• Title, Summary, Keyword: 가용화

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Feasibility of Microwave for the Solubilization of Cattle Manure and the Effect of Chemical Catalysts Addition (우분의 가용화에 대한 마이크로웨이브의 적용성 및 화학적 촉매의 첨가에 따른 효과)

  • Kim, Hyanggi;Kang, Kyeong Hwan;Lee, Jaeho;Park, Taejoo;Byun, Imgyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.186-193
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    • 2017
  • Microwave (MW) is an effective method for solubilizing organic solids because it has thermal, non-thermal and ionic conduction effects by dielectric heating and high energy efficiency. In this study, we evaluated the application of MW to the solubilization of cattle manure and investigated the solubilization ratio of cattle manure by solid concentration, MW power and target temperature. And $H_2SO_4$ and NaCl were added to investigated the effects on the MW-assisted solubilization. Also, we evaluated the solubilization efficiency by biochemical methane potential(BMP) test according to the solubilization conditions. Maximum SCOD increment per energy supply was 70.5 mg $SCOD_{increased}/kJ$ at 12% of the solid concentration, MW power of 800 W and the target temperature of $40^{\circ}C$. And SCOD concentration went up 153.2% compared to the initial concentration. In the MW-assisted solubilization with $H_2SO_4$ and NaCl as chemical catalysts, SCOD concentration was increased by 36% and 22.7%, respectively, compared to the result of MW. The methane production was increased by 13.3% and 11.3% with the addition of $H_2SO_4$ and NaCl. Therefore, MW is an effective method for solubilization of cattle manure, and it is necessary to use chemical catalysts to increase the solubilzation efficiency.

Relationship between the Micellization of TTAB and the Solubilization of p-Bromophenol in TTAB Solution (TTAB 용액에서 p-브로모페놀의 가용화와 TTAB의 미셀화와의 상관관계에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Byung-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.57 no.6
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    • pp.665-671
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    • 2013
  • The solubilization of p-bromophenol by the micellar system of TTAB(tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide) and the micellization of TTAB were studied by the UV-vis spectrophotometric method simultaneously. And the effects of temperature on these properties have been measured for the thermodynamic study. The results show that the ${\Delta}G_s{^o}$ and ${\Delta}H_s{^o}$ values are negative and the ${\Delta}S_s{^o}$ values are positive for the solubilization of p-bromophenol within the measured range. On the other hand, the ${\Delta}G_m{^o}$ values are negative and the ${\Delta}H_m{^o}$ and ${\Delta}S_m{^o}$ values are positive for the micellization of TTAB. The effects of additives such as n-butanol and NaCl have been studied also for both properties and the relationship between these two properties has been also studied. From the results, we can postulate the solubilization site of p-bromophenol in the micelle.

Solubilization of Rock Phosphates by Alginate Immobilized Cells of Pantoea agglomerans (Alginate에 고정화된 Pantoea agglomerans에 의한 인광석 가용화)

  • Ryu, Jeoung-Hyun;Madhaiyan, Munusamy;Seshadri, Sundaram;Sa, Tong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.188-193
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    • 2005
  • Pantoea agglomerans immobilized in alginate solubilized four different rock phosphates efficiently under in vitro conditions. The solubilization pattern differed according to the rock phosphate source, where maximum solubilization of Morocco and Tunisia rock phosphates (215.6 and $186.1mg\;P\;L^{-1}$) on 6 days, Israel rock phosphate ($60.98mg\;P\;L^{-1}$) and tricalcium phosphate ($132.3mg\;P\;L^{-1}$) on 10 days and China rock phosphate ($48.8mg\;P\;L^{-1}$) on 12 days after inoculation was observed. The shelf life of the immobilized bacteria immobilized beads stored in two different temperatures was studied for six months. Beads stored at both room temperature as well as cold storage ($4^{\circ}C$) were found equally good in supporting the bacterial population as well as phosphate solubilizing activity. P. agglomerans immobilized in alginate might be exploited for large scale biosolubilization of rock phosphates intended for fertilizer use.

