• Title, Summary, Keyword: $N_2$-induced hypoxia

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Hepatic Injury Studied in Two Different Hypoxic Models (저산소 모델에 따른 간장 기능 손상에 관한 연구)

  • 윤기욱;이상호;이선미
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2000
  • We hypothesized that the extent of hypoxic injury would be involved in reduction of oxygen delivery to the tissue. Livers isolated from 18 hr-fasted rats were subjected to $N_2$-induced hypoxia or low flow hypoxia. Livers were perfused with nitrogen/carbon dioxide gas for 45min or perfused with normoxic Krebs-Henseleit bicarbonate buffer (KHBB) at low flow rates around 1 ml/g liver/min far 45min, which caused cells to become hypoxic because of insufficient delivery of oxygen. When normal flow rates(4 ml/g liver/min) of KHBB (pH 7.4, 37$^{\circ}C$, oxygen/carbon dioxide gas) were restored for 30min reoxygenation injury occurred. Lactate dehydrogenase release gradually increased in $N_2$-induced hypoxia, whereas it rapidly increased in low flow hypoxia. Total glutathione in liver tissue was not changed but oxidized glutathione markedly increased after hypoxia and reoxygenation, expecially in $N_2$-induced hypoxia. Similarly, lipid peroxidation in liver tissue significantly increased after hypoxia and reoxygenation in low flow hypoxia. Hepatic drug metabolizing functions (phase I, II) were suppressed during hypoxia, especially in $N_2$-induced hypoxia but improved by reoxygenation in both models. Our findings suggest that hypoxia results in abnormalities in drug metabolizing function caused by oxidative stress and that this injury is dependent on hypoxic conditions.

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Hypoxia-Induced EDNO Release is Further Augmented by Previous Hypoxia and Reoxygenation in Rabbit Aortic Endothelium

  • Han, Jae-Jin;Suh, Suk-Hyo;Suh, Kyung-Phil;Kim, Ki-Whan
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 1998
  • The present study was designed: (1) to determine whether or not hypoxia stimulates the release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors (EDRFs) from endothelial cells, and (2) to examine whether or not the hypoxia-induced EDRFs release is further augmented by previous hypoxia-reoxygenation, using bioassay system. In the bioassay experiment, rabbit aorta with endothelium was used as EDRFs donor vessel and rabbit carotid artery without endothelium as a bioassay test ring. The test ring was contracted by prostaglandin $F_{2{\alpha}}$ $(3{\times}10^{-6}\;M/L)$, which was added to the solution perfusing through the aortic segment. Hypoxia was evoked by switching the solution aerated with 95% $O_2/5%\;CO_2$ mixed gas to one aerated with 95% $N_2/5%\;CO_2$ mixed gas. When the contraction induced by prostaglandin $F_{2{\alpha}}$ reached a steady state, the solution was exchanged for hypoxic one. And then, hypoxia and reoxygenation were interchanged at intervals of 2 minutes (intermittent hypoxia). The endothelial cells were also exposed to single 10-minute hypoxia (continuous hypoxia). When the bioassay ring was superfused with the perfusate through intact aorta, hypoxia relaxed the precontracted bioassay test ring markedly. Whereas, when bioassay ring was superfused with the perfusate through denuded aorta or polyethylene tubing, hypoxia relaxed the precontracted ring slightly. The relaxation was not inhibited by indomethacin but by nitro-L-arginine or methylene blue. The hypoxia-induced relaxation was further augmented by previous hypoxia-reoxygenation and the magnitude of the relaxation by intermittent hypoxia was significantly greater than that of the relaxation by continuous hypoxia. The results suggest that hypoxia stimulates EDNO release from endothelial cells and that the hypoxia-induced EDNO release is further augmented by previous hypoxia-reoxygenation.

