• Title, Summary, Keyword: 가역성

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폐쇄성 기도질환(1)

  • 심영수
    • 보건세계
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    • v.43 no.12
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    • pp.4-9
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    • 1996
  • 기도가 협착되어서 증상을 일으키는 질환으로 만성기관지염, 폐기종, 만성폐쇄성질환, 기관지천식 등이 있으며, 기침, 가래, 호흡곤란(숨참)등이 주요 증상인데 비의료인에게는 해소천식으로 더 잘 알려져 있다. 일반적으로 기침 가래가 나오고 숨이차면 해소천식이라고 하는데 실제로 이 만큼 오용되고 남용되는 단어는 드물 것이다. 동의보감에 의하면 해수(해소의 원명)는 기침을 말하는데 해는 가래가 없이 소리가 심한 경우이고 수는 가래를 주로하는 기침을 말하며 16가지 종류로 구분된다. 천식은 숨이 찬 증상을 말하는 것으로 8가지 종류로 구분되어 있다. 따라서 해소천식은 기침가래가 나오고 숨이 찬 증상을 말하는 것으로 특정질환을 말하는 병명이 아니다. 비의료인이 말하는 천식의 경우에는 숨이 찬 증상을 말하는 것이고 의료인이 천식이라고 할 경우에는 특정 기도질환인 기관지 천식을 말하는 것이므로 서로 오해하기가 쉽다. 실제로 일간지 건강상식란에 천식을 소개하였는데 의사는 병명으로서의 기관지천식을 설명하였고 동참한 한의사는 증상으로서의 천식을 설명하여 혼란을 일으켰던 예가 있었다. 한의학에서는 예전에 기관지천식은 효천(孝喘)이라고 부르고 천식의 증상이 심하고 위중한 상황일 때에는 천급(喘急)이라고 하여 한의학에서도 구별하였는데 도리어 현대에 와서 정확성이 없어지고 모호해진 이유는 무엇일지 궁금하다. 폐쇄성기도질환은 기도가 좁아지는 기전과 기도폐쇄의 가역성(기도가 정상으로 회복되는지)여부에 다라서 가역성폐쇄질환인 기관지천식과 비가역적인 만성폐쇄성기도질환으로 구분하고 있다.

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The Correlation Analysis of Stress/Rest Ejection Fraction of $^{201}Tl$ Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT ($^{201}Tl$ 게이트 심근관류 스펙트에서의 휴식기와 부하기 좌심실 구혈률 상관관계 분석)

  • Kim, Dong-Seok;Yoo, Hee-Jae;Shim, Dong-Oh
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.3-9
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: It is well-known that stress-induced stunning and reversible perfusion defect have impact on ejection fraction (EF) when performing myocardial perfusion SPECT. Due to these reasons, gated SPECT is recommended at stress and rest studies. And there was many experiments to analyze between Stress and Rest EF by using $^{99m}Tc$-MIBI. The aim of this study is to analyze between stress EF and rest EF at myocardial perfusion SPECT by using $^{201}Tl$ and define possible predictors of EF variability. Materials and Methods: From 2008 June to 2009 February, we analyzed 144 patients undergoing $^{201}Tl$ gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in ASAN medical center. To analyze the data, we use QGS (Quantitative gated SPECT) software, and derived End-systolic volume (ESV), End-diastolic volume (EDV), EF from the result. In this study, we comparatively analyzed stress/rest EF correlation based on stress/rest EF, EDV, ESV and reversibility of myocardial perfusion defect by using paired t-test, Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Mached pairs of stress EF and rest EF demonstrated excellent correlation (r=0.92) with no statistically significant difference (p=0.11). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a mean ${\Delta}EF$ was 0.52% (95% confidential interval[CI], -1.17~0.12%). No statistically significant difference between a mean ${\Delta}EF$ and hypothetic mean of 0 (${\Delta}EF$=0) (p=0.10). In the correlation of ${\Delta}EF$ according to stress/rest EDV and ESV, except rest ESV of <28mL (p<0.05), there was no statistically significant difference. In the correlation of ${\Delta}EF$ according to reversibility of perfusion defect, patients with reversible perfusion defect has statistically significant difference of ${\Delta}EF$ (p<0.05). ${\Delta}EF$ of stress/rest EF showed no statistically significant difference except 55% of rest EF (p<0.05). Conclusion: Like studies with $^{99m}Tc$-MIBI, there was generally no statistically significant difference between stress and rest EF in this study results. However a stress EF of <55%, a rest ESV of <28mL and patients with reversible perfusion defect showed statistically significant difference in ${\Delta}EF$. If performing $^{201}T$ myocardial perfusion SPECT to patients with abnormal cardiac function or reversible perfusion defect, consider this study results and apply it. We expect this study results could be useful predictors of ${\Delta}EF$ variability.

