• Title, Summary, Keyword: 가역성

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Enhancement and Quenching Effects of Photoluminescence in Si Nanocrystals Embedded in Silicon Dioxide by Phosphorus Doping (인의 도핑으로 인한 실리콘산화물 속 실리콘나노입자의 광-발광현상 증진 및 억제)

  • Kim Joonkon;Woo H. J.;Choi H. W.;Kim G. D.;Hong W.
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.78-83
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    • 2005
  • Nanometric crystalline silicon (no-Si) embedded in dielectric medium has been paid attention as an efficient light emitting center for more than a decade. In nc-Si, excitonic electron-hole pairs are considered to attribute to radiative recombination. However the surface defects surrounding no-Si is one of non-radiative decay paths competing with the radiative band edge transition, ultimately which makes the emission efficiency of no-Si very poor. In order to passivate those defects - dangling bonds in the $Si:SiO_2$ interface, hydrogen is usually utilized. The luminescence yield from no-Si is dramatically enhanced by defect termination. However due to relatively high mobility of hydrogen in a matrix, hydrogen-terminated no-Si may no longer sustain the enhancement effect on subsequent thermal processes. Therefore instead of easily reversible hydrogen, phosphorus was introduced by ion implantation, expecting to have the same enhancement effect and to be more resistive against succeeding thermal treatments. Samples were Prepared by 400 keV Si implantation with doses of $1\times10^{17}\;Si/cm^2$ and by multi-energy Phosphorus implantation to make relatively uniform phosphorus concentration in the region where implanted Si ions are distributed. Crystalline silicon was precipitated by annealing at $1,100^{\circ}C$ for 2 hours in Ar environment and subsequent annealing were performed for an hour in Ar at a few temperature stages up to $1,000^{\circ}C$ to show improved thermal resistance. Experimental data such as enhancement effect of PL yield, decay time, peak shift for the phosphorus implanted nc-Si are shown, and the possible mechanisms are discussed as well.

The Influence of Botulinum Toxin Type A Masticatory Efficiency (보툴리눔 A형 독소가 저작효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hyung-Uk;Kwon, Jeong-Seung;Kim, Seong Taek;Choi, Jong-Hoon;Ahn, Hyung-Joon
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.53-67
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    • 2013
  • This study was aimed to evaluate the masticatory efficiency after botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection during 12 weeks using objective and subjective test. Also, we compared the difference of masticatory efficiency between group that injected into the masseter muscle only (M-group) and group that injected into the masseter and temporalis muscle (M-T group). The mixing ability index (MAI) was used as the objective indicator, and visual analogue scale (VAS) and food intake ability (FIA) index were used as the subjective indicators. It was concluded that masticatory efficiency was significantly lowered after a BTX-A injection into the masticatory muscle, but it gradually recovered in a predictable pattern by the 12 weeks. The disturbance of subjective masticatory efficiency was lasted longer than objective masticatory efficiency. The masticatory efficiency was lower in M-T group than M group. It was statistically significant in the VAS and FIA at 4 weeks, but the MAI showed no significancy. After 4weeks, there was rapid recovery of muscle function in M-T group, and the difference between two groups was not significant. It could be concluded that there will be no serious disturbance of mastication compared to injection is done only into the masseter muscle, even if injection is done into the masseter and temporalis muscle in dose of this study. According to the food properties, it was confirmed that people feel more discomfort on taking hard and tough foods after BTX-A injection and not only hard foods, but also intake of soft and runny foods were influenced by botulinum toxin injection.

