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Studies on Genetic Diversity and Phylogenetic Relationships of Korean Native Chicken using the Microsatellite Marker (Microsatellite Marker를 활용한 한국 토종닭 품종의 유전적 다양성 및 유연관계 분석)

  • Seo, Joo Hee;Oh, Jea-Don;Lee, Jun-Heon;Seo, Dongwon;Kong, Hong Sik
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.15-26
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    • 2015
  • In this study, genotyping was executed by using 27 microsatellite markers for genetic diversity of 469 Korean Native Chickens [20 population, each population is 24 samples but Hanhyup A line is 13 samples). in total 469 samples were collected from National Institute of Animal Science (Korean Native Chicken (NR, NY, NG, NL and NW), Ogye (NO), Leghorn F,K (NF and NK), Black and Brown cormish (NH and NS), Rhode Island Red C, D (NC and ND), Total is 12 populations] and Hanhyup [H line (HH), F line (HF), G line (HG), V line (HV), S line (HS), W line (HW), Y line (HY), A line (HA), total is 8 populations]. [The allele number were observed 5 (ADL0268) to 20 (MCW0127) each markers. Observed heterozygostiy ($H_{obs}$), expected heterozygosity ($H_{exp}$), polymorphism Information Content (PIC) were observed 0.359 to 0.677, 0.668 to 0.881 and 0.646 to 0.869, respectively. Using these markers, the calculated the heterozygote deficit within chicken line ($F_{is}$) value each population from mean 0.117. Phylogenetic tree showing the genetic relationship among 20 population using standard genetic distance calculated from 27 microsatellite markers. genetic distances revealed the closest (0.175) between NC and ND. on the other hand, Farthest genetic distances (0.710) revealed between NF and HV. STRUCTURE analysis and Principal Components Analysis (PCA) showed that results of similar phylogenetic tree. The expected probability of identity values on random individuals (Total population and only Hanhyup line) was estimated at $8.80{\times}10^{-83}$ and $3.87{\times}10^{-117}$, respectively. In conclusion, This study shows the useful data that be utilized as a basic data of Korean Native Chicken breeding and development for commercial chicken industry to meet the consumer's demand.

Some Adults' Opinions about Private Dental Insurance and National Dental Insurance according to Stress of Dental Treatment Cost (일부 성인의 치과진료비 부담에 따른 치과 건강보험 확대 및 민영치과보험 가입 의사)

  • Kim, Youn-Gyung;Kim, Eun-Ji;Nho, Su-Hyun;Baek, Eun-Jin;Shin, Min-Seo;Hwang, Soo-Jeong
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.703-711
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    • 2015
  • The high dental treatment cost has been considered as one of the major reasons for inappropriate dental treatment in Korea. The aim of this study was to investigate the opinions of expansion of National Health Insurance (NHI) in dental treatment fields not covered with NHI and buying private dental insurance. This survey was carried out targeting 266 adults from their 30s to 50s with convenience sampling. The higher orders in stress of dental treatment cost were orthodontic treatment, dental implant, prosthodontic treatment, and caries treatment not covered with NHI. The higher orders in needs of expansion of NHI were caries treatment not covered with NHI, prosthodontic treatment, and orthodontic treatment. The agreement percentages with age restriction in NHI were scaling 57.1%, denture 23.3%, implant 14.3%, respectively. The subjective oral health had impact on the stress of dental treamtent cost and expansion on NHI. Although only 8.3% subjects had private dental insurance, 68.4% of the subjects had positive opinions buying private dental insurance. The correlation coefficients between stress of dental treatment cost and buying private dental insurance were implant 0.408, caries treatment not covered with NHI 0.404, denture 0.394, crown and bridge 0.375, and orthodontic treatment 0.313. Expansion of NHI in dental treatment and development of private dental insurance was suggested to treat dental disease in appropriate time.

