after 1 year in the coniferous forest of Sikotuko Hokkaido, northern Japan that was clearcut after windthrow damage due to typhoon. As the results, 25 species of tree seedlings were growing and the density of seedlings and sprouts was $9.8trees/m^2$ ($1.25tres/m^2{\sim}54.44trees/m^2$) in the area of clear cutting. The 87% ($8.6/m^2$) of all seedlings was current seedlings and non-animal dispersal seedlings (average density $7.2tree/m^2$) were about 5 times more than animal-dispersal seedlings ($1.4tree/m^2$). The seedling density was beyond $6tree/m^2$ within 10m and $2{\sim}9tree/m^2$ in 150~250m from a natural forest. Number of non-animal dispersal seedlings were decreased along the distance from a natural forest but there was not such a tendency in animal dispersal seedlings. The variation in seedling density was higher in non-animal dispersal seedling than in animal dispersal seedling. In natural regeneration of tree species after clear-cutting, the possibility that pioneer species like Betula spp. etc. will be composed of the major species is high. Therefore, in order to maintain the species diversity, the nurture work for reducing competition among the individuals is necessary.

A Change of Stream Water Quality by Forest Types (임상에 따른 계류수의 수질변화에 관한 연구)

  • Ma, Ho-Seop;Kang, Won-Seok;Kang, Eun-Min
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.100 no.2
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    • pp.142-148
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to clarify the change characteristics of stream water quality by type of forest from June to August, 2009 in three stands (Castanea crenata, Pinus densiflora and Plantation Land) of Samgye-ri Naedong-myeon Jinju-si Gyeongsangnam-do. The pH of stream water in three stands was highest in Pinus densiflora (pH 7.18) followed by Castanea crenata (pH 6.90) and Plantation land (pH 6.90) while the electrical conductivity of stream water was highest in Plantation land followed by Castanea crenata stand and Pinus densiflora stand was the lowest. Cations contents of stream water in three stands were high in order of $Ca^{2+}$, $Na^{+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, $K^{+}$, and $NH_{4}{^{+}}$. But anions of stream water in Castanea crenata stand and Pinus densiflora stand were high in order of $SO_{4}{^{2-}}$, $Cl^{-}$ and $NO_{3}{^{-}}$ while those of stream water in Plantation land were high in order of $SO_{4}{^{2-}}$, $NO_{3}{^{-}}$ and $C\lambda^{-}$. The stream water in three stands was significant at pH, EC, $NO{^{3-}}$, $Ca^{2+}$, $Mg^{2+}$, $Na^{+}$, $Cl^{-}$, TNU and Color by duncan test. These results indicate that quality of stream water have a difference among three stands. The level of pH, $NH_{4}{^{+}}$, $Cl^{-}$, $SO_{4}{^{2-}}$ and $NO_{3}{^{-}}$ of stream water in three stands were within the domestic use standard for drinking water. but turbidity and color of stream water were more than that of domestic use standard for drinking water. Therefore, non-point sources like urban forest watersheds which are soil erosion and fertilizer application lands should be taken to the appropriate mitigation measures if they are to be used as source of drinking water.

Effects of Forest Environmental Changes on Soil Characteristics by Forest Fire (산화에 의한 산림환경변화가 토양의 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Yi;Min, Ell-Sik;Chang, Kwan-Soon;Park, Kwan-Soo;Lee, Yoon-Won
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.61-70
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    • 1998
  • This research has been made for influence of forest environmental changes, such as tree-clearcutting affecting to soil chemical and physical properties, on water storage capacity at forest fire land in Keumsan, Chungnam. The analyzed factors were bulk density, porosity, field moisture saturated hydraulic conductivity air permeability and organic matter content, Field moisture saturated hydraulic conductivity and air permeability at uncutting sites were higher than those at clearcutting sites, especially the most differences were appeared at lower slope. After 2 years passed since forest fire, the most changeable parts of soil characteristics were 5-l5cm depth below soil surface. Total Porosity, coarse pore and fine pore at uncutting sites were higher than those at clearcutting sites. Also, as soil depth increased, total porosity and coarse pore were decreased. Bulk density at uncutting sites was lower than that at clearcutting sites, and was decreased as soil depth increased. The order of the change trend in field moisture saturated hydraulic conductivity, air permeability and porosity was slope lower>middle>upper. Organic matter content at uncutting sites were higher than those at clearcutting sites, and decreased as soil depth increased. As soil depth increased, bulk density had the positive correlation, in other hand, porosity, coarse pore, field moisture saturated hydraulic conductivity, air permeability and organic matter content had the negative correlation. It was concluded that forest environmental changes by forest fire degrade soil physical and chemical properties.