Characteristics of Intravenous Midazolam Sedation with Nitrous Oxide in Pediatric Dental Treatment (소아환자에서 midazolam 정주 및 아산화질소 흡입진정법 하 치과치료의 특성)

  • Kim, Hyuntae;Song, Ji-Soo;Hyun, Hong-Keun;Kim, Young-Jae;Kim, Jung-Wook;Jang, Ki-Taeg;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Shin, Teo Jeon
    • THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2020
  • Midazolam is a short-acting benzodiazepine that is widely used in pediatric dental sedation. However, its clinical effectiveness as an intravenous sedative agent in children has not been widely documented. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous midazolam and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation in pediatric dental treatment. The subjects were 115 patients (118 cases) who received dental treatment under intravenous midazolam and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation. Demographic factors, general health status, sedation time, midazolam and nitrous oxide dosage, and success rate of sedation were evaluated from electronic medical records. Behavioral management was the main reason of choosing sedation. Mean duration of sedation was 56.7 minutes for surgical treatment, and 74.4 minutes for restorative treatment. The initial dosage of intravenous midazolam was 0.051 ± 0.019 mg/kg. In 34 cases (28.8%), additional midazolam of 0.036 ± 0.057 mg/kg was delivered during the treatment. The concentration of nitrous oxide was maintained between 40% and 50%. The success rate of sedation was 99% (n = 117). In 1 case, laryngospasm occurred and the patient was reversed with benzodiazepine antagonist, flumazenil. Intravenous midazolam sedation with nitrous oxide was shown to be clinically effective for the dental treatment in children, if administered by trained personnel and patients are carefully selected in accordance with guidelines.

Development of Quantification Methods for the Myocardial Blood Flow Using Ensemble Independent Component Analysis for Dynamic $H_2^{15}O$ PET (동적 $H_2^{15}O$ PET에서 앙상블 독립성분분석법을 이용한 심근 혈류 정량화 방법 개발)

  • Lee, Byeong-Il;Lee, Jae-Sung;Lee, Dong-Soo;Kang, Won-Jun;Lee, Jong-Jin;Kim, Soo-Jin;Choi, Seung-Jin;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.486-491
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: factor analysis and independent component analysis (ICA) has been used for handling dynamic image sequences. Theoretical advantages of a newly suggested ICA method, ensemble ICA, leaded us to consider applying this method to the analysis of dynamic myocardial $H_2^{15}O$ PET data. In this study, we quantified patients' blood flow using the ensemble ICA method. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects underwent $H_2^{15}O$ PET scans using ECAT EXACT 47 scanner and myocardial perfusion SPECT using Vertex scanner. After transmission scanning, dynamic emission scans were initiated simultaneously with the injection of $555{\sim}740$ MBq $H_2^{15}O$. Hidden independent components can be extracted from the observed mixed data (PET image) by means of ICA algorithms. Ensemble learning is a variational Bayesian method that provides an analytical approximation to the parameter posterior using a tractable distribution. Variational approximation forms a lower bound on the ensemble likelihood and the maximization of the lower bound is achieved through minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between the true posterior and the variational posterior. In this study, posterior pdf was approximated by a rectified Gaussian distribution to incorporate non-negativity constraint, which is suitable to dynamic images in nuclear medicine. Blood flow was measured in 9 regions - apex, four areas in mid wall, and four areas in base wall. Myocardial perfusion SPECT score and angiography results were compared with the regional blood flow. Results: Major cardiac components were separated successfully by the ensemble ICA method and blood flow could be estimated in 15 among 20 patients. Mean myocardial blood flow was $1.2{\pm}0.40$ ml/min/g in rest, $1.85{\pm}1.12$ ml/min/g in stress state. Blood flow values obtained by an operator in two different occasion were highly correlated (r=0.99). In myocardium component image, the image contrast between left ventricle and myocardium was 1:2.7 in average. Perfusion reserve was significantly different between the regions with and without stenosis detected by the coronary angiography (P<0.01). In 66 segment with stenosis confirmed by angiography, the segments with reversible perfusion decrease in perfusion SPECT showed lower perfusion reserve values in $H_2^{15}O$ PET. Conclusions: Myocardial blood flow could be estimated using an ICA method with ensemble learning. We suggest that the ensemble ICA incorporating non-negative constraint is a feasible method to handle dynamic image sequence obtained by the nuclear medicine techniques.

