There were also various decisions made in medical area in 2015. In the case that an inmate in a sanatorium was injured due to the reason which can be attributable to the sanatorium and the social welfare foundation that operates the sanatorium request treatment of the patient, the court set the standard of fixation of a party in medical contract. In the case that the family of the patient who was declared brain dead required withdrawal of meaningless life sustaining treatment but the hospital rejected and continued the treatment, the court made a decision regarding chargeable fee for such treatment. When it comes to the eye brightening operation which received measure of suspension from the Ministry of Health and Welfare for the first time in February, 2011, because of uncertainty of its safety, the court did not accept the illegality of such operation itself, however, ordered compensation of the whole damage based on the violation of liability for explanation, which is the omission of explanation about the fact that the cost-effectiveness is not sure as it is still in clinical test stage. There were numerous cases that courts actively acknowledged malpractices; in the cases of paresis syndrome after back surgery, quite a few malpractices during the surgery were acknowledged by the court and in the case of nosocomial infection, hospital's negligence to cause such nosocomial infection was acknowledged by the court. There was a decision which acknowledged malpractice by distinguishing the duty of installation of emergency equipment according to the Emergency Medical Service Act and duty of emergency measure in emergency situations, and a decision which acknowledged negligence of a hospital if the hospital did not take appropriate measures, although it was a very rare disease. In connection with the scope of compensation for damage, there were decisions which comply with substantive truth such as; a court applied different labor ability loss rate as the labor ability loss rate decreased after result of reappraisal of physical ability in appeal compared to the one in the first trial, and a court acknowledged lower labor ability loss rate than the result of appraisal of physical ability considering the condition of a patient, etc. In the event of any damage caused by malpractice, in regard to whether there is a limitation on liability in fee charge after such medical malpractice, the court rejected the hospital's claim for setoff saying that if the hospital only continued treatments to cure the patient or prevent aggravation of disease, the hospital cannot charge Medical bills to the patient. In regard to the provision of the Medical Law that prohibit medical advertisement which was not reviewed preliminarily and punish the violation of such, a decision of unconstitutionality was made as it is a precensorship by an administrative agency as the deliberative bodies such as Korean Medical Association, etc. cannot be denied to be considered as administrative bodies. When it comes to the issue whether PRP treatment, which is commonly performed clinically, should be considered as legally determined uninsured treatment, the court made it clear that legally determined uninsured treatment should not be decided by theoretical possibility or actual implementation but should be acknowledged its medical safety and effectiveness and included in medical care or legally determined uninsured treatment. Moreover, court acknowledged the illegality of investigation method or process in the administrative litigation regarding evaluation of suitability of sanatorium, however, denied the compensation liability or restitution of unjust enrichment of the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service and the National Health Insurance Corporation as the evaluation agents did not cause such violation intentionally or negligently. We hope there will be more decisions which are closer to substantive truth through clear legal principles in respect of variously arisen issues in the future.
Purpose - Most studies related to emotional labor have been conducted in the low-contact service industry rather than the high-contact service industry. Since the subjects of this study were golf service assistants, working in an industry in which the interaction and contact between customers and employees are considerable and the degree of customization is high, this study is significant. Thus, we would like to focus on the relationship between the humor style of golf service assistants and emotional labor. Humor style was divided into two styles-adaptive humor and maladaptive humor. Emotional labor was divided into two dimensions-surface acting and deep acting. In addition, we identify the relationship between emotional labor, job satisfaction, and turnover intention. Research design, data, & methodology - This study focuses on the humor styles in the golf service industry, among golf service assistants, on their emotion labor, and verifies the relationship between emotion labor and work satisfaction or job turnover intention. Based on the outcome, a total of four hypotheses were set up. To verify the hypotheses, surveys were conducted on the golf service assistants working in two golf fields in the region of Busan as well as its neighboring area. A total of 250 copies of the questionnaire were distributed. Subsequently, a total of 227 valid questionnaire copies, after excluding improper responses, were used in the analysis. After verifying the reliability and feasibility of variances, Amos 18.0 was used to implement the structure method so as to verify the study hypotheses. As a result of this analysis, the suitability of the entire model was considerably appropriate to the standard value, and the level is adequate to accommodate the study model completely. Results - First, it was found that the adaptive humor of golf service assistants had a positive effect on deep acting and maladaptive humor had a positive effect on surface acting. Second, It was found that employees' satisfaction with their job was reduced through surface acting, and those employees who experienced positive emotional labor in the form of deep acting were more satisfied with their job. Third, surface acting among employees increased turnover intention, but deep acting reduced it. Finally, the relationship between job satisfaction and the turnover intention of golf service assistants in the golf service industry was examined. Conclusions - First, the adaptive humor of the golf assistants in the golf service industry had a positive effect on their expression behavior. Second, deep acting increased their job satisfaction while their surface acting had a noticeably negative effect on their job satisfaction. Third, the surface acting of the emotion labor dimensions that the golf service assistants experience increases their turnover intention while their deep acting decreases their turnover intention. Finally, when analyzing the relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention of the golf service assistants, it was found that the turnover intention decreased when their job satisfaction is increased.
