• Title/Summary/Keyword: $NH_3$

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Removal of $NH_3$ Gas by a Biofilter Packed with Bio-Carrier Composed of Waste Polyurethane and Wormcast (폐 폴리우레탄과 분변토 미생물담체가 충전된 Biofilter에서의 $NH_3$ 가스의 제거)

  • Lim, Joung-Soo;Lee, Eun-Young
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.122-126
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    • 2007
  • When ammonia ($NH_3$) gas was supplied to a biofilter packed with bio-carrier made of waste polyurthane and worm cast. No odor gases were detected at the outlet of the biofilter when $NH_3$ gas was supplied to the biofilter at the space velocity(SV) of $50\;h^{-1}$ until the inlet $NH_3$ concentration increased to $4\;{\sim}\;454\;ppmv$. The gradual inlet $NH_3$ concentration was set and the removal efficiency of $NH_3$ gas was measured at each condition, while the SV of $NH_3$ increased step by step from 100 to $400\;h^{-1}$. The maximum possible inlet $NH_3$ loading was $11.38\;g-NH_3{\cdot}m^{-3}{\cdot}h^{-1}$ and $34.42\;g-NH_3{\cdot}m^{-3}{\cdot}h^{-1}$ while maintaining the removal efficiency of 100% when the SV was $50\;h^{-1}$ and $100 \;h^{-1}$, respectively. The maximum $NH_3$ loading was $71.28 \;g-NH_3{\cdot}m^{-3}{\cdot}h^{-1}$ with the $NH_3$ removal efficiency of 99.85% at SV $300\;h^{-1}$.

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Synthesis and structure of ($C_6CH_2NH_3)_2CUCl_4and \;(NH_3C_6C_4C_2H_4C_6NH_3)CUCl_4$ (($C_6CH_2NH_3)_2CUCl_4와 \;(NH_3C_6C_4C_2H_4C_6NH_3)CUCl_4$의 합성과 구조)

  • 김지현;권석순;현준원;허영덕
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.135-139
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    • 2004
  • The layered organic-inorganic hybrid compounds($C_6H_5CH_2NH_3)_2CuCl_4$ and ($NH_3C_6/H_4C_2H_4_6/H_4NH_3)CuCl_4$ have been directly synthesized. From the X-ray diffraction data and the organic guest size, the orientation of the intercalated organic amine was determined. The inorganic sheets consist of $CuCl_4^{2-}$layers of comer-sharing octahedra copper chloride. The protonated organic amine was intercalated into the $CuCl_4^{2-}$layers with bilayer structure for ($C_6H_5CH_2NH_3)_2CuCl_4$ and monolayer structure for ($NH_3C_6/H_4C_2H_4_6/H_4NH_3)CuCl_4$.

Biological Study on the Increment of Survival Rate during Early Life Cycle in th Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli (Telostei: Scorpaenidae) - I. Effects of Ammonia on Survival and Growth of the Larvae and Juveniles Stage (조피볼락, Sebastes schlegeli의 초기생활사 동안 생존율 향상을 위한 생물학적 연구 - I. 자어의 생존과 성장에 미치는 암모니아의 영향)

  • Chin, Pyung;Shin, Yun-Kyung;Kim, Hak-Gyoon;Lee, Jeong-Sick;Kim, Hyung-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 1998
  • The effect of ammonia on survival and growth of the larval rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli was examined by a static renewal bioassay method. The tolerance of larvae to ammonia toxicity was more sensitive at the early larvae, but increased with the development of larvae. In 14 day-old-larvae after parturition, the mortality with treatment of each concentration of ammonia was 5% at control group and 0.0112 $NH_3$mg/l, whereas it was increased up to 27.5% at exposure group of 0.1230 $NH_3$mg/l with higher concentration. Regression equation between ammonium concentration(X) and mortality(Y) was followed; Y=0.516+3.482 X($r^2=0.4737$, P<0.01). The NOEC(no-observable-effect concentration) and LOEC (lowest-observable-effect concentration) to mortality compared to control group were 0.100 $NH_3mg/l$ and 0.1230 $NH_3$mg/l, respectively and chronic value(ChV) which is the geometric mean of the NOEC and LOEC was 0.1110 $NH_3$mg/l. Body length after 7-days exposure in control group, 0.0112 $NH_3$mg/l and 0.1230 $NH_3$mg/l were 7.8325mm, 7.700mm and 7.05mm, respectively. The NOEC, LOEC and chronic value(ChV) were 0.0335 $NH_3$mg/l, 0.0558 $NH_3$mg/l and 0.0432 $NH_3$mg/l, respectively.