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Neuroprotecticve Effect of Rhei Rhizoma on Transient Global Ischemia in Gerbil (Gerbil의 전뇌허혈에 대한 대황의 신경보호효과)

  • Bum-Hoi, Kim;Hyuk-Sang, Jung;Ran, Won;Ji-Ho, Park;Chul-Hun, Kang;Nak-Won, Sohn
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.74-84
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    • 2002
  • 목적 : 본 실험에서는 gerbil을 이용한 전뇌허혈 동물모델에서 뇌허혈손상 직후 지연성 뇌손상에 대한 대황의 방어효과와 Apoptosis 과정중의 Bax와 Bcl-2 단백질에 대한 조절작용을 관찰하고, TUNEL 염색법을 통하여 대황이 gerbil hippocampus CAl영역의 pyramidal neuron의 세포사에 미치는 영향과 PCl2세포를 이용한 세포배양 모델에서의 대황의 신경방어 효과를 관찰하였다. 방법 : Mongolian gerbil의 총경동맥을 5분간 폐색하여 가역성 전뇌허혈을 유발시킨 후 대황의 전탕액을 하루에 한번 경구 투여하였다. 대황의 신경 보호 효과는 수술 7일 후에 cresyl violet으로 염색하여, 살아있는 신경 세포의 수를 세어 측정하였다. 또, 수술 3일 후에는 면역조직화학적 방범을 통하여 Bax. Bcl-2단백질의 발현과 대황의 신경보호 효과와의 관련성을 알아보았다. 결과: 가역적 전뇌허혈이 일어난 동물군의 경우 hippocampus의 CAl 영역에서 살아있는 신경세포의 수는 $51.0{\pm}2.5개{\;}/mm$에 불과하였으나, 그에 비해 수술 후 7일간 대황을 투여한 동물군은 $106.2{\pm}2.5개{\;}/mm$로 살아 있는 신경세포수가 크게 증가하였다. Apoptosis를 촉진하는 단백질인 Bax의 발현은 3일간 대황을 투여한 동물군의 경우 hippocampus의 CAl 영역에서 현저하게 저해되었고, Apoptosis를 억제하는 Bcl-2 단백질의 발현은 변화가 없었다. TUNEL assay를 통하여 살펴본 결과 대황 투여군의 apoptotic 신경세포사가 감소하였으며 이는 Bax protein의 발현과 유사한 양상을 나타내었다. 결론:대황이 Bax 단백질의 발현을 억제하여 상대적으로 Bax/Bcl-2 자연적 세포사를 억제하여 Mogolian gerbil의 가역성 전뇌허혈 모델에서 신경보호효과를 나타내는 것으로 사료된다.