Status and Management Strategy of Pesticide Use in Golf Courses in Korea (우리나라 골프장의 농약사용 실태 및 관리방안)

  • Kim, Dongjin;Yoon, Jeongki;Yoo, Jiyoung;Kim, Su-Jung;Yang, Jae E.
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.57 no.3
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    • pp.267-277
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    • 2014
  • Objective of this paper is to assess the available data on the pesticide uses and regulations in the golf courses, and provide the nationwide systematic management options. Numbers of golf courses in Korea are rapidly increasing from 2000s and reached at 421 sites by the end of 2011. Accordingly pesticide usage has been increased with years in direct proportion to the increasing number of golf courses. Amounts of pesticide applied in 2011 were 118,669 kg as of an active ingredient and were in the orders of fungicides (54.9%) > insecticides (24.4%) > herbicides (13.3%) > growth regulators (0.1%). Average pesticide usages in 2011 were 280.9 kg per golf course and $5.4kg\;ha^{-1}$. Frequencies of the residual pesticide detections in green and turf were higher than those in fairway and soil, respectively. Residue of highly toxic pesticides was not detected in golf courses. Ministry of Environment in 2010 has developed the 'golf course pesticide monitoring and management system' which is the advanced online registry for kind and amount of pesticides applied in each golf course. This system is intended for monitoring of the pesticide uses and residual levels and protecting the environmental pollution from pesticides in the golf course. In 2009, management of pesticides in the golf courses became the task of Ministry of Environment, being merged from many federal agency and ministries. The protocol for the site-specific best management practices, on which to base results from the risk assessment, should be set for pesticides in the golf to minimize the environmental impacts.

Anti-inflammatory Activity of Sargassum micracanthum Water Extract (잔가시 물 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Jeong, Da Hyun;Kang, Bo Kyeong;Kim, Koth Bong Woo Ri;Kim, Min Ji;Ahn, Dong Hyun
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.57 no.3
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    • pp.227-234
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    • 2014
  • The anti-inflammatory effect of Sargassum micracanthum water extract (SMWE) was investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in this study. The murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 cells were used and MTT assay was performed to measure the cell proliferation ability. The secretion of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and IL-$1{\beta}$ was measured in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells by ELISA. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and nuclear transcription factor-kappa B p65 protein was studied by immunoblotting. The Balb/c mice were used for an acute toxicity test, and imprinting control region mice were purchased to evaluate a croton oil-induced ear edema. As a result, there was no cytotoxicity in the macrophage proliferation treated with SMWE compared to the control. NO levels decreased with increasing concentration of SMWE and were inhibited over 50%. Moreover, the secretion of IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$, and IL-$1{\beta}$ was suppressed in a dose-dependent manner, especially, IL-$1{\beta}$ inhibition activity was over 50% at 50 ${mu}g$/mL. The formation of ear edema of mice was reduced at the highest dose tested compared to that in the control. Moreover, in acute toxicity test, no moralities occurred in mice administered 5,000 mg/kg body weight of SMWE over 2 weeks observation period. These results suggested that SMWE may have significant effects on inflammatory factors and be potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic materials.

The Study on Evaluating the Policy Value of Public Projects for Housing Welfare - Focused on the Remodeling Projects for Long Term Rental Housing - (장기공공임대주택의 리모델링을 통한 주거복지 정책사업의 가치평가에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Yongkyung;Lee, Sangyoub
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.82-93
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    • 2014
  • Long Term rental housing, which is supplied for performing housing welfare, has been aging from permanent rental housing. Therefore, variety housing welfare projects are planing and performing for improving aged facilities. However, although every welfare policy are necessary, we have to efficiently allocate and commit the funds, because the fund and resources is limited. And there is required the feasibility study before performing public project for housing welfare, because it needs large amount of financial supports by government. Meanwhile, because most of existed studies are focused on guide development, it has limitation to apply the result of existed studies in this study, which considers public remodeling project for housing welfare. But in reality, public project is been decided by willing of policy decision-maker. Therefore, in this study, we suggest the evaluation method of policy value for two alternatives(remodeling and maintain) of a aged long term rental housing. To extract the attributes of policy value, we considered categorized items of preliminary feasibility study. Through extracting attribute factors of policy value for aged long term rental housing, we can calculate the policy value of remodeling and maintain alternatives by using MAUT. As a result of analysis, we can find that the utility value of remodeling is 0.6161 and the utility value of maintain is 0.2461 and also the utility of remodeling is higher than utility of maintain. Therefore, when we plan the public projects for performing housing welfare, we can choose remodeling alternative rather than maintain alternative using quantitive data.