Abundance of low-wage labor resources, strategic location connecting East-West Asia and business professionals are fluent in English are strength of Bangladesh. Also the business environment changes in China such as the wage increases and labor regulations enhancement acts as searching for replacement of investment where Bangladesh is considered as substitute. At this point there is a need for research of Bangladesh employees at human resource management level. Therefore this study focus on the research of an important component of human resource management, organizational commitment. This study analysis the Bangladesh employees organizational commitment and its antecedent. This study consider four antecedents, role ambiguity, role conflict, voluntary participation and the work centrality and three organizational commitment, affective organizational commitment, continuous organizational commitment and normative organizational commitment. As results show, role ambiguity and role conflict has a negative influence on affective organizational commitment. And voluntary participation and work centrality give positive influence. Role ambiguity showed a negative effect on continuous organizational commitment, however role conflict show positive effect. Voluntary participation and work centrality showed positive effect on normative organizational commitment and role ambiguity showed negative influence. Results of this study give clue to understand Bangladesh employees organizational commitment and its relation among variables. And thus the need for appropriate management presented.
At present, the importance of organizational effectiveness is highlighted even more as business environment enters into a new type of work setting, the smartwork environment. This new type of work environment could be significantly influential in promoting organizational effectiveness of office administrators who carry out atypical types of tasks in general and are exposed to emotional labor excessively. Organizational effectiveness of office administrators could also be controlled by their concerns at work, their personal values and the increasing demand for work-life balance. The main purpose of this research is to investigate how smartwork environment perceived by office administrators is related with organizational effectiveness. In addition, this research places the focus on how concerns and work-life balance moderate the relationship between smartwork environment and organizational effectiveness. The survey was conducted among 102 office administrators, and data were analyzed by moderated multiple regression analysis method. Job autonomy of smartwork environment showed positive effect on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and innovative behavior. IT dependence of smartwork environment showed negative effect on job satisfaction and organizational commitment and positive effect innovative behavior. It was found that concerns with impact positively moderate the effects of job autonomy on job satisfaction and innovative behavior; concerns with self negatively moderate the effects of job autonomy on organizational commitment and innovative behavior. Also, it was found that work-life balance moderates the effects of job autonomy on organizational commitment and the effects of IT dependence on innovative behavior. The result of this research can be taken into consideration when a strategic human resource development plan is prepared for office administrators in smartwork environment.
Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science
The purpose of this study is to develop a job-stress scale for librarians who work in university libraries. The study was first conducted by analyzing existing representative job-stress scales that are used domestically and internationally. To understand the characteristic of particular job stress that academic librarians have, the in-depth interview among qualitative research methods was selected, and 15 librarians who work at a 4-year system university libraries participated in this study. Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, the reliability and validity were verified. To analyze the validity, exploratory factor analysis was carried out. To extract factors, principal component analysis was used. To extract factors, principal component analysis was used. For the rotation method, a varimax rotation was applied. A tertiary measurement tool with a total of 46 questions for 11 factors was developed after removing measurement questions that were rejected as a result of the analysis. As a result of factor analysis on the tertiary measurement tool, 11 factors were extracted. Those 11 factors include 'peer relation conflict factor(factor 1)', 'superior-subordinate relation conflict factor (factor 2)', 'work compensation evaluation factor(factor 3)', 'emotional labor factor(factor 4)', 'physical environmental factor(factor 5)', 'employment stability(factor 6)', 'job demand factor(psychological) (factor 7)', 'decision-making and responsibility factor(factor 8)', 'work complexity factor(factor 9)', 'work boundary conflict factor(factor 10)', and 'job demand factor(physical)(factor 11)'.