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Effects of N$H_3$ on the Induced Defect in Si Oxidation (N$H_3$가 Si산화의 열유기 결함에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yeong-Jo;Kim, Cheol-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.403-409
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    • 1993
  • In this paper, an $NH_3$, added during dry oxidation and annealing m Si( 111) is clarified effect ive to suppress or remove defects. Annealing effects in $N_2$ and $NH_3/N_2$ ambient are estimated with dry $O_2$ and $NH_4$ oxidation($NH_3$ added in dry $O_2$ oxidation) method. C;em'rated defects in dry $O_2$ oxidation are lengthened according to oxidation time. but any defects in $NH_3$ oxidation are not found. Dry oxidation, after $NH_3$ oxidation as an initial oxidation. lias the defect -removing effect at the interface of Si -$SiO_2$. After dry or $NH_3$. oxidation. the annealmg 7.5% $NH_3/N_2$ ambient brings out gettering effect of OSF. The annealing in 7.5% $NH_3/N_2$ ambient for NI L oxidation method decreaSE,s $NH_3$ length of OSF about 20 % compared with dry oxidation method. Tlw feature of OSF is pit type, the gettering is directed to (011) plane for (111) plane. and OSFs are etched following to 110) directIon.

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Utilization of Natural Zeolite for Removal of $NH_3$ Gas (($NH_3$ 가스 제거를 위한 천연 지오라이트의 이용)

  • Lee, Dong-Hoon;Choi, Jyung;Park, Moung-Sub
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.327-332
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    • 1997
  • This study was conducted to find out the effect for removal of $NH_3$ gas, one of the offensive odor. The removal efficiencies of $NH_3$ gas through zeolie column increased with the decreased percolation velocity. The effect of zeolite colum in removing $NH_3$ gas was influenced by the water content of zeolite and the added amount of zeolite, but was not influenced by the setting method of zeolite. The $NH_3$ gas removing sequence of saturated cation species on zeolite was in order of Ca->Na->$NH_4$ ->Natural->K-zeolite. Consequently the effect of zeolite on $NH_3$ gas removal efficiency is consided by the water content, added amount and saturated cation of the zeolite.

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Effect of $NH_3$/NOx ratio and Catalyst Temperature on DeNOx Performance in the $NH_3$-SCR reactor ($NH_3$-SCR 반응기 내에서의 $NH_3$/NOx 및 SCR 촉매 온도가 DeNOx 성능에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Kil-Hwa;Gong, Ho-Jeong;Hwang, In-Goo;Park, Sim-Soo
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.3096-3101
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    • 2008
  • Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology is well-known to be effective for the reduction of NOx emission. So car manufacturers has adopted Ures-SCR system to be satisfied with emission regulation. This paper discusses the effective of $NH_3/NOx$ ratio and SCR catalyst temperature in the $NH_3$-SCR reactor on DeNOx performance. So it is shown the characteristic of NOx conversion and ammonia slip using the $NH_3$ instead of Urea-Solution. From the result of this study, it is found to optimize $NH_3/NOx$ ratio to have the best case of high NOx conversion and low ammonia slip at variable SCR catalyst temperatures. Lastly, it is also found the characteristics of NOx conversion and ammonia slip with compared with Urea.

