• Title, Summary, Keyword: $PM_{10}$ concentration

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An Effectiveness of Simultaneous Measurement of PM10, PM2.5, and PM1.0 Concentrations in Asian Dust and Haze Monitoring

  • Cho, Changbum;Park, Gilun;Kim, Baekjo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.651-666
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    • 2013
  • This study introduces a novel approach to the differentiation of two phenomena, Asian Dust and haze, which are extremely difficult to distinguish based solely on comparisons of PM10 concentration, through use of the Optical Particle Counter (OPC), which simultaneously generates PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration. In the case of Asian Dust, PM10 concentration rose to the exclusion of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration. The relative ratios of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration versus PM10 concentration were below 40%, which is consistent with the conclusion that Asian Dust, as a prime example of the coarse-particle phenomenon, only impacts PM10 concentration, not PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration. In contrast, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration simultaneously increased with haze. The relative ratios of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration versus PM10 concentration were generally above 70%. In this case, PM1.0 concentration varies because a haze event consists of secondary aerosol in the fine-mode, and the relative ratios of PM10 and PM2.5 concentration remain intact as these values already subsume PM1.0 concentration. The sequential shift of the peaks in PM10, PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentrations also serve to individually track the transport of coarse-mode versus fine-mode aerosols. The distinction in the relative ratios of PM2.5 and PM1.0 concentration versus PM10 concentration in an Asian Dust versus a haze event, when collected on a national or global scale using OPC monitoring networks, provides realistic information on outbreaks and transport of Asian Dust and haze.

Regional Characteristics of Particle Size Distribution of PM10 (미세먼지 입경농도 분포의 지역별 특성)

  • Lee, Yong-Ki;Lee, Ki-Jong;Lee, Jae-Seong;Shin, Eun-Sang
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.666-674
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to propose management strategies to lower the level of $PM_{10}$ concentration. First, this study analyzes the characteristics of particle sizes in three different areas, the residential, the roadside, and the industrial areas. Second, it has examined the size of particles which can influence on the increase of $PM_{10}$ concentration level. The distribution of particle size for $PM_{10}$ concentration was not different by regions. The highest portion in the observed $PM_{10}$ is near $0.3{\mu}m$. In addition, both near $2.5{\mu}m$ and near $5.0{\mu}m$ are found higher in portion. The fractions of $PM_{1.0}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ in $PM_{10}$ are 68.2% and 75.8% respectively. The fraction of $PM_{1.0}$ in $PM_{2.5}$ is 89.8%. The particle diameters contributed to the increase of $PM_{10}$ concentration are different by regions. In the residential area, the sizes of near $0.6{\mu}m$ and near $3.3{\mu}m$ particles are found to be the cause for the increase of $PM_{10}$ concentration level. However the particle sizes for the increase of $PM_{10}$ concentration level are $0.8{\mu}m$ and $0.5{\mu}m$ in roadside and industrial area respectively. Therefore, fine particles are found as the key factors to raise $PM_{10}$ concentration level in the two areas, while both fine and coarse particles are in the residential areas. When examined the $PM_{10}$ concentration level change, it was categorized by two different time zones, the high concentration level time and the lower concentration time. In high concentration time, the $PM_{10}$ concentration has increased in the morning in the residential and roadside areas. On the contrary, the level has increased in the evening in the industrial area. In low concentration time, the level of $PM_{10}$ concentration in the roadside area is significantly higher in the morning than the concentration level of other times. There is no significantly different concentration level found in the both residential and industrial areas throughout the day.

Characteristics of Spacio-Temporal Variation for PM10 and PM2.5 Concentration in Busan (부산지역 PM10과 PM2.5농도의 시간 및 공간적 변화 특성)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.19 no.8
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    • pp.1013-1023
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the characteristics of spacio-temporal variation for $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ concentration in Busan. $PM_{10}$ concentration has been reduced for the past three year and exceeded $50\;{\mu}g/m^3$ of the national standard for $PM_{10}$. $PM_{2.5}$ concentration showed gradual decrease or stagnant trends and exceeded the U.S. EPA standard. Seasonal analysis of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ suggested spring>winter>fall>summer(by Asian dust) and winter>spring>summerenlifall(by anthropogenic effect) in the order of high concentration, respectively. Characterization of diurnal variations suggests that $PM_{10}$ levels at all the three sites consistently exhibited a peak at 1000LST and $PM_{2.5}$ at Jangrimdong experienced the typical $PM_{2.5}$ diurnal trends such that a peak was observed in the morning and the lowest level at 1400LST. In the case of seasonal trends, the $PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$ ratio was in the order of summer>winter>fall>spring at all the study sites, with a note that spring bears the lowest concentration. During AD events, $PM_{10}$ concentration exhibited the highest level at Jangrimdong and the lowest level at Joadong. And $PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$ ratio in AD was 0.16~0.28.