A Case Study of the PCK of Middle School Science Teachers on the Mendelian Genetics (멘델 유전에 대한 중학교 과학교사의 PCK 사례 연구)

  • Song, Mi-Ran;Kim, Sung-Ha
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.718-736
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    • 2014
  • This study was intended to determine PCK of the middle school science teachers on Mendelian genetics and factors influenced to form their PCKs. Two science teachers with biology major with a teaching experience over 5 years were chosen as the subject. Data were collected by class observation, semi-structured interview, teacher questionnaire survey, Content Representation and Pedagogical and Professional-experience Repertoire. The collected data were analyzed based on Magnusson's PCK for science teaching consisting of five components: (a) the orientation toward teaching science, (b) the knowledge of science curriculum, (c) the knowledge of students' understanding, (d) the knowledge of assessment, and (e) the knowledge and belief in the instructional strategies to teach science. Teachers could have the orientation toward teaching science served as an assisting role to support students' abilities. Both subject teachers seemed to focus on giving lectures. Their efforts to improve students' exploration methods and abilities were not expressed enough in their real classes and they found that students struggled to understand Mendelian genetics. Therefore, they should have explained them in an easier way and worked harder to make their students understood accurately and applied basic and advanced concepts of Mendelian genetics. They found students' preconception and misconception regarding Mendelian genetics and wished to enhance their learning effects by various teaching strategies such as correcting misconception, adding the history of science and simply assessing students' affirmative domains. It was also found that factors influenced to form PCK regarding Mendelian genetics by both teachers were as follows: teacher's personality and endeavor, textbooks and guidance books, schools and their circumstances, teaching experience, experience as a learner, interaction with their colleagues, and university curriculum. Both teachers said that it was important for teachers to make every efforts to give better classes.

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Evaluation for Soil Moisture Stabilization and Plant Growth Response in Horizontal Biofiltration System Depending on Wind Speed and Initial Soil Moisture (풍속과 초기 토양수분에 따른 평면형 바이오필터 내 토양수분 안정화 및 식물 생육반응 평가)

  • Choi, Bom;Chun, Man Young;Lee, Chang Hee
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.546-555
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    • 2014
  • The final aim of this study is to develop a biofiltration system integrated with plant vegetation for improving indoor air quality effectively depending on indoor space and characteristics. However, to approach this final goal, several requirements such as constant pressure drops (PDs) and soil moisture contents (SMCs), which influence the capacity design for a proper ventilation rate of biofiltration system, should be satisfied. Thus, this fundamental experiment was carried out to adjust a proper wind speed and to ensure a stabilization of initial SMCs within biofilter for uniform distribution of SMCs and PDs, and for normal plant growth, especially avoiding root stress by wind. Therefore, we designed horizontal biofliter models and manufactured them, and then calculated the ventilation rate, air residence time, and air-liquid ration based on the biofilter depending on three levels of wind speed (1, 2, and $3cm{\cdot}s^{-1}$). The relative humidity (RH) and PD of the humidified air coming out through the soil within the biofilter, and SMC of the soil and plant growth parameters of lettuce and duffy fern grown within biofilter were measured depending on the three levels of wind speed. As a result of wind speed test, $3{\cdot}sec^{-1}$ was suitable to keep up a proper RH, SMC, and plant growth. Thus, the next experiment was set up to be two levels of initial SMCs (low and high initial SMC, 18.5 and 28.7%) within each biofilter operated and a non-biofiltered control (initial SMC, 29.7%) on the same wind speed ($3cm{\cdot}sec^{-1}$), and measured on the RH and PD of the air coming out through the soil within the biofilter, and SMC of the soil and plant growth parameters of Humata tyermani grown within biofilter. This result was similar to the first results on RHs, SMCs, and PDs keeping up with constant levels, and three SMCs did not show any significant difference on plant growth parameters. However, two biofiltered SMCs enhanced dry weights of the plants slightly than non-biofiltered SMC. Thus, the stability of this biofiler system keeping up major physical factors (SMC and PD) deserved to be adopted for designing an advanced integrated biofilter model in the near future.

The analysis of useful components in Flammulina velutipes fruit body, Flammulina velutipes mycelium and Cordyceps militaris mycelium (팽이버섯 자실체, 팽이버섯 균사체 및 동충하초 균사체의 유용성분 분석)