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A Dynamic Game of R & D Investment Under Technology Transfer (기술이전하에서의 연구개벌투자에 관한 동적게임)

  • 오형식
    • Journal of the Korean Operations Research and Management Science Society
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.7-12
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    • 1986
  • The problem of strategic R & D investment is formulate as a differential game model and solved explicity for a special case. It is shown that, at equilibrium, an increase in the intensity of market competition or a decrease in the role of technology transfer results in an increase in the initial rate of investment by competing tfirms. The increased initial investment rate may enhance the rate of technology development. This dynamic model can be used to propose non cooperative R & D investment policies in technologically competitive situation.

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The Effects of Timber Harvesting on Soil Chemical Ingredients and Stream Water Quality (성숙임목수확벌채가 토양의 화학성분과 계류수질에 미치는 영향)

  • 박재현;우보명;김우룡;안현철;김재수
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2000
  • The effects of clearcutting on soil chemical ingredients and stream water quality have been investigated at a natural deciduous forest catchment within the Seoul National University Research Forest in Mt. Paekun, Chunnam province during the periods of 1993 to 1998. Soil chemical ingredients and stream water qualities were monitored at a 13 ha clearcutting site and a non-treatment site nearby. During the first and second years after harvesting, the levels of total-N, and exchangeable ions (K/sup +/, Na/sup +/, Ca/sup 2+/, Mg/sup 2+/) decreased compared to the values of before harvesting. During the fifth years after harvesting, these levels were significantly higher than those during the first and second years after harvesting. But the chemical characteristics of soil were not changed at all. pH of water in the harvesting area was 6.5 in stream water. Among the nutrients, Cd, Pb, Cu, and phosphate were not found, and the level of BOD reached at the level of the domestic use suitable for drinking. Turbidity, odor, taste, NH/sub 4//sup +/ -N, NO/sub 3//sup -/-N, standard plate count, and coliform were also low enough to be used as the domestic use for drinking by the near villagers. During the first and second years after harvesting, BOD increased to about 1 ppm. For that reason, the harvesting planning should be built in the harvesting area in consideration of the control of water quality in the stream.

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Influences of Clearcutting of Timber Harvesting on Stream Water Quality (개벌에 의한 수확벌채가 계류수질에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Jae-Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 2002
  • This study was investigated to tile influences of clearcutting of timber harvesting on stream water quality at a natural deciduous forest catchment within the Seoul National University Research Forests in Mt. Baegun, Chunnam province during the periods of 1993 to 2001. Soil chemical ingredients and stream water qualities were monitored at 13 ha clearcutting site, non-treatment site and included in these catchment nearby. After the harvesting first and End years, the levels of total- N, and exchangeable ions ($K^+,\;Na^+,\;Ca^{2+},\;Mg^{2+}$) were decreased the values of before harvesting, and after the harvesting 111th years and eighth years, respectively. But the chemical characteristics of soil were not changed at all. pH of water in the harvesting area was 6.5 in stream water. Among the nutrient, Cd, Pb, Cu, and phosphate were not found, and the level of BOD reached at the level of the domestic use for drinking. Turbidity, odor, taste, $NH_4\;^+-N,\;NO_3\;^--N$, standard plate count, and coliform were also low enough to be used as the domestic use for drinking in the near villagers. Total amount of cation, total amount of anion and total amount of ion in clearcutting site, non- treatment site and included in these catchment nearby were higher than clearcutting site and non- treatment site. But, there was no great difference.