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A Study on Equilibrium of $NH_4NO_{3(s, aq)}-HNO_{3(g)}-NH_{3(g)}$ in Urban Atmosphere (도시 대기중에서 $NH_4NO_{3(s, aq)}-HNO_{3(g)}-NH_{3(g)}$의 평형에 관한 연구(II))

  • 천만영;이영재;김희강
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.154-159
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    • 1993
  • Theoretical prediction of the equilibrium of temperature and relative humidity dependance involving $HNO_{3(g)}-NH_{3(g)}$ and $NH_4NH_{3(s, aq)}$ was compared with atmospheric measurement of particulate nitrate$(NO_3^-)$, Ammonia-Nitric Acid partial pressure product $([$NH_{3(g)}][HNO_{3(g)}]ppb^2$) by a triple filter pack sampler from Oct 1991 to July 1992. The measured $HNO_3NH_3$ concentration product K was greater than equilibrium constant $K_p$ calculated from thermodynamic data of $NH_4NO_{3(s, aq)}-HNO_{3(g)}-NH_{3(g)}$ during fall, winter and spring. But K was lower than $K_p$ in summer. K was greater than $K_p$ as the result of supersaturation by air pollution, particularly anthropogenic $NH_3$.The reason of $K < K_p$ was due to removal of particulate nitrate$(NO_3^-)$ by rainout and washout. $NH_4NO_3$ which consists mainly of particulate nitrate is formed by reaction between $HNO_3$ and $NH_3$. As a result of the removal of particulate nitrate$(NO_3^-)$ by rainout and washout, concentrations of $HNO_3$ and $NH_3$ are decreased by equilibrium transfer(Le Chatelier's Law) in atmosphere.

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The Algicidal Activity of Arthrobacter sp. NH-3 and its Algicide against Alexandrium catenella and other Harmful Algal Bloom Species (Alexandrium catenella와 유해성 적조종에 대한 Arthrobacter sp. NH-3와 살조물질의 살조능)

  • Jeong, Seong-Yun;Jeoung, Nam Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.139-148
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify algicidal bacterium that tends to kill the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, and to determine the algicidal activity and algicidal range of algicide. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among of algicidal bacteria isolated in this study, NH-3 isolate was the strongest algicidal activity against A. catenella. NH-3 isolate was identified on the basis of biochemical characteristics and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences. The NH-3 isolate showed over 99% homology with Arthrobacter oxydans, and was designated as Arthrobacter sp. NH-3. The optimal culture conditions were $25^{\circ}C$, initial pH 7.0, and 2.0% (w/v) NaCl concentration. The algicidal activity of Arthrobacter sp. NH-3 was significantly increased to maximum value in the late of logarithmic phase. Arthrobacter sp. NH-3 showed algicidal activity through indirect attack, which excreted active substance into the culture filtrate. When 10% culture filtrate of NH-3 was applied to A. catenella, 100% of algal cells were destroyed within 30 h. In addition, the algicidal activities were increased in dose and time dependent manners. The pure algicide was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture filtrate of NH-3 by using silica gel column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). We investigated the algicidal activity of this algicide on the growth of harmful algal bloom (HAB) species, including A. catenella. As a result, it showed algicidal activity against several HAB species at a concentration of $100{\mu}g/mL$ and had a relatively wide host range. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results suggest that Arthrobacter sp. NH-3 and its algicide could be a candidate for controlling of toxic and harmful algal blooms.

A Study on the Reaction Characteristics of the NH3 Oxidation over W/TiO2 (W/TiO2 촉매의 NH3 단독 산화 반응 특성 연구)

  • Kim, Geo Jong;Lee, Sang Moon;Hong, Sung Chang
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.645-649
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    • 2013
  • In this study, we investigated the $NH_3$ oxidation reaction characteristic over $W/TiO_2$ catalyst in order to control $NH_3$ generated from a thermoelectric power plant or incinerator. As a result, it was found that the optimal content of tungsten in $W/TiO_2$ catalyst is 10 wt% and $NH_3$ removal efficiency decreased due to decreasing specific surface areas of catalyst with increasing tungsten contents. When $NH_3$ was injected more than 420 ppm, $NH_3$ conversion decreased at the middle temperature range. In addition, $NH_3$ conversion decreased due to the competitive adsorption of moisture and with increasing oxygen concentration, the $NH_3$ conversion increased while the $N_2$ selectivity decreased.