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NOX4/Src regulates ANP secretion through activating ERK1/2 and Akt/GATA4 signaling in beating rat hypoxic atria

  • Wu, Cheng-zhe;Li, Xiang;Hong, Lan;Han, Zhuo-na;Liu, Ying;Wei, Cheng-xi;Cui, Xun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 2021
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (NOXs) are the major enzymatic source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX2 and NOX4 are expressed in the heart but its role in hypoxia-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion is unclear. This study investigated the effect of NOX on ANP secretion induced by hypoxia in isolated beating rat atria. The results showed that hypoxia significantly upregulated NOX4 but not NOX2 expression, which was completely abolished by endothelin-1 (ET-1) type A and B receptor antagonists BQ123 (0.3 μM) and BQ788 (0.3 μM). ET-1-upregulated NOX4 expression was also blocked by antagonists of secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2; varespladib, 5.0 μM) and cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2; CAY10650, 120.0 nM), and ET-1-induced cPLA2 expression was inhibited by varespladib under normoxia. Moreover, hypoxia-increased ANP secretion was evidently attenuated by the NOX4 antagonist GLX351322 (35.0 μM) and inhibitor of ROS N-Acetyl-D-cysteine (NAC, 15.0 mM), and hypoxia-increased production of ROS was blocked by GLX351322. In addition, hypoxia markedly upregulated Src expression, which was blocked by ET receptors, NOX4, and ROS antagonists. ET-1-increased Src expression was also inhibited by NAC under normoxia. Furthermore, hypoxia-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and protein kinase B (Akt) were completely abolished by Src inhibitor 1 (1.0 μM), and hypoxia-increased GATA4 was inhibited by the ERK1/2 and Akt antagonists PD98059 (10.0 μM) and LY294002 (10.0 μM), respectively. However, hypoxia-induced ANP secretion was substantially inhibited by Src inhibitor. These results indicate that NOX4/Src modulated by ET-1 regulates ANP secretion by activating ERK1/2 and Akt/GATA4 signaling in isolated beating rat hypoxic atria.

Hypoxia Induces Paclitaxel-Resistance through ROS Production

  • Oh, Jin-Mi;Ryu, Yun-Kyoung;Lim, Jong-Seok;Moon, Eun-Yi
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.145-151
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    • 2010
  • Oxygen supply into inside solid tumor is often diminished, which is called hypoxia. Many gene transcriptions were activated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-$1{\alpha}$. Here, we investigated the effect of hypoxia on paclitaxel-resistance induction in HeLa cervical tumor cells. When HeLa cells were incubated under hypoxia condition, HIF-$1{\alpha}$ level was increased. In contrast, paclitaxel-mediated tumor cell death was reduced by the incubation under hypoxia condition. Paclitaxel-mediated tumor cell death was also inhibited by treatment with DMOG, chemical HIF-$1{\alpha}$ stabilizer, in a dose-dependent manner. A significant increase in intracellular ROS level was detected by the incubation under hypoxia condition. A basal level of cell density was increased in response to 10 nM $H_2O_2$. HIF-$1{\alpha}$ level was increased by treatment with various concentration of $H_2O_2$. The increased level of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ by hypoxia was reduced by the treatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a well-known ROS scavenger. Paclitaxel-mediated tumor cell death was increased by treatment with NAC. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that hypoxia could play a role in paclitaxel-resistance induction through ROS-mediated HIF-$1{\alpha}$ stabilization. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced ROS could, in part, control tumor cell death through an increase in HIF-$1{\alpha}$ level.

Effects of Yukmijihwangwon on Hypoxia of Neuronal Cells (저산소상태에서 육미지황원의 뇌신경세포 보호효과에 대한 연구)

  • Kang, Bong-Joo;Hong, Seong-Gil;Cho, Dong-Wuk
    • Korean Journal of Oriental Medicine
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.115-124
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    • 2001
  • Yukmijihwangwon (YM) has been known to reinforce the vital essence and have antioxidant activities. This study was designed to examine the inhibitory effects of YM against in vitro hypoxia/reperfusion-induced inflammatory response. We have characterized the production of prostaglandin $E_2$ and arachidonic acid during hypoxia/reperfusion in the human neuroblastoma SK-N-MC and human monocytic macrophage U937 cells and the ingibitory effect of YM on these inflammation-related substance formation has been found out in this study. To investigate inhibition of COX expression by YM during hypoxia in vitro. This result suggested that YM used in this experiment reinforced antiinflammatory potentials and protected cells against hypoxia/reperfusion induced inflammatory response.