  • Kim, Yong-Doo;Kwak, Sang-Ho;Kim, Kyung-Je;Seo, Kyoung-Sun;Park, Tae-Young;Yu, Kang-Yeol;Jin, Seong-Woo
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 2014
  • Flammulina velutipes fruit body, Flammulina velutipes mycelium and Cordyceps militaris mycelium were analyzed for their proximate composition, protein-bound polysaccharide, nucleic acid and amino acids. The content of ash and crude fiber in F. velutipes fruit body were higher than F. mycelium and C. militaris mycelium. C. militaris mycelium showed the highest crude fat content while F. velutipes fruit body had lowest. Nitrogen free extract content of the samples varied from 56.8% in F. velutipes fruit body to 61.9% in F. velutipes mycelium. The compositions of total protein and total free sugars of protein-bound polysaccharide were found to be significant differences for all samples. Nucleic acid related compounds were identified the 5'-GMP, 5'-XMP, 5'-IMP in all samples. The content of total nucleic acids were high in the orders of F. velutipes myclial (286.71 mg%), F. velutipes fruit body(187.36 mg%) and C. militaris mycelial(76.85 mg%). The highest content of 5'-GMP was found in F. velutipes fruit body. The most nucleic acid of F. velutipes mycelial and C. militaris mycelial were the 5'-XMP. As for the analysis of total amino acids, seventeen amino acids were identified by HPLC and the major amino acid was glutamic acid in all samples. The content of total amino acids were high in the orders of F. velutipes fruit body(19,919 mg%), F. velutipes mycelium(19,018 mg%) abd C. militaris mycelium(18,965 mg%). We determined the developing new food product such as amino acid drink and amino acid containing food using extracts of Flammulina velutipes fruit body, Flammulina velutipes mycelium and Cordyceps militaris mycelium.

Analysis of Pine Nut Oil Composition and Its Effects on Obesity (잣기름 성분분석 및 비만 예방효과 연구)

  • Kim, Kyoung Kon;Kang, Yun Hwan;Kim, Dae Jung;Kim, Tae Woo;Choe, Myeon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.630-635
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    • 2014
  • Pine nut oil (PNO) is well known to impart beneficial effects in overweight individuals, but the mechanisms underlying PNO-mediated weight loss remain unclear. To investigate how PNO promotes weight loss, its composition was determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, the effects of PNO on cytotoxicity, lipid accumulation, expression of lipid metabolism-related biomarkers, and leptin secretion were assessed in 3T3-L1 cells. GC-MS analyses revealed that PNO contains several components, including linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid. Moreover, PNO did not have a cytotoxic effect on 3T3-L1 cells. However, it inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and adipocyte protein 2 (aP2). Finally, PNO significantly increased leptin secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, these results support the notion that PNO is useful for weight management in overweight individuals.

Anti-obesity Effects of African Mango (Irvingia gabonesis, IGOB 131TM) Extract in Leptin-deficient Obese Mice (유전성 비만 마우스에 대한 아프리칸 망고 추출물의 항비만 효과)

  • Lee, Minhee;Nam, Da-Eun;Kim, Ok Kyung;Shim, Tae Jin;Kim, Ji Hoon;Lee, Jeongmin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.10
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    • pp.1477-1483
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the anti-obesity effects of African mango (Irvingia gabonesis, IGOB $131^{TM}$) extract in leptin-deficient obese mice. Experimental groups were treated with two different doses of IGOB $131^{TM}$ (1% and 2% in each AIN93G supplement) for 8 weeks. Treatment of obese mice with both low and high dose of IGOB $131^{TM}$ significantly reduced body weight gain by 10.9% and 13.3%, respectively, compared to control obese mice. Subcutaneous adipose tissue weight of mice was significantly reduced by 18% by low-dose and 23% by high-dose supplementation. This result was supported by micro-CT analysis around the abdominal regions of mice, indicating that the adipose tissue area and volume were significantly reduced by treatment with IGOB $131^{TM}$. Serum levels of triglycerides in the low- and high-dose groups were reduced by 36.5% and 43.8%, respectively, upon treatment with IGOB $131^{TM}$, whereas total cholesterol levels were reduced by 31.8% and 35.4%. Interestingly, the serum LDL level decreased upon treatment with IGOB $131^{TM}$ while the serum level of HDL dramatically increased upon high-dose treatment with IGOB $131^{TM}$, resulting in a significant reduction in the LDL to HDL ratio of 59.2%. These results were supported by the expression levels of enzymes and proteins related to lipid metabolism assessed by real-time PCR. There was a significant increase of in adiponectin expression as well as significant decreases in the expression of FAS, LPL, and lipid regulatory transcription factors such as PPAR-${\gamma}$, C/EBP, and SREBP upon both low- and high-dose IGOB $131^{TM}$ treatment. However, there was no statistical difference between low- and high-dose treatments. These results suggest that IGOB $131^{TM}$ is able to regulate the serum lipid profiles by reducing triglyceride and increasing HDL levels as well as regulate expression of lipid metabolic factors, resulting in reduction of a weight gain in leptin-deficient obese mice.