Solubilization of Mixture of Hydrocarbon Oils by C12E8 Nonionic Surfactant Solution (C12E8 비이온 계면활성제 수용액에 의한 탄화수소 오일 혼합물의 가용화 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, JongChoo
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2008
  • The equilibrium solubilization capacity of the mixture of hydrocarbon oils by $C_{12}E_8$ nonionic surfactant micellar solution was measured at $23^{\circ}C$ by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Experimental results indicated that the solubilization capacity for pure alkanes was found to decrease almost linearly with the alkane carbon number (ACN) of the hydrocarbon oil. For the binary mixture systems of the hydrocarbon oils both selective and nonselective solubilization behaviors were observed depending on the difference in ACN of the two hydrocarbon oils. Equilibrium solubilization tests for the hydrocarbon oil mixtures in $C_{12}E_8$ surfactant solutions such as the three n-octane/n-nonane, n-nonane/n-decane and n-decane/n-undecane mixture systems suggest almost non-selective solubilization. On the other hand, the n-octane/n-decane and n-octane/n-undecane systems, where difference in ACN of the two hydrocarbon oils is greater than 1, selective solubilization in favor of n-octane was conclusively demonstrated.

Effect of electrode coating and applied voltage of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on sludge solubilization (펄스전기장 (Pulsed Electric Fields)의 전극 코팅과 인가 전압에 따른 슬러지의 가용화 효과)

  • Um, Se-Eun;Chang, In-Soung
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.16-23
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    • 2018
  • Alternative technologies for sludge treatment and disposal need to be developed urgently because the amount of produced production has increased continuously. In this study, Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) technique was applied for sludge solubilization and the performance was evaluated. The PEF equipped with electrodes coated by epoxy resin and teflon was inducted to the activated sludge suspension, and the effect of the coating materials on the solubilization was determined. In addition, the effect of the applied voltage on the solubilization yield was investigated as the applied voltage was increased from 6 to 12 and 15 kV. Sludge solubilization was not observed when the epoxy-coated electrode was used for PEF induction regardless of the applied voltage. However, sludge solubilization occurred when 12 and 15 kV were applied to the teflon-coated electrodes. The MLSS decreased to 9%, and the soluble-COD increased to 496% when the applied voltage was 15 kV. But sludge solubilization did not happen under 6 kV condition. The corona discharge was observed at applied voltages of 12 and 15 kV, (Ed- sorry but I cannot understand the following highlight) but if 6 kV, strongly indicating that the corona discharge make the sludge solubilized, which suggests that the critical voltage for sludge solubilization lies between 6 and 12 kV. Consequently, proper selection of electrode-coating materials and the applied voltage of PEF could lead to sludge solubilization by corona discharge.

Effect of Solubilization Conditions on Molecular Weight Distribution of Enzymatically-Hydrolyzed Silk Peptides (실크의 가용화 조건이 효소분해 실크 펩타이드의 분자량 분포에 미치는 영향)

  • 채희정;인만진;김의용
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.114-118
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    • 1998
  • The effects of fibron solubilization conditions on molecular weight distribution of enzymatically-hydrolyzed silk peptides were investigated. The weight-averaged molecular weights of silk proteins prepared by solubilization with calcium chloride, ethylenediamine and sulfuric acid were 41600, 3308, and 1268 dalton, respectively. Silk peptides in the average molecular weight range of 600-1200 dalton were obtained by protease treatment from solubilized silk fibroin. After the acid hydrolysis of silk protein using hydrochloric acid for 24 hr, silk protein was hydrolyzed to peptides whose average molecular weight and free amino acid content were 145 dalton and 80%, respectively. It was possible to control molecular weight distribution of silk peptides by the combination of solubilization and hydrolysis methods. Among the various treatment methods, acid solubilization followed by protease treatment had an advantage of molecular weight control for the peptide production.