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Inhibitory Effects of Ginseng Total Saponins on Hypoxia-induced Dysfunction and Injuries of Cultured Astrocytes

  • Seong, Yeon-Hee;Kim, Hack-Seang
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 1997
  • The effects of ginseng total saponins (GTS) on hypoxic damage of primary cultures of astrocytes were studied. Hypoxia was created by placing cultures in an air tight chamber that was flushed with 95% $N_2/5%CO_2$ for 15 min before being sealed. Cultures showed evidence of significant cell injury after 24 h of hypoxia (increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) content in the culture medium, cell swelling and decreased glutamate uptake and protein content). Addition of GTS (0.1, 0.3 mg/ml) to the cultures during the exposure to hypoxic conditions produced dose-dependent inhibition of the LDH efflux. GTS (0.1, 0.3 mg/ml) also produced significant inhibition of the increased cell volume of astrocytes measured by $[^3H]$ O-methyl-D-glucose uptake under the hypoxic conditions. Decreased glutamate uptake and protein content was inhibited by GTS. These data suggest that GTS prevents astrocytic cell injury induced by severe hypoxia in vitro.

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Changes in drug metabolism during hypoxia/reoxygenation in isolated perfused rat

  • Seo, Min-Young;Cho, Tai-Soon;Lee, Sun-Mee
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.98-98
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    • 1997
  • This study was done to investigate the effect of vitamin E on hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced hepatic injury in isolated perfused rat liver. Rats were pretreated with vitamin E or vehicle(soybean oil). Isolated livers from fasted 18 hours were subjected to 45min of low flow hypoxia or N$_2$ hypoxia followed by reoxygenation for 30min. The perfusion medium used was KHBB(pH 7.4) and 50${\mu}$㏖/$\ell$ of ethoxycoumarin was added to the perfusate to determine the ability of hepatic drug-metabolizing systems, In low flow hypoxia model, total glutathione and oxidised glutathione levels were significantly increased by hepoxia/reoxygenation with slight increase in LDH levels. These increases were prevented by vitamin E pretreatment. In N$_2$ hypoxia model, LDH, total glutathione and oxidized glutathione levels were increased significantly by hypoxia but restored to normal level by reoxygenation. Vitamin E had little effect on this hypoxic damage. There were no significant changes in the rate of hepatic oxidation of 7-EC to 7-HC in both hepoxic models. But, the subsequent conjugation of 7-HC by sulfate or glucuronic acid were significantly decreased by hypoxia, but restored by reoxygenation in both hypoxia models. As opposed to our expectation, treatment with vitamin E aggrevated the decrease of the rate of conjugation and even inhibited the restoration by reoxygenation. Our findings suggest that hypoxia/reoxygenation diminishes phase II drug metabolizing function and this is, in part, related to decreased energy level.

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Inhibition of TCDD Induced Cyplal Expression by SNP In Hepa I Cells

  • Kim, Ji-E.;Sheen, Yhun-Y.
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.315-321
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    • 1999
  • Since it has been known that hypoxia increases inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression through hypoxia responsive element, it was possible to establish the hypothesis that nitric oxide could be a mediator of hypoxia to inhibit Cyplal promoter activity. In order to test this hypothesis, we have undertaken the study to examine the effects of hypoxia and nitric oxide on Cyplal promoter activity in Hepa I cells. Mouse Cyplal 5'flanking DNA, 1.6 Kb was cloned into pGL3 expression vector in order to construct pmCyplal-Luc. Hepa I cells were transfected with pmCyplal-Luc and were treated with $10^{-9}$ M TCDD and nitric oxide producing agents, such as lipopolysaccharide(LPS), sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Luciferase activity of reporter gene was measured from pmCyplal-Luc transfected Hepa I cell lysate which contains 2 g total protein using luciferin as a substrate. Nitric oxide producing agents, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), sodium nitroprusside(SNP) showed inhibition of luciferase activity that was induced by $10^{-9}$M TCDD treatment with dose dependent manner. Concomitant treatment of 1mM $N^G$-nitro-ι-arginine with $10^{-6}$~$10^{-4}$M sodium nitro-prusside recovered luciferase activity from the TCDD induced luciferase activity that was inhibited by nitric oxide producing agents. These demonstrated that nitric oxide could be a mediator of inhibitors on dioxin induced Cyplal expression in Hepa I cells.