While the importance of the service industry has increased at the national economy level, the service rate and job satisfaction of the flight attendants in the aviation service industry are not high. In this regard, this study aims to recognize what factors can reduce their job stress in the emotional work environment, and how job stress affects their attitude and job performance. More specifically, the current study tries to investigate how flight attendants' positive psychological status affect their job stress, organizational commitment, and knowledge sharing in the aspect of job performance. The main five constructs in these interrelationships include the flight attendants' positive psychological capital, leader-member exchange(LMX), job stress, organizational commitment, and knowledge sharing. This study conducted a quantitative research with 390 questionnaire for flight attendants, and analyzed the data using SPSS/PC version 20.0 and structural equation modeling program of AMOS 20.0. The findings show that the favorable leader-member exchange relationship between flight attendants plays a significant role in lowering job stress, while high job stress has a negative effect on organizational commitment and knowledge sharing. The result also shows that personal positive psychological capital acts as a trigger to influence other factors. Therefore, this study suggests that it is essential for airlines not only to promote an organizational system to support the flight attendants' emotional work but also to maintain a positive psychological state for securing competitive human resources.
The purpose of this study is to identify the educational needs among social workers in social welfare facilities in Jeju province concerning lack of knowledge, skill and attitude, and establish the systematic education for prosecuting diverse training and suggest fundamental data for designing future curriculum. The results of analyzing top 10 educational needs for the workers are as follows: firstly technics for managing crises, understanding and practice for clients (characteristics, human right, safety and health), case management (basic), counseling technique (basic), case management (advanced), counseling technique (advanced), planning and operating social welfare program, managing client response and emotional labor, improving competence for communication (between staffs and clients, etc.), and finally assessing project outcome (project plan, execution, management and assessment, etc.). Social workers in social welfare facilities in the area have highly recognized the necessity of profession centred education. However, they had low satisfaction with the diversity of profession education in the Jeju island and the systematic training courses. This survey suggests the various results concerning qualitative growth of profession education, expansion of job-centred curriculum and security of professional instructors to fulfil systematic education training for social workers.
Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
This study examined the mediating effects of perceived organizational support (POS) on the relationship between the person-job fit and job satisfaction of service workers. POS is divided into socioemotional POS and instrumental POS. To achieve the research purpose, a questionnaire survey was conducted on workers in charge of service jobs in domestic companies through an on-line survey system and finally, the results of 281 respondents were analyzed to verify the hypothesized research model with an 80.3% effective recovery rate. The findings are as follows. First, the person-job fit has positive effects on job satisfaction and POS. Second, among the sub-constructs of POS, socioemotional support has mediating effects, but instrumental support has no mediating effects on the relationship between person-job fit and job satisfaction. Based on the results of this study, this study suggests theoretical and practical implications for the human resource development and management of service workers. Overall, changes in the recruitment system, which can judge the person-job fit of employees who perform emotional labor facing customers, organizational culture and personnel system for establishing socioemotional support system, and compensation and workforce development system, are needed to enhance the job satisfaction of service workers.
Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
A case study has been conducted on the changes in the identity and agency of international marriage migrant women who experienced a shift from a immigrant worker to a foreign spouse and a Korean citizen. The life histories of the eight female migrants living in Gumi area, a representative inland industrial complex in Korea, have been investigated by in-depth interview. The aim is to examine how the female migrants reconstruct and interpret their lives. The results reveal that the identy of a female migrant is flexible depending on her social positionality. The identities established from the past experiences in their native countries have been changed by their situations and conditions in Korea. The female immigrants recognize that their problems have been an important issue both in government policy and mass media. However, the female migrants express a strong revolt against the fact that they are considered as underclass victims or innocent people from underdeveloped countries. This implies their ambivalence toward international marriage that they selected subjectively. There is a finding to show a new possibility; the Transnational Marriage & Family Support Center supported by Government may provide a good ground for the female migrants to be a active group agent. The results illustrate that the international marriage migrant women could not be classified into a single group as wives. Called for are diverse researches reflecting the complex situations of migrant women.
Job seeking for young adults after college in South Korea is much fierce and highly competitive. Many job seekers tend to experience despair, frustration, and insecurity in such a dire social situation. This study focuses on the job seeking experiences of younger generation people by closely examining the self-introduction letters. This work pays keen attention to the narrative strategies and portrayal of the applicants' self-described activities in these forms of letters through a detailed textual and cultural analysis. In doing so, this analysis attempts to contextualize the complex structures of feeling for the part of young job seekers as well as various social factors and pressures that influence on them.
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