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Thermodynamic Study on the Solubilization of p-Halogenated Phenol Derivatives in TTAB Solution (TTAB 수용액에서 p-할로겐화 페놀유도체들의 가용화에 대한 열역학적 연구)

  • Lee, Byung-Hwan
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.20-26
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    • 2014
  • The interaction of p-halogenated phenol derivatives with the micellar system of tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide (TTAB) was studied by the UV/Vis spectrophotometric method. Effects of substituents, additives, and temperatures on the solubilization of phenol derivatives have been measured. The results show that all the values of ${\Delta}G^o$ and ${\Delta}H^o$ were negative and the values of ${\Delta}S^o$ were positive for all phenol derivatives within the measured temperature range. The calculated thermodynamic parameters depended on the size, the electro-negativity, and the hydrophobic property of halogen substituents. The addition of n-butanol results in the decrement in tthe Ks values and the addition of NaCl caused the increment in the Ks values for all the phenol derivatives. From these changes we can postulate that the solubilization sites of the phenol derivatives in the micelle depend severely on properties of the halogen-substituent.

Isolation and Characteristic of the Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria Klebsiella sp. DA 71-1 (Hydroxyapatite 인산염 가용화 균 Klebsiella sp. DA 71-1의 분리와 가용화특성)

  • 이진우;정연주;이경아;최시림;김영길;최용락
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.174-179
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    • 2004
  • To develop high effiency biofertilizer, a bacterium having ability to solubilize inorganic phosphate was isolated from cultivated soils, using a sucrose minimal agar-hydroxyapatite medium. The strain was identified as Klebsiella sp. DA7l-1, based on the physiological and biochemical properties. The activity of solubilizing inorganic phosphate of Klebsiella sp. DA7l-1 against three types of insoluble phosphate such as tri-calcium phosphate, aluminium phosphate, hydroxyapatite were quantitatively determined. The results indicated that the strain solubilized hydroxyapatite. The MPS (mineral phosphate solubilizing) conditions of Klebsiella sp. DA7l-1, were measured to determine the optimal conditions. The optimal temperature and initial pH to solubilize insoluble phosphate in sucrose minimal medium were $30^{\circ}C$ and pH 6.0, respectively.

Solubilization of Hydrocarbon Oils by C12E8 Nonionic Surfactant Solution (C12E8 비이온 계면활성제 수용액에 의한 탄화수소 오일의 가용화에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, JongChoo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.219-225
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    • 2007
  • The equilibrium solubilization capacity of pure hydrocarbon oils by 2.5 wt% $C_{12}E_8$ nonionic surfactant solution was measured at $30^{\circ}C$ by gas chromatography (GC) analysis. Experimental results indicated that the molar solubilization ratio (MSR) for pure alkanes was found to decrease almost linearly with the alkane carbon number (ACN) of the hydrocarbon oil. For the binary mixture systems of the hydrocarbon oils both selective and nonselective solubilization behaviors were observed depending on the difference in carbon number of the two hydrocarbon oils. Equilibrium solubilization tests for the two n-octane/n-nonane and n-nonane/n-decane mixture systems in $C_{12}E_8$ surfactant solutions suggest slightly selective solubilization in favor of n-octane, but the small difference in solubilization rates between two hydrocarbon oils does not allow ruling out non-selective solubilization for these particular systems. This is certainly not the case for the n-octane/n-decane mixture, for which selective solubilization was conclusively demonstrated by GC analysis data.

Assessment of Sludge Solubilization by Aeration and Zero-valent Iron As a Pre-treatment for Anaerobic Digestion (공기주입과 영가철을 이용한 하수슬러지 가용화 연구)

  • Kim, Yong-Jun;Park, Jin-Kyu;Tameda, Kazuo;Lee, Nam-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2016
  • The reaction of zero-valent iron (ZVI) with oxygen can produce reactive oxidants capable of oxidizing organic compounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-treatment on sludge solubilization by ZVI and aeration. The results demonstrated that the aeration pre-treatment with ZVI method was more effective than the only aeration for improving sludge solubilization, indicating that ZVI increased the extent of sludge solubilization. In addition, removal rate of $NH_3-N$ by ZVI and aeration was found to be 34%, while only aeration was 24%. Thus, ZVI and aeration can be employed as an efficient pre-treatment option to achieve higher sludge solubilization and decrease the toxic effect of $NH_3-N$ for sludge digestion.