• Title, Summary, Keyword: $interferon{\gamma}$

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Effects of Oral Administration of Phellinus linteus on the Productions of the Th1- and Th2-type Cytokines in Mice

  • Oh, Gi-Su;Pae, Hyun-Ock;Choi, Byung-Min;Kwon, Ji-Wung;Yun, Yeong-Ho;Choi, Jeong-Ho;Kwon, Tae-Oh;Park, Young-Chul;Chung, Hun-Teag
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.182-187
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    • 2003
  • Background: The mushroom Phellinus linteus (PL) has been shown to have the anti-tumor and immunostimulatory effects. We hypothesized that the hot water extract of PL (WEPL) exerts its significant immunostimulatory effect by inducing production of the Th1-derived cytokine interferon-${\gamma}$ (IFN-${\gamma}$) by T lymphocytes. Methods: T lymphocytes were isolated from the mice fed with 200 mg/kg of WEPL once a day for 4 weeks, and then stimulated with the mitogen concanavaline A (Con A). IFN-${\gamma}$ gene and intracellular protein expressions were analyzed by RT-PCR and flow cytometry, respectively. The production of IFN-${\gamma}$ was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: WEPL significantly enhanced the transcription of IFN-${\gamma}$ mRNA. The effect of WEPL on IFN-${\gamma}$ expression was further supported by a concomitant increase in the number of cells with intracellular IFN-${\gamma}$ protein as well as the secretion of IFN-${\gamma}$. However, WEPL did not modulate either gene expression or protein secretion of interleukin-4, a Th2-associated cytokine, by Con A-stimulated T lymphocytes. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that one of the potentially beneficial anti-tumor and immunostimulatory effects of WEPL may be mediated through the enhancement of IFN-${\gamma}$ secretion by T lymphocytes.

The Comparison Study between Tuberculin Skin Test and Interferon Gamma Release Assay in BCG-Vaccinated Healthy Donors

  • Choi, Yoon-Sung;Kim, Sunghyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.138-142
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    • 2018
  • The incidence of tuberculosis (TB) in the Republic of Korea remains high when compared to the incidence in other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. The prompt diagnosis and effective treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI) are very important in terms of controlling the burden of TB. The tuberculin skin test (TST) has long been the "gold standard" assay for the diagnosis of LTBI. However, it can show false positive results due to Bacille Calmette-$Gu{\acute{e}}rin$ (BCG) vaccination and infection with many environmental nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) using Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific antigens, was developed for the detection of LTBI. The QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube assay is one of the most commonly used forms of the IGRA. In order to compare the diagnostic efficacy of the TST and IGRA in relation to LTBI among BCG-vaccinated healthy donors, whole blood samples were collected from 51 participants, and the results of the TST and IGRA were compared. Of the 51 cases, 18 cases (35.3%) were positive and 33 cases (64.7%) were negative when using the TST, while four cases (7.8%) were positive and 47 cases (92.2%) negative when using the IGRA. There was no correlation between the size of the induration in the TST and the $IFN-{\gamma}$ protein level. In conclusion, the TST showed higher cross-reactivity among the BCG-vaccinated healthy participants, therefore, the IGRA might be the most suitable assay for the rapid screening of LTBI in BCG-vaccinated healthy population, or for TB contact investigation.

Effect of picolinic acid on nitric oxide synthesis in murine macrophage

  • Kwon, Oh-Deog;Do, Jae-Cheul;Lee, Keun-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.371-376
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    • 2002
  • To determine the effect of picolinic acid on NOㆍ production, murine macrophages were incubated with either medium, various concentrations of picolinic acid, or IFN-${\gamma}$ plus picolinic acid for 48 hr. Picolinic acid does not induce NOㆍ production by itself, it acted synergistically with INF-${\gamma}$ for the induction of reactive nitrogen intermediate production in murine macrophages. Thymidine incorporation appeared to be reciprocally related to nitrite levels, suggesting that IFN-${\gamma}$ plus picolinic acid induced NOㆍ synthesis exerted antiproliferative effects.