Variations of the PM10 Concentrations Observed in Eleven Cities in South Korea between 1995 and 2000 (한반도 11개 도시의 1995~2000년 PM10 농도 변화 경향)

  • 진윤하;구해정;김봉만;김용표;박순웅
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.231-245
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    • 2003
  • Hourly PM$_{10}$ concentrations measured at 11 sites in Seoul and 10 sites in the large cities over South Korea for the period from March 1995 to February 2000 are analyzed to examine annual trend and monthly variations of the PM$_{10}$ concentrations. Further analysis has been carried out by using the one year data from March 1999 to February 2000 to see the seasonal variation, diurnal variation and weekly variation of the seasonally averaged PM$_{10}$ concentrations at each site. Weekly variations of the CO concentrations at the same sites for the same one year period are compared with that of the PM$_{10}$ concentration. There is no significant annual trend in the variation of the PM$_{10}$ concentration at all the sites analyzed. The seasonal and monthly mean concentrations show a minimum concentration in summer and alternative maximum concentration in spring and winter for most sites. The diurnal variation of the seasonally averaged mean PM$_{10}$ concentrations is strongly affected by traffic loads and meteorological conditions. The weekly variation of seasonal averaged concentrations of CO and PM$_{10}$ shows a high concentration for weekdays in spring, autumn and winter while high concentration for weekends in summer.nds in summer.

Characteristics of the Springtime Weekday/Weekend on Mass and Metallic Elements Concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 in Busan (부산지역 봄철 주중/주말의 PM10과 PM2.5 질량농도와 금속이온농도 특성)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.777-784
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    • 2015
  • This study investigates weekday/weekend characteristics of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ concentration and metallic elements in Busan in the springtime of 2013. $PM_{10}$ concentration on weekday/weekend were 77.54 and $67.28{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. And $PM_{2.5}$ concentration on weekday/weekend were 57.81 and $43.83{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively. Also, $PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$ concentration ratio on weekdays/weekend was 0.75 and 0.65, respectively. The contribution rates of Na to total metallic elements in $PM_{10}$ on weekday/weekend were 38.3% and 38.9%, respectively. It would be useful in control effectively with management of urban fine particle to understand characteristics of fine particle concentration on weekday/weekend.

Meteorological Relations and Characteristics of Fine Particles at Guducksan in Busan (부산 구덕산의 미세먼지(PM10) 농도 특성과 기상학적 관련성)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.883-892
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    • 2015
  • The study investigates the characteristics of $PM_{10}$ concentration in Guducsan air quality observatory and in particular, analyzes the relationship between sudden increase of $PM_{10}$ concentration in the morning of spring 2014 and meteorological parameters. $PM_{10}$ concentration in April was $46.9{\mu}g/m^3$, the highest, followed by $45.5{\mu}g/m^3$ and $44.6{\mu}g/m^3$ in March and May, and $21.9{\mu}g/m^3$ in August. The low concentration in the early morning appeared on 0800 LST in spring, summer, and fall, whereas it emerged on 0900 LST in winter. High concentration in daytime lasted from 1200 LST to 1500 LST in spring and fall, whereas it continued from 1300 LST to 1600 LST in winter. The findings of $PM_{10}$ concentration and change of meteorological parameters in Guducsan from April 20th to 27th in 2014 are as follows. The low concentration at dawn and in the morning decreased due to strong land breeze. Also, the sudden increase of $PM_{10}$ concentration in the morning was attributable to low wind speed. Lastly, the sudden decrease of $PM_{10}$ concentration in the afternoon was attributed to diffusion by strong sea breeze.

Study of Methodology for Estimating PM10 Concentration of Asian Dust Using Visibility Data (시정자료를 이용한 황사의 미세먼지 농도추정 방법 연구)

  • Lee, Hyo-Jung;Lee, Eun-Hee;Lee, Sang-Sam;Kim, Seungbum
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.13-28
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    • 2012
  • The $PM_{10}$ concentration data is useful for indentifying intensity and a transport way of Asian dust. However, it is difficult to identify them properly due to the limited spatial resolution and coverage. Therefore, a methodology to estimate $PM_{10}$ concentration using visibility data obtained from synoptic observation was developed. To derive the converting function, correlation between visibility and $PM_{10}$ concentration is investigated using visibility and $PM_{10}$ concentration data observed at 20 stations in Korea from 2005 to 2009. To minimize bias due to atmospheric moisture, data with higher relative humidity over a critical value were eliminated while deriving $PM_{10}$-visibility relationship. As a result, an exponentially decreasing function of visibility is obtained under the condition that relative humidity is less than 82%. Verification of the visibility converting function to $PM_{10}$ concentration was carried out for the dust cases in 2010. It was found that spatial distributions of $PM_{10}$ calculated by visibility are in good agreement with the observed $PM_{10}$ distribution, especially for the strong dust cases in 2010. And correlation between the derived and observed $PM_{10}$ concentration was 0.63. We applied the function to obtain distributions of $PM_{10}$ concentration over North Korea, in which concentration data are not available, and compared them with satellite derived dust index, IODI distributions for dust cases in 2010. It is shown that the visibility function estimates quite similar patterns of dust concentration with IODI image, which suggests that it can contribute for prediction by indentifying transport route of Asian dust.