Studies on the Chilling Injury of Rice seedlings. 1. Characterization of Chilling Injury & Recovery Different Leaf Stages (수도의 유초기 냉해에 관한 연구 1. 유묘기 엽령별 냉해발현 및 회복양태)

  • Kwon, Y.W.; Kim, J.H.;Ahn, S.B.
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.11-24
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    • 1979
  • To characterize elastic and plastic chilling injury, rice seedlings grown at 28/$16^{\circ}C$ day/night temp. under 20K lux (13hrs.) in a phytotron were subjected to a 11/$6^{\circ}C$, 20K lux condition for 2, 4, 6 or 8 days at 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5th leaf-stage, respectively, followed by further growth under 28/$16^{\circ}C$condition till 30th day after seeding. Japonica variety Jinheung and Chulwon No.1 survived almost 100% without any significant , discoloration and death of leaves due to chilling even under the chilling of 8 days at all seedling ages tested. Tongil and Yushin, varieties from Indica x Japonica cross, showed increasing discoloration of leaves and death of plants with increase in chilling intensity. The longest chilling duration shown seedling death less than 5% was 4, 6, 1, 4, 8 days for Tongil, and 6, 6, 1, 2, 2, days for Yushin at 1, 2, 3, 5th leaf-stage, respectively. The degree of discoloration and death of leaves or suppression of height growth was not explicitly related to seedling death or the dry weight reduction. The degree of seedling death or dry weight reduction could differentiate chilling tolerance of varieties and seedling ages, but somewhat differently. Reduction in dry weight due to chilling occurred even without any visible injury or seedling death. These suggest that both the degree of seedling death and reduction in dry weight should be considered in the test of varieties for chilling tolerance. Combined evaluation of seedling death and dry weight reduction indicated the most susceptible seedling age to chilling injury to be 1 to 2nd leaf-stage for Jinheung, 2 to 3rd leaf-stage for Chulwon No.1, 3rd leaf- stage for Tongil and Yushin, respectively.

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ON THE EFFECTS CHLORINITIES UPON GROWTH OF EARLIER LARVAE AND POST-LARVA OF A FRESH WATER PRAWN, MACROBRACHIUM ROSENBERGI(DE MAN) (담수산새우 Macrobrachium rosenbergi (de Man)의 초기유생 및 Post-larva.의 성장에 미치는 염분량에 관하여)