The Changes of P-glycoprotein Activity by Interferon-γ and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α in Primary and Immortalized Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

  • Lee, Na-Young;Rieckmann, Peter;Kang, Young-Sook
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the modification of expression and functionality of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-${\alpha}$) and interferon-gamma (IFN-${\gamma}$) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We used immortalized human brain microvessel endothelial cells (iHBMEC) and primary human brain microvessel endothelial cells (pHBMEC) as in vitro BBB model. To investigate the change of p-gp expression, we carried out real time PCR analysis and Western blotting. To test the change of p-gp activity, we performed rhodamin123 (Rh123) accumulation study in the cells. In results of real time PCR analysis, the P-gp mRNA expression was increased by TNF-${\alpha}$ or IFN-${\gamma}$ treatment for 24 hr in both cell types. However, 48 hr treatment of TNF-${\alpha}$ or IFN-${\gamma}$ did not affect P-gp mRNA expression. In addition, co-treatment of TNF-${\alpha}$ and IFN-${\gamma}$ markedly increased the P-gp mRNA expression in both cells. TNF-${\alpha}$ or IFN-${\gamma}$ did not influence P-gp protein expression whatever the concentration of cytokines or duration of treatment in both cells. However, P-gp expression was increased after treatments of both cytokines together in iHBMEC cells only compared with untreated control. Furthermore, in both cell lines, TNF-${\alpha}$ or IFN-${\gamma}$ induced significant decrease of P-gp activity for 24 hr treatment. And, both cytokines combination treatment also decreased significantly P-gp activity. These results suggest that P-gp expression and function at the BBB is modulated by TNF-${\alpha}$ or/and IFN-${\gamma}$. Therefore, the distribution of P-gp depending drugs in the central nervous system can be modulated by neurological inflammatory diseases.

The Effect of Interferon-γ on Bleomycin Induced Pulmonary Fibrosis in the Rat (Interferon-γ 투여가 쥐에서의 Bleomycin 유도 폐 섬유화에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Hyoung Kyu;Kim, Yong Hyun;Kwon, Soon Seog;Kim, Young Kyoon;Kim, Kwan Hyung;Moon, Hwa Sik;Park, Sung Hak;Song, Jeong Sup
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.51-66
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    • 2004
  • Objectives : The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that participate in the extracellular matrix metabolism play a important role in the progression of pulmonary fibrosis. The effects of the MMPs are regulated by several factors including Th-1 cytokines, $interferon-{\gamma}$ ($IFN-{\gamma}$). Up to now, $IFN-{\gamma}$ is known to inhibit pulmonary fibrosis, but little is known regarding the exact effect of $IFN-{\gamma}$ on the regulation of the MMPs. This study investigated the effects of $interferon-{\gamma}$ on the pulmonary fibrosis and the expression of the lung MMP-2,-9, TIMP-1,-2, and Th-2 cytokines in aa rat model of bleomycin induced pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and methods : Male, specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to an intratracheal bleomycin instillation. The rats were randomized to a saline control, a bleomycin treated, and a bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ treated group. The bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ treated group was subjected to an intramuscular injection of $IFN-{\gamma}$ for 14 days. At 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the bleomycin instillation, the rats were sacrificed and the lungs were harvested. In order to evaluate the effects of the $IFN-{\gamma}$ on lung fibrosis and inflammation, the lung hydroxyproline content, inflammation and fibrosis score were measured. Western blotting, zymography and reverse zymography were performed at 3, 7, 14, 28 days after bleomycin instillation in order to evaluate the MMP-2,-9, and TIMP-1,-2 expression level. ELISA was performed to determine the IL-4 and IL-13 level in a lung homogenate. Results : 1. 7 days after bleomycin instillation, inflammatory changes were more severe in the bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group than the bleomycin group (bleomycin group : bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group=$2.08{\pm}0.15:2.74{\pm}0.29$, P<0.05), but 28 days after bleomycin instillation, lung fibrosis was significantly reduced as a result of the $IFN-{\gamma}$ treatment (bleomycin group : bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group=$3.94{\pm}0.43:2.64{\pm}0.13$, P<0.05). 2. 28 days after bleomycin instillation, the lung hydroxyproline content was significantly reduced as a result of $IFN-{\gamma}$ treatment (bleomycin group : bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group=$294.04{\pm}31.73{\mu}g/g:194.92{\pm}15.51{\mu}g/g$, P<0.05). 3. Western blotting showed that the MMP-2 level was increased as a result of the bleomycin instillation and highest in the 14 days after bleomycin instillation. 4. In zymography, the active forms of MMP-2 were significantly increased as a result of the $IFN-{\gamma}$ treatment 3 days after the bleomycin instillation, bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group (bleomycin group : bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group=$209.63{\pm}7.60%:407.66{\pm}85.34%$, P<0.05), but 14 days after the bleomycin instillation, the active forms of MMP-2 were significantly reduced as a result of the $IFN-{\gamma}$ treatment (bleomycin group : bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ group=$159.36{\pm}20.93%:97.23{\pm}12.50%$, P<0.05). 5. The IL-4 levels were lower in the bleomycin and bleomycin+$IFN-{\gamma}$ groups but this was not significant, and the IL-13 levels showed no difference between the experiment groups. Conclusion : The author found that lung inflammation was increased in the early period but the pulmonary fibrosis was inhibited in the late stage as a result of $IFN-{\gamma}$. The inhibition of pulmonary fibrosis by $IFN-{\gamma}$ appeared to be associated with the inhibition of MMP-2 activation by $IFN-{\gamma}$. Further studies on the mechanism of the regulation of MMP-2 activation and the effects of MMP-2 activation on pulmonary fibrosis is warranted in the future.