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Nonlinear Forecasting of Daily Runoff Using Inverse Approach Method (가역접근법을 이용한 일유출량 자료의 비선형 예측)

  • Lee, Bae-Sung;Jeong, Dong-Kug;Jung, Tae-Sung;Lee, Sang-Jin
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.253-259
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    • 2006
  • In almost all previous hydrological studies, the standard approach adopted for nonlinear time series analysis is to perform system characterization first followed by forecasting. However, a practical inverse approach for forecasting nonlinear hydrological time series was proposed recently To investigate the applicability standard approach method and inverse approach, this study used a theoretical time series (Mackey-Glass time series) and daily streamflows of the Bear River in Idaho. To predict a theoretical time series and daily streamflow, this study used local approximation method. From chaos analysis, chaotic characteristics are found in daily streamflow of the Bear River in Idaho. Resulting from 1, 3 and 5-day prediction, inverse approach method is shown to be better than the standard approach for a theoretical chaotic time series and daily streamflow.

Differentiation of Sorptive Bindings of Some Radionuclides with Sequential Chemical Extractions in Sandstones (순차적화학추출법을 사용한 방사성핵종의 사암에 대한 수착유형 평가)

  • Park, Chung-Kyun;Hahn, Pil-Soo;Park, Hun-Hwee
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.461-470
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    • 1994
  • Sorption experiments of $^{60}$ Co, $^{85}$ Sr. and $^{137}$ Cs onto sandstone particles in a batch were carried out to investigate the migration mobility. Sorption kinetics and reversibility as well as sorption mechanisms were examined. Sorption reaction occurred mostly within 10 hours on the outer surface of the sandstone particle but diffusion into the inner surface of the mineral has still occurred after that time. In order to distinguish sorption types of radionuclides, a sequential chemical extraction was introduced. The sorbed radionuclides were then extracted by applying different solutions of synthetic groundwater, CaCl$_2$, KCl and KOX-HA Especially KCl is adopted to extract the ion-exchanged cesium. Sorption types considered are reversible sorption under groundwater condition, ion exchange, association with ferro-manganese oxides or oxyhydroxides, and irreversible fixation. Strontium sorbs onto the sandstone surface mainly by fast and reversible ion exchange reaction. However, cobalt and cesium do not sorb by simple process. The main sorptive binding of cobalt was the association with ferro-manganese oxides and the secondary one was irreversible fixation. Diffusion into the lattice of minerals controlled the sorption rate of cobalt The main sorptin type of cesium was irreversible fixation, while ion exchange reaction was the secondary importance. Hence the oreder of migration mobility for the three radionuclides was Sr$^{2+}$ > Co$^{2+}$ > Cs$^{+}$ in the sandstones.

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A Case of Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome during Methylprednisolone Pulse and Cyclophosphamide Therapy in a Child with Nephrotic Syndrome (신증후군 환자에서 스테로이드 충격요법과 경구용 면역억제제 치료 중 발생한 가역성 후백질뇌병증 1례)

  • Seo Joo Hee;Shin Jung Wook;Kim Ji Hong;Yoon Choon Sik
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.245-250
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    • 2005
  • The syndrome of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome(RPLS) is characterized clinically by acute neurologic signs such as headache, vomiting, confusion, seizures, and visual abnormalities. Radiologically, abnormalities consistent with reversible white matter edema in the occipital and parietal lobes are characteristic. RPLS has often been associated with various systemic disorders, such as hypertensive encefhalopathy, eclampsia, and the use of intravenous or intrathecal immunosuppressive drugs. We report a case of RPLS that occurred after intravenous steroid pulse therapy and treatment with oral cyclophosphamide in a child with nephrotic syndrome, and we emphasize the importance of early recognition of RPLS in the treatment of nephrotic syndrome and appropriate management tn prevent Permanent neurologic disability. (J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 2005;9:245-250)

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Reversible DNA Information Hiding based on Circular Histogram Shifting (순환형 히스토그램 쉬프팅 기반 가역성 DNA 정보은닉 기법)