Analysis of Impact Factors on the Variation of PM10 Concentration in Seoul, Korea - Focus on PM10 Concentration Measured in 2003, 2004 -

  • Song, Hyung-Do;Lee, Hee-Chul;Kwon, Chun-Kyoung;Kim, Rhok-Ho;Kim, Sang-Kyun;Lee, Jae-Bum
    • Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2012
  • To identify the primary factor affected the decreased $PM_{10}$ concentration in Seoul which is the capital city of Korea, wind speed and emissions in 2003 and 2004 were analyzed. The level of air pollution is intense in Seoul and continually increased since the late 1990s. However the concentration of $PM_{10}$ has been greatly declined recently. In particular, the concentration of $PM_{10}$ decreased 14% in 2003 and 2004 excluding the Asian dust periods. It is suggested that the major factors for the decrease are differences in wind speed between the two years and the period of constant breeze. In 2003, intense Asian dust events happened frequently and it increased the concentration of total $PM_{10}$. The intense dust events were influence by the speed and duration of the wind. It is considered that the meteorological condition was the primary drive for the change of the concentration of $PM_{10}$. The decreased emissions seem to be the additional factor for the change in the concentration of $PM_{10}$.

Reduction of Particulate Matters Levels in Railway Cabins in Korea

  • Park, Duck-Shin;Kwon, Soon-Bark;Cho, Young-Min;Park, Eun-Young;Jeong, Woo-Tae;Lee, Ki-Young
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: High concentrations of airborne particulate matters (PM) can affect the health of passengers using public transportation. The objectives of this research were to develop a PM control system for a railway cabin and to evaluate the performance of the device under conditions of an actual journey. Methods: This study measured the concentrations of $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ simultaneously in a reference cabin and a cabin with the PM control device. Results: The average $PM_{10}$ concentration in the reference cabin was 100 ${\mu}g/m^3$, and the $PM_{10}$ concentration in the cabin with the control device was 79 ${\mu}g/m^3$. While the overall control efficiency of the control device was 15.4%, reduction was more effective for peak $PM_{10}$ concentration. However, $PM_{2.5}$ levels did not differ greatly between the reference cabin and the cabin with the control device. The ratio of $PM_{2.5}$ to $PM_{10}$ was 0.37. $PM_{10}$ concentrations in cabins were not associated with ambient concentrations, indicating that the main sources of $PM_{10}$ were present in cabins. Additionally, average $CO_2$ concentration in the cabins was 1,359 ppm, less than the maximum of 2,000 ppm set out by the Korean Ministry of Environment's guideline. The $CO_2$ concentration in cabins was significantly associated with the number of passengers: the in-cabin concentration = $23.4{\times}N+460.2$, where N is the number of passengers. Conclusions: Application of the PM control device can improve $PM_{10}$ concentration, especially at peak levels but not $PM_{2.5}$ concentration.

Characteristics of Metallic and Ionic Concentrations in PM10 and PM2.5 in Busan (부산지역 PM10과 PM2.5 중의 금속 농도와 이온농도 특성)

  • Jeon, Byung-Il;Hwang, Yong-Sik
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.23 no.5
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    • pp.819-827
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    • 2014
  • This study analyzes the chemical composition of metallic elements and water-soluble ions in $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$. $PM_{10}$ and $PM_{2.5}$ concentrations in Busan during 2010-2012 were $97.2{\pm}67.5$ and $67.5{\pm}32.8{\mu}g/m^3$, respectively, and the mean $PM_{2.5}/PM_{10}$ concentration ratio was 0.73. The contribution rate of water-soluble ions to $PM_{10}$ ranged from 29.0% to 58.6%(a mean of 38.6%) and that to $PM_{2.5}$ ranged from 33.9% to 58.4%(a mean of 43.1%). The contribution rate of sea salt to $PM_{10}$ was 13.9% for 2011 and 9.7% for 2012, while that to $PM_{2.5}$ was 17.4% for 2011 and 10.1% for 2012. $PM_{10}$ concentration during Asian dust events was $334.3{\mu}g/m^3$ and $113.3{\mu}g/m^3$ during non-Asian dust events, and the $PM_{10}$ concentration ratio of Asian Dust/Non Asian dust was 2.95. On the other hand, the $PM_{2.5}$ concentration in Asian dust was $157.4{\mu}g/m^3$ and $83.2{\mu}g/m^3$ in Non Asian dust, and the $PM_{2.5}$ concentration ratio of Asian Dust/Non Asian dust was 1.89, which was lower than that of $PM_{10}$.