• Title, Summary, Keyword: <63$\mu\textrm{m}$ fraction

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Study on Characteristics by Aerodynamic Diameter of Airborne Suspended Particulate Matters (대기 부유분진의 입경별 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 김성천;강달선;차영희
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.108-115
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    • 2000
  • The mass fraction of PM10 had a bimodal distribution in the middle of between 2.1 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, and the average mass fraction of particles less than 2.1~3.1 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ was 54.1% for Pb and 890.8 ng/㎥ for Fe, respectively. For the concentration of PM10 and metallic elements by seasonal variation, PM10 showed bimodal distribution, while metallic elements showed different distributions by their sources. The ratios of fine particles to total mass were 0.45 for PM10, 0.41 for Cr, and 0.20 for Fe, 0.57 for Zn, 0.68 for Cd and 0.63 for Pb, respectively. That facts indicated that PM10, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pb were from anthropogenic sources, and Fe was from natural source. The geometric means and geometric standard deviations by seasonal variations were 3.6 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ , 2.31 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ in winter, 3.0 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ , 2.49 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ in spring, 2.7 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ , 2.03 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ in summer respectively. And, total efficiency of cascade impactor by seasonal variations were 49.6% in winter, 45.9% in spring and 44.5% in summer.

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Isolation and Identification of Antimicrobial Compound from Sancho (Zanthoxylum Schinifolium) (산초로부터 항균성 화합물의 분리 및 동정)

  • 김순임;한영실
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.56-63
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    • 1997
  • Antimicrobial activity of Sancho (Zanthoxylum schinifolium) was investigated. Methanol extract of dried Sancho was fractionated to hexane, chloroform, ethylacetate, butanol, and aqueous fractions. Chloroform fraction among these fractions showed the highest inhibitory effect on the microorganisms such as Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus plantarum at 1000 $\mu\textrm{g}$/$m\ell$. Chloroform fraction was further fractionated into 4 fractions by silica gel column and thin layer chromatography (TLC). The fraction 3 on TLC exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity. In the 2nd fractionation, subfration 2 was identified as hexadecanoic acid by MS, $^1$H-NMR and IR.

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Some heavy metal concentration of surface sediments from the southwestern coast of Korea (서남해안 연근해저 퇴적물의 중금속 함량 및 분포)

  • 전수경;조영길
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.12
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    • pp.1299-1305
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    • 2002
  • Thirty sediment samples of the <63${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ fraction collected from the southwestern coast of Korea were analysed for their heavy metal (Fe, Mn, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn and Pb) concentration. The results show that sediment texture plays a controlling role on the total metal concentrations and their spatial distribution. A single lM HCl extraction procedure was used in order to assess the environmental risk of heavy metals in bottom sediments. The non-residual fraction was the most abundant pool for Mn and Pb in most samples, which means that this metals are highly avaliable in these sediments. Cr, Ni, Fe, Co, Zn and Cu were mainly associated with the residual fraction, suggesting that their concentrations are controlled significantly by transport processes with the fine particles as carriers from diffuse pollution source. Concentration enrichment ratios(CER) were calculated from the non-residual contents and their values allowed us to classify the sediments according to their environmental risk.

Shear Strength of the ${Cu_6}{Sn_5}$-dispersed Sn-Pb Solder Bumps Fabricated by Screen Printing Process (${Cu_6}{Sn_5}$를 분산시켜 스크린 프린팅법으로 제조한 Sn-Pb 솔더범프의 전단강도)

  • Choe, Jin-Won;Lee, Gwang-Eung;Cha, Ho-Seop;O, Tae-Seong
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.10 no.12
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    • pp.799-806
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    • 2000
  • Cu$_{6}$Sn$_{5}$-dispersed 63Sn-37Pb solder bumps of 760$\mu\textrm{m}$ size were fabricated on Au(0.5$\mu\textrm{m}$)/Ni(5$\mu\textrm{m}$)/Cu(27$\pm$20$\mu\textrm{m}$) BGA substrates by screen printing process, and their shear strength were characterized with variations of dwell time at reflow peak temperature and aging time at 15$0^{\circ}C$ . With dwell time of 30 seconds at reflow peak temperature, the solder bumps with Cu$_{6}$Sn$_{5}$ dispersion exhibited higher shear strength than the value of the 63Sn-37Pb solder bump. With increasing the dwell time longer than 60 seconds, however the shear strength of the Cu$_{6}$Sn$_{5}$-dispersed solder bumps became lower than that the 63Sn-37Pb solder bumps. The failure surface of the solder bumps could be divided into two legions of slow crack propagation and critical crack propagation. The shear strength of the solder bumps was inversely proportional to the slow crack propagation length, regardless of the dwell time at peak temperature, aging time at 150 $^{\circ}C$ and the volume fraction of Cu$_{6}$Sn$_{5}$ dispersion.> 5/ dispersion.