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Influence of Kamijihwang-hwan on the Hypoxic Damage of Cultured Cerebral Neurons from mouse and SK-N-MC cells (가미지황환이 저산소성 신경세포 손상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kyung Baek Yeun;Ju Sung Min;Kim Kun Jun;Kim Dae Keun;Kang Jeong Ho;Lee Young Chan;Lee Jun;Kim Young Mok;Jeon Byung Hun
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1082-1091
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    • 2003
  • To elucidate the neuroprotective effect of Kamijihwang-hwan(KSH) on nerve cells damaged by hypoxia, the cytotoxic effects of exposure to hypoxia were determined by XTT, NR, MTT and SRB asssay. The activity of catalase and SOD was measured by spectrophometry, and TNF-α and PKC activity was measured after exposure to hypoxia and treatment of Kamijihwang-hwan(KSH) water extract(KJHWE). Also the neuroprotective effect of KJHWE was researched for the elucidation of neuroprotective mechanism. The results were as follows ; Hypoxia decreased cell viability measured by XTT, NR assay when cultured cerebral neurons were exposed to 95% N2/5% CO₂ for 2~26 minutes in these cultures and KJHWE inhibited the decrease of cell viability. H₂O₂ treatment decreased cell viability measured by MTT, and SRB assay when cultured cerebral neurons were exposed to 1-80 uM for 6 hours, but KJHWE inhibited the decrease of cell viability. Hypoxia decreased catalase and SOD activity, and also TNF-α and PKC activity in these cultured cerebral neurons, but KJHWE inhibited the decrease of the catalase and SOD activity in these cultures. Hypoxia triggered the apoptosis via caspase activation and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Also hypoxia stimulate the release of cytochrome c form mitochondria. KJHWE inhibited the apoptosis via caspase activation induced by hypoxia. From these results, it can be suggested that brain ischemia model induced hypoxia showed neurotoxity on cultured mouse cerebral neurons, and the KJHWE has the neuroprotective effect in blocking the neurotoxity induced by hypoxia in cultured mouse cerebral neurons.

Hexane Soluble Fraction of Chungpesagan-tang Exhibits Protective Effect against Hypoxia/Reoxygenation-Induced N2a Cell Damage

  • Kim, Kyoung-A;Choi, Hwa-Jung;Kim, Bang-Geul;Park, Young-Ran;Kim, Ji-Sun;Ryu, Jae-Ha;Soh, Yun-Jo
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.377-384
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    • 2008
  • Chungpesagan-tang (CST) has been traditionally used in Korea as a therapeutic for cerebral ischemia. To understand the protective mechanism of CST on hypoxia/reoxygenation insults in N2a cells, the cell viability was determined with the treatment of water solution and several solvent fractions of CST. The highest cell viability occurred when the cells were treated with the hexane soluble fraction of CST. Hypoxia/reoxygenation insults were shown to decrease the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and the level of glutathione (GSH) and increase the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. However, treatment with hexane soluble fraction of CST ranging from 0.1 ${\mu}g$/ml to 10 ${\mu}g$/ml recovered the activities of GPx and SOD and maintained the levels of MDA and GSH at control levels. While hypoxia/reoxygenation insults induced the activation of ERK in N2a cells, treatment with the hexane soluble fraction of CST inhibited the activation of ERK in a concentration dependent manner. In this study, we were able to demonstrate that the bioactive compounds of CST can be effectively transferred into the hexane soluble fraction, and more importantly that CST exhibits protective effects against hypoxia/reoxygenation insults most likely by recovering redox enzyme activities.