  • Lee, Suk-Hwan;Kwon, Seong-Geun;Kwon, Ki-Ryong
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.53 no.12
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2016
  • DNA computing technology makes the interests on DNA storage and DNA watermarking / steganography that use the DNA information as a newly medium. DNA watermarking that embeds the external watermark into DNA information without the biological mutation needs the reversibility for the perfect recovery of host DNA, the continuous embedding and detecting processing, and the mutation analysis by the watermark. In this paper, we propose a reversible DNA watermarking based on circular histogram shifting of DNA code values with the prevention of false start codon, the preservation of DNA sequence length, and the high watermark capacity, and the blind detection. Our method has the following features. The first is to encode nucleotide bases of 4-character variable to integer code values by code order. It makes the signal processing of DNA sequence easy. The second is to embed the multiple bits of watermark into -order coded value by using circular histogram shifting. The third is to check the possibility of false start codon in the inter or intra code values. Experimental results verified the our method has higher watermark capacity 0.11~0.50 bpn than conventional methods and also the false start codon has not happened in our method.

Polarographic behavior of Cd(II) and Ni(II) ions in the presence of imidazole groups(II) (Imidazole 및 그유도체의 금속착염에 관한 Polarograph 연구 (II))

  • Kim, Joon Yong;Shin, Joung Hee
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.73-84
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    • 1972
  • 단백질과 전이금속 이온들과의 상호작용을 연구하는데 있어서 단백질중의 이미다졸기 및 아미노산의 반응성은 중요하다. Cd(II)-2-메틸이미다졸 착물들의 경우 이미다졸 분자중의 결합측은 "피로올"형 보다 오히려 "피리딘" 질소임을 알 수 있다. 이 착물들의 환원파는 가역적이며 2전자반응으로 나타난다. 그리고 이미다졸 존재하의 Ni(II) 이온은 촉매파를 나타내며 Ni(II) 이온만의 환원파는 불가역성인 것에 비해 가역성을 보여주었다. 또한 그 반파전위는 Ni(II) 이온만의 반파전위보다 수백 mV 양전위로 이동된다. 이러한 성질은 전극 반응에 관여한 주물질이 전극 표면에서 흡착되어 환원되기 때문이다. 이미다졸 농도의 대수값에 대해 반파전위를 도시했을 때 그 기울기가 30mV로써 이론치와 일치한다. 한편 $Cd(II)-2CH_{3}Im$의 단계적 생성항수 $pK_{1},pK_{2},pK_{3},pK_{4}$는 각각 2.68, 4.01, 4.90, 5.36이었다.4.01, 4.90, 5.36이었다.

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Reversible Data Embedding Algorithm Using the Locality of Image and the Adjacent Pixel Difference Sequence (영상의 지역성과 인접 픽셀 차분 시퀀스를 이용하는 가역 데이터 임베딩 기법)

  • Jung, Soo-Mok
    • The Journal of Korea Institute of Information, Electronics, and Communication Technology
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.573-577
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    • 2016
  • In this paper, reversible data embedding scheme was proposed using the locality of image and the adjacent pixel difference sequence. Generally, locality exists in natural image. The proposed scheme increases the amount of embedding data and enables data embedding at various levels by applying a technique of predicting adjacent pixel values using image locality to an existing technique APD(Adjacent Pixel Difference). The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is very useful for reversible data embedding.

Irreversible Hemorrhagic Complication of Recurrent Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome in a Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (전신성 홍반성 낭창 환자에서 재발한 가역적 후두부 뇌병증 증후군의 비가역적 출혈성 합병증)

  • Kim, Ho Kyun;Lee, Hui Joong;Shin, Kyung Min
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.144-148
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    • 2013
  • Although most cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) are reversible, irreversible lesions as a form of hemorrhage or infarction have been described. PRES as a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (PRES-SLE) is associated with hypertension or use of immunosuppressive agents. We present a case of recurrent atypical PRES-SLE, which showed restricted diffusion in the first manifestation of SLE, resulted in parenchymal hemorrhagic transformations in the recurrent episode.