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Antioxidant and Genotoxic Inhibition Activity of Ethanol Extract from the Inonotus obliquus (차가버섯 분획물의 항산화활성 및 유전독성 억제효과)

  • 함승시;오상화;김영균;신광순;장현유;정국훈
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.7
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    • pp.1071-1075
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    • 2003
  • This study was performed to observe the antioxidative and genotoxic effect of the fractions from Inonotus obliquus using DPPH test and micronucleus assay. Stepwise fractionation of the ethanol extract from Inonotus obliquus was done by using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol and water to obtain effective fraction. Each fraction was tested in 1.5 ${\times}$ 10$^{-4}$ DPPH. Among six fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest electron donating activities (46.5 $\mu\textrm{g}$/mL). The results on genotoxic effects on insoluble fractions and most of fractions showed cytotoxic effects more than 90% activity. These results suggest that some components contained in the Inonotus obliquus showed such activities and much more studies have to perform.

Distribution of Airborne Microorganisms in Yellow Sands of Korea

  • Choi, Dae-Sung;Park, Yong-Keun;Oh, Sang-Kon;Yoon, Hee-Ju;Kim, Jee-Cheon;Seo, Won-Jun;Cha, Seung-Hee
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1997
  • Distribution of airborne microorganisms was determined with two different types of air samplers, the Anderson cascade sampler and the Aerobioscope sampler, in the vicinity of Taejon. The size distribution of particles carrying bacteria and fungi was concurrently measured. The concentration of detected viable airborne particles was greatly varied. It was observed that the number of microbial particles increased in April and October. The most isze o particles carrying bacteria was larger than 4.7 .mu.m in mean aerodiameter, which made up 69.8% of the total particle fraction. About 63.2% of fungi-carrying particles were smaller than 4.7 .mu.m in aerodiameter. The distribution of particles on Yellow Sand Phenomena days was also analyzed. The number of fine particles having mass median aero-diameter from 1.0 to 10.mu.m increased on Yellow Sand Phenomena days to about 6 times that on normal days and the n umber of colony forming unit (CFU/$\textrm{m}^3$) of airborne bacteria also increased by 4.3 times in April. The reuslts from the Anderson sampler showed that the concentration of bacteria increased greatly on the fraction of fine particles ranging from 0.6 $\mu$m to 4.7 $\mu$m in diameter. Unlike the increase in bacterial floraon Yellow Sand Phenomena days, the fungal concentration slightly decreased and showed a normal size distribution parttern. This study suggests that a long-range transmission of bacteria results form bacteria adsorbing onto the fine particles during the Yellow Sand Phenomena.

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Estimation of Deposition Rates of Dustfall and Metallic Elements in Kunsan (군산지역의 강하분진 및 금속원소의 침착속도 추정)

  • 김성천
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.431-443
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate seasonal deposition flux variations and deposition velocities of the total dusfall and various inorganic elements in it. Total 41 dustfall and TSP samples were collected from November, 1997 through December, 1998 in Kunsan. Each sample was analyzed by and AAS to determine he levels of 5 inorganic elements: Zn, Cd, Cr, Fe and Pb. Deposition fluxes, soluble/total fractions and deposition velocities for each element were extensively investigated. Estimated dry deposition fluxes of dustfall and elements in Kunsan were in the range of 14.6~48.8(mean 25.6) ton/$\textrm{km}^2$/yr for dustfall, 14.5~72.6(mean 44.1)kg/$\textrm{km}^2$/yr for Zn, 0.9~0.5(mean 3.0) kg/$\textrm{km}^2$/yr for Cd, 2.1~239.2(mean 63.9) kg/$\textrm{km}^2$/yr for Cr, 331.6~1,082.7(mean 873.9) kg/$\textrm{km}^2$/yr for Fe, 5.2~178.4(mean 49.2) kg/$\textrm{km}^2$/yr for Pb, respectively. And the concentra-tion of TSP and elements in Kunsan were 71$\mu\textrm{g}/m^3$ for TSP, $29.9ng/m^3$ for Zn, $0.6ng/m^3$ for Cd, $0.1 ng/m^3$ for Cr, $1,061.0 ng/m^3$ for Fe, $4.0 ng/m^3$ for Pb, respectively. And the estimated deposition velocity of dustfall and elements in Kunsan were 1.13$\times$ 10(sup)-2 cm/sec for dustfall, 4.67$\times$ 10(sup)-2 cm/sec for Zn, 16.92 cm/sec for Cd, 15.69 cm/sec for Cr, 1.72$\times$ 10(sup)-2 cm/sec for Fe, 0.36 cm/sec for Pb, respectively.