Induction of Fas-Mediated Apoptosis by Interferon-g is Dependent on Granulosa Cell Differentiation and Follicular Maturation in the Rat Ovary

  • Lee, Hye-Jeong;Kim, Ji Young;Park, Ji Eun;Yoon, Yong-Dal;Tsang, Benjamin K.;Kim, Jong-Min
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.315-329
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    • 2016
  • Fas ligand (FasL) and its receptor Fas have been implicated in granulosa cell apoptosis during follicular atresia. Although interferon-gamma (IFN-${\gamma}$) is believed to be involved in the regulation Fas expression in differentiated granulosa or granulosa-luteal cells, the expression of this cytokine and its role in the regulation of the granulosa cell Fas/FasL system and apoptosis during follicular maturation have not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we have examined the presence of IFN-${\gamma}$ in ovarian follicles at different stage of development by immunohistochemistry and related their relative intensities with follicular expression of Fas and FasL, and with differences in granulosa cell sensitivity to Fas activation by exogenous agonistic Anti-Fas monoclonal antibody (Fas mAb). Although IFN-${\gamma}$ immunostaining was detectable in oocyte and granulosa cells in antral follicles, most intense immunoreactivity for the cytokine was observed in these cells of preantral follicles. Intense immunoreactivity for IFN-${\gamma}$ was most evident in granulosa cells of atretic early antral follicles where increased Fas and FasL expression and apoptosis were also observed. Whereas low concentrations of IFN-${\gamma}$ (10-100 U/mL) significantly increased Fas expression in undifferentiated granulosa cells (from preantral or very early antral follicles) in vitro, very higher concentrations (${\geq}1,000U/mL$) were required to up-regulate of Fas in differentiated cells isolated from eCG-primed (antral) follicles. Addition of agonistic Fas mAb to cultures of granulosa cells at the two stages of differentiation and pretreated with IFN-${\gamma}$ (100 U/mL) elicited morphological and biochemical apoptotic features which were more prominent in cells not previously exposed to the gonadotropin in vivo. These findings suggested that IFN-${\gamma}$ is an important physiologic intra-ovarian regulator of follicular atresia and plays a pivotal role in regulation of expression of Fas receptor and subsequent apoptotic response in undifferentiated (or poorly differentiated) granulosa cells at an early (penultimate) stage of follicular development.