  • KWON Chin Soo;UNO Yutaka;OGASAWARA Yohismitsu
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.97-114
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    • 1977
  • The fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergi(de Man) is a very common species in Indopacific region, which inhaits both fresh and brackish water in low land area, most of rivers and especially aboundant in the lower reaches which are influenced by sea water. It is one of the largest and commercial species of genus Macrobrachium, which is commonly larger than $18\~21cm$ in body length, from the basis of eye-stalked to the distal of telson. As a part of the researches in order to investigate the possibilities on transplantation and propagation of this species, this work dealt with the problems on the effects of chlorinities upon zoeal larvae and post-larvae 1). metamorphosis rate and optimum chlorinity for metamorphosis to post-larve, 2). tolerance and comparative survival rate on various chlorinties, from fresh water to sea water $(19.38\%_{\circ}\;Cl)$, which reared for six days upon each stage of zoeal larvae, 3). accomodation rate on chlonities which reared for twelve days after transmigration into variant chlorinities of the range from $3.68\%_{\circ}$ Cl to $1.53\%_{\circ}$ Cl in the way of rearing of the range from $3.82\%_{\circ}$ Cl to $11.05\%_{\circ}$ upon each stage of zoea, 4). tolerance on both of fresh and sea water upon zoeal larva and post-larva under the condition of $28^{\circ}C{\pm}1$ in temperature and feeding on Artenia salina nauplii, 5). relationship between various chlorinities and grwth of post-larvae under the condition of $28^{\circ}C$ in tmperature and feeding on meat of clam. Thus these investigations were performed in order to grope for a comfortable method on seedmass production. Up to the present, the study on the effects of chlorinity upon earlier zoeal larvae and post-larvae of Macrobrachium species has been scarcely performed by workers with the exception of Lewis(1961) and Ling (1962,, 1967), even so their works were not so detailed. On the other hand, larvae of several species of this genus were reared at the water which mixed sea water so as to carry out complete metamorphosis to post-larva by workers in order to investigate on earlier 1 arval and earlier post-larval development, such as Macrobrachium lamerrei (Rajyalakshmi, 1961), M. rosenbergi and M. nipponense (Uno and Kwoa, 1969; Kwon and Uno, 1969), M. acanthurs (Choudhury, 1970; Dobkin, 1971), M. carcinus(Choudhury, 1970), M. formosense(Shokita, 1970), M. olfersii (Duggei et al., 1975), M. novaehallandiae (Greenwood et al., 1976), M. japonicum (Kwon, 1974) and M. lar (Shokita, personal communication), and there fore it is regarded that chlorinity is, generally, one of absolute factors to rear zoeal larvae of brackish species of Macrobrachium genus. Synthetic results on this work is summarized as the follwings: 1) Zoeal larvae required different chlorinities to grow according to each stage, and generally, it is regarded that optimum range of living and growing is from $7.63\%_{\circ}Cl\to\;7.63\%_{\circ}Cl$, and while differences of metamorphsis rate, from first zoea to post-larva, is rarely found in this range, and however it occurs apparently in both of situation at $7.63\%_{\circ}Cl$ below and $16.63\%_{\circ}Cl$ above and moreover, metamorphosis rate is delayed somewhat in case of lower chlorinity as compared with high chlorinity in these situations. 2) Accomodation in each chlorinity on the range, from fresh water to sea water, is different according to larval stages and while the best of it is, generally, on the range from $14.24\%_{\circ}Cl$ to $8.28\%_{\circ}Cl$ and favorite chlorinity of zoea have a tendency to remove from high chlorinity to lower chlorinity in order to advance larval age throughout all zoeal stages, setting a conversional stage for eighta zoea stage. 3) Optimum chlorinity of living and growth upon postlarvae is on the range of $4.25\%_{\circ}Cl$ below, and in proportion as approach to fresh water, growth rate is increased. 4) Post-large are able to live better in fresh water in comparison with zoeal larvae, which are only able to live within fifteen hours, and by contraries, post-larvae are merely able to live for one day as compared with ?미 larvar, which are able to live for six days more in sea water $19.38\%_{\circ}Cl\;above$. 5) Also, in case of transmigration into higher and lower chlorinities in the way of rearing in the initial chlorinities $ 3.82\%_{\circ}Cl,\;7.14%_{\circ}Cl\;and\;11.05%_{\circ}Cl$, accoodation rate is a follow: accomodation capacity in ease of removing into higher chlorinities from lower chlorinities is increased in proportion as earlier stages, setting a conversional stage for eighth zoea stage, and by contraries, in case of advanced stages from eighth zoea it is incraesed in proportion as approach to post-larva stage in the case of transmigration into lower chlorinity from higher chlorinity. On the other hand, it is interesting that in case of reciprocal transmigration between two different chlorinitiess, each survival rate is different, and in this case, also, its accomodation in each zoea stage has a tendency to vary according to larval stages as described above, setting a conversional stage for eighth zoea stage. 6) It is likely that expension of radish pigments on body surface is directly proportional to chlorinity during the period of zoea rearing, and therefore it seems like all body surfacts of zoea larvae be radish coloured in case of higher chlorinity. 7) By the differences that each zoeal larvae, postlarvae, juvaniles and adult prawn are required different chlorinity for inhabiting in each, it is regarded that this species migrats from up steam to near the estuary of the river which the prawns inhabits commonly in natural field for spawning and growth migration. 8) It had better maintainning chlorinities according to zoeal stage for a comfortable method on seed-mass production that earlier larva stages than eighth zoea are maintained on the range from $8\%_{\circ}Cl\;to\;12\%_{\circ}Cl$ to rear, and later larva stages than eighth zoea, by contraries, are gradually regula ted-to love chlorininity of the range from $7\%_{\circ}Cl\;to\;4\%_{\circ}Cl$ according to advance for post-larva stage.

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