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Anticancer Effects of Natural Medicinal Plant Extracts on Oral Carcinoma Cells (천연 약용식물 추출물의 구강상피세포암 세포주에 대한 항암효과)

  • 김정희;현진원;김여갑
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.153-157
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    • 1999
  • The anticancer effect of medicinal plants against two oral carcinoma cells, A253 and SCC-25 were investigated in this study. Methanol extracts from 63 medicinal plants, which have anticancer activities against other cancers such as stomach, hepatocellular or colon carcinomas, were prepared and screened for their anti- oral cancer activity by using MTT assay. Thirty one samples showed anti-oral cancer activity against either cell line used, however, other 32 samples had no anti-oral cancer activity. Among these samples methanol extract of Caesalpinia sappan revealed the strongest anti-oral cancer activity. The $IC_{50}$/ values of this extract against A253 and SCC-25 cells were 16 and 25 $\mu$g/m1, respectively. Fractions of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethylacetate, n-buthanol and water were prepared from methanol extracts of Caesalpinia sappan, Anthriscus sylvestris, Rhus japonica, Curcuma arowatica, Inula helenium, Sinoarnudinaria reticulata, and Polygonum cuspidatum, respectively. Among these 35 fractions the n-hexane fraction of Inula helenium showed the strongest anti-oral cancer activity, the $IC_{50}$/ value was 1.6$\pm$0.3 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml. Ten other fractions showed $IC_{50}$/ values lower than 10 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml.

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Chemical characteristics of ions and trace metallic element of PM2.5 in Busan metropolitan area (부산지역 $PM_{2.5}$의 이온 및 미량 금속성분의 화학적 특성)

  • 전보경;서정민;최금찬
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.63-71
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    • 2001
  • PM 2.5/ samples were measured at two sites, Hadan(suburban site) and Anrak (roadside site) in Busan area. PM 2.5/ sampling was performed for 24-hour intervals by the FH9.5 particulate sampler. Aerosol samples were collected on PTFE filter. A total of 60 particulate samples were collected, dad samples were measured for Particulate mass concentration, metallic elements (Cr, Mn, Ni. Cu. Se, Fe, Pb, and Zn) and waer-soluble elements (C $l^{[-10]}$ , N $O_{3}$$^{[-10]}$ ,S $O_{4}$$^{2-}$, N $H_{4}$$^{+}$, $Ca_{2}$$^{+}$, $Mg_{2}$$^{+}$ and $^{+}$.Mass concentration in Hadan ranged 24.23~57.12 $\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥ and 60.22~72.12 $\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥m Yellow Sand Events. Major cations in Hadan and Anrak site is N $H_{4}$$^{+}$and N $a^{+}$ respectively. SO42$^{[-10]}$ was the abundant specie in the PM 2.5 fraction for Hadan site an dAnrak site. Hadan site showed igher concentration in S $O_{4}$$^{2.1}$ and N $H_{4}$ $^{+}$ In Anrak site the concentration of S $O_{4}$/sip 2-/and N $a^{+}$ was higher than other ions Prominent metallic elements were Fe and Pb in two sites. Principal component analysis showed that main source of PM 2.5 aerosol particles was non-metal related source which was resulted in relating elements as Cr, Ni, and Pb at Hadan site, Anrak site also has resulted PM2.5 aerosol paricles source, which was related its element like Zn, and Ni,. The SAS package analysis also showed that long-range transport effect at Hadan area due to Yellow Sand Event by the prevailing weaterlies.ling weaterlies.

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Production of Hepatotoxin by the Cyanobacterium Scytonema sp. Strain BT 23

  • Ashok, Kumar;Singh, D.P.;Tyagi, M.B.;Kumar, Arvind;Prasuna, E.G.;Thakur, J.K.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.375-380
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    • 2000
  • The preliminary screening of several cyanobacteria, using mice bioassay, reveale the production of a hepatotoxin by the cyanobacterium Scytonema sp. strain BT 23 isolated from soil. An intraperitoneal injection of the crude toxin (LD50 56 mg/kg body wt) from this strain caused the death of the mice within 40 min, and the anmals showed slinical signs of mice within 40 min, and the animals showed clinical signs of hepatotoxicity. The toxin was purified and partially characterized. The active fraction appears to be nonpolar in nature and shows absorption peaks at 240 and 285 nm. The purified toxin had an LD50 of TEX>$100<\mu\textrm{g}/kg$ body wt and the test mice died within 40 min of toxin administration. The toxin-treated mice showed a 1.65-fold increase in liver weight at 40 min and the liver color chnged to dark red due to intrahepatic hemorrhage and pooling of blood. Furthermore, the administration of the toxin to test mice induced a 2.58, 2.63, and 2.30-fold increse in the activity of the serum enzymes alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, and alkaline phosphatase, respectively. Further experiments with the 14C-labeled toxin revealed a maximum accumulation of the toxin in the liver. The clinical symptoms in the mice were similar to those produced by microcystin-L.R. These results suggest that hepatotoxins may also be produced in non bloom-forming planktonic cyanobacteria.

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