The Changes of Serum Level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, Gamma-Interferon and Soluble-Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 Relating to the Progression and Treatment of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis (폐결핵의 진행정도 및 치료에 따른 혈청내 Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, Gamma-Interferon 및 Soluble-Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1의 변화)

  • Kim, Myung-Hoon;Ahn, Joong-Hyun;Moon, Hwa-Sik;Park, Sung-Hak;Song, Jeong-Sup
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1167-1177
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    • 1998
  • Background : Pulmonary tuberculosis is one of the diseases characterized granuloma formation which was controlled by cellular immune reactions. In the process of granulomatous changes, activated alveolar macrophages and T lymphocytes secrete many cytokines including interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-$\alpha$), interferon-gamma(IFN-$\gamma$) which mediate inflammatory reactions. Intercelluar adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1) also known to major role player in inflammatory processes, and increased cellular expressions when endothelial cell was stimulated by IL-1, TNF and IFN. Method : To evaluate relationships among cellular immune reactions and clinical stages, pulmonary tuberculosis patients were classified into three groups according to their clinical stages including minimal, moderate and far advanced tuberculosis. TNF-$\alpha$ IFN-$\gamma$, sICAM-1 (soluble form of ICAM-1) were measured at the time of diagnosis and after 6-months anti-tuberculosis medications by radioimmuno assay or enzyme linked immunosolvent assay. Result : TNF-$\alpha$, IFN-$\gamma$, sICAM-1 were significantly increased in moderate and far advanced pulmonary tuberculosis patients but no meaningful changes in minimal staged patients. 6-months anti-tuberculosis medications reduced serum sICAM-1 levels significantly, related to clinical improvement but no significant changes were found in the serum levels of TNF-$\alpha$ and IFN-$\gamma$. In the point of correlations. positive ones revealed between TNF-$\alpha$ and sICAM-1, also between IFN-$\gamma$ and sICAM-1 but no correlation between TNF-$\alpha$ and IFN-$\gamma$. Conclusion : Measurement of serum sICAM-1 could be useful parameter to evaluate the severity of pulmonary tuberculosis and to monitor disease activities during anti-tuberculosis medications.

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Short-term Clinical Experience on Interferon gamma-1b Therapy for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (특발성 폐섬유화증에서 Interferon gamma-1b 치료의 단기 임상경험)

  • Hwang, Jung Hye;Chung, Man Pyo;Kang, Eun Hae;Kim, Kyung Chan;Lee, Byoung-Hoon;Koh, Won-Jung;Suh, Gee Young;Kim, Hojoong;Lee, Kyung Soo;Han, Joungho;Kwon, O Jung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.56 no.6
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    • pp.619-627
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    • 2004
  • Background : Corticosteroids in combination with cytotoxic drugs are the mainstays of therapy for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, there has been no regimen showing any survival benefit. The aim of this study was to describe a short-term clinical experience on interferon gamma-1b (IFN-${\gamma}1b$) therapy for IPF, as an antifibrotic agent. Methods : Medical records of 27 patients who were treated with IFN-${\gamma}1b$ (2 million IU, 3 times a week, subcutaneous injection) were retrospectively reviewed. Treatment response was assessed using ATS/ERS criteria in 17 patients who received IFN-${\gamma}1b$ for more than 6 months. In addition, we compared the efficacy of IFN-${\gamma}1b$ therapy with that of cyclophosphamide${\pm}$prednisolone therapy (n=26). Results : The median age of IFN-${\gamma}$ treated group (M:F=19:8) was 59 years (44-74 years). Compared to the patients who showed a stable response at 6 months (n=12), the deteriorated group (n=5) had worse baseline lung function (FVC, $55.4{\pm}11.3%$ vs. $70.7{\pm}10.9%$, p=0.019; DLco, $50.3{\pm}7.3%$ vs. $76.9{\pm}19.6%$, p=0.014). Lower baseline $PaO_2$ on room air breathing was observed in the deteriorated group ($68.6{\pm}7.8mmHg$ vs. $91.4{\pm}6.6mmHg$ p=0.001). Subcutaneous IFN-${\gamma}1b$ did not show better efficacy than prednisolone. Five patients discontinued IFN-${\gamma}$ because of severe side effects. ARDS developed in one patient, who eventually died. Conclusion : The administration of IFN-${\gamma}1b$ is not desirable for patients diagnosed with IPF with poor lung function. Long-term and large-scaled clinical studies are needed for its efficacy in IPF.