• Title, Summary, Keyword: $NH_3$

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Water Reuse of Sewage Discharge Water Using Fertilizer Drawn Forward Osmosis - Evaluating the Performance of Draw Solution - (비료 유도용액의 정삼투를 이용한 하수처리수의 재이용 - 유도용액의 성능 평가 -)

  • Kim, Seung-Geon;Lee, Ho-Won
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.108-115
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    • 2016
  • This study is to evaluate the performance of draw solutions in the water reuse of sewage discharge water using fertilizer drawn forward osmosis. Feed water used in all experiments was the effluent from secondary sedimentation tank in activated sludge process. Considering osmotic pressure, solubility, and pH, $NH_4H_2PO_4$, KCl, $KNO_3$, $NH_4Cl$, $(NH_4)_2HPO_4$, $NH_4NO_3$, $NH_4HCO_3$, and $KHCO_3$ were screened from a comprehensive lists of fertilizer. Their performances were evaluated in terms of water permeate flux and reverse solute flux. KCl showed the highest average water flux followed by $NH_4Cl$, $NH_4NO_3$, $KNO_3$, $KHCO_3$, $NH_4HCO_3$, $NH_4H_2PO_4$, and $(NH_4)_2HPO_4$. Using KCl as draw solution, the average water permeate flux was 13.49 LMH. There was no big difference in osmotic pressure between the effluent from secondary sedimentation tank and deionized water. $NH_4H_2PO_4$ showed the lowest reverse solute flux followed by $NH_4Cl$, $(NH_4)_2HPO_4$, $KNO_3$, $NH_4HCO_3$, and $NH_4NO_3$. Using $NH_4H_2PO_4$ as draw solution, the reverse solute flux was $4.96{\times}10^{-3}mmol/m^2{\cdot}sec$.

A Study on Equilibrium of $NH_4NO_{3(s, aq)}-HNO_{3(g)}-NH_{3(g)}$ in Urban Atmosphere (도시 대기중에서 $NH_4NO_{3(s, aq)}-HNO_{3(g)}-NH_{3(g)}$의 평형에 관한 연구(II))

  • 천만영;이영재;김희강
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.154-159
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    • 1993
  • Theoretical prediction of the equilibrium of temperature and relative humidity dependance involving $HNO_{3(g)}-NH_{3(g)}$ and $NH_4NH_{3(s, aq)}$ was compared with atmospheric measurement of particulate nitrate$(NO_3^-)$, Ammonia-Nitric Acid partial pressure product $([$NH_{3(g)}][HNO_{3(g)}]ppb^2$) by a triple filter pack sampler from Oct 1991 to July 1992. The measured $HNO_3NH_3$ concentration product K was greater than equilibrium constant $K_p$ calculated from thermodynamic data of $NH_4NO_{3(s, aq)}-HNO_{3(g)}-NH_{3(g)}$ during fall, winter and spring. But K was lower than $K_p$ in summer. K was greater than $K_p$ as the result of supersaturation by air pollution, particularly anthropogenic $NH_3$.The reason of $K < K_p$ was due to removal of particulate nitrate$(NO_3^-)$ by rainout and washout. $NH_4NO_3$ which consists mainly of particulate nitrate is formed by reaction between $HNO_3$ and $NH_3$. As a result of the removal of particulate nitrate$(NO_3^-)$ by rainout and washout, concentrations of $HNO_3$ and $NH_3$ are decreased by equilibrium transfer(Le Chatelier's Law) in atmosphere.

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Removal of $NH_3$ Gas by a Biofilter Packed with Bio-Carrier Composed of Waste Polyurethane and Wormcast (폐 폴리우레탄과 분변토 미생물담체가 충전된 Biofilter에서의 $NH_3$ 가스의 제거)

  • Lim, Joung-Soo;Lee, Eun-Young
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.122-126
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    • 2007
  • When ammonia ($NH_3$) gas was supplied to a biofilter packed with bio-carrier made of waste polyurthane and worm cast. No odor gases were detected at the outlet of the biofilter when $NH_3$ gas was supplied to the biofilter at the space velocity(SV) of $50\;h^{-1}$ until the inlet $NH_3$ concentration increased to $4\;{\sim}\;454\;ppmv$. The gradual inlet $NH_3$ concentration was set and the removal efficiency of $NH_3$ gas was measured at each condition, while the SV of $NH_3$ increased step by step from 100 to $400\;h^{-1}$. The maximum possible inlet $NH_3$ loading was $11.38\;g-NH_3{\cdot}m^{-3}{\cdot}h^{-1}$ and $34.42\;g-NH_3{\cdot}m^{-3}{\cdot}h^{-1}$ while maintaining the removal efficiency of 100% when the SV was $50\;h^{-1}$ and $100 \;h^{-1}$, respectively. The maximum $NH_3$ loading was $71.28 \;g-NH_3{\cdot}m^{-3}{\cdot}h^{-1}$ with the $NH_3$ removal efficiency of 99.85% at SV $300\;h^{-1}$.

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Synthesis and structure of ($C_6CH_2NH_3)_2CUCl_4and \;(NH_3C_6C_4C_2H_4C_6NH_3)CUCl_4$ (($C_6CH_2NH_3)_2CUCl_4와 \;(NH_3C_6C_4C_2H_4C_6NH_3)CUCl_4$의 합성과 구조)

  • 김지현;권석순;현준원;허영덕
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.135-139
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    • 2004
  • The layered organic-inorganic hybrid compounds($C_6H_5CH_2NH_3)_2CuCl_4$ and ($NH_3C_6/H_4C_2H_4_6/H_4NH_3)CuCl_4$ have been directly synthesized. From the X-ray diffraction data and the organic guest size, the orientation of the intercalated organic amine was determined. The inorganic sheets consist of $CuCl_4^{2-}$layers of comer-sharing octahedra copper chloride. The protonated organic amine was intercalated into the $CuCl_4^{2-}$layers with bilayer structure for ($C_6H_5CH_2NH_3)_2CuCl_4$ and monolayer structure for ($NH_3C_6/H_4C_2H_4_6/H_4NH_3)CuCl_4$.

A Study on Equilibrium of $NH_4NO_{3(s)} -HNO_{3(g)} -NH_{3(g)}$ in Urban Atmosphere (도시 대기중에서 $NH_4NO_{3(s)} -HNO_{3(g)} -NH_{3(g)}$의 평형에 관한 연구)

  • 천만영;강병욱;김희강
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.198-203
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    • 1992
  • Theoretical predictions of the atmospheric equilibrium involving $HNO_3, NH_3 and NH_4NO_3$ were compared with atmospheric measurements of particulate nitrate$(NO_3^-)$, $HNO_3$ and $NH_3$ concentration by triple filter pack sampler and Andersen air sampler in Seoul from 8th to 11th Oct 1991. The measured $HNO_3-NH_3$ concentration product K was higher than equilibrium costant Kc calculated from thermodynamic data of $HN_4NO_{3(s)} -HNO_{3(g)} -NH_{3(g)}$. The cause of K is greater than Kc was the result of air pollution, partcicularly anthropogenic $NH_3$.

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Dyeing Properties of Tencel Fabrics Treated with NaOH, Liquid Ammonia (가성소다, 액체암모니아 처리한 텐셀의 염색성)

  • Lee, Myeong-Seon;Bae, So-Yeong
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.34 no.8
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    • pp.507-516
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    • 1997
  • The purified tencel fabrics were treated with NaOH, liquid ammonia (NH$_3$), NaOH and subsequently NH$_3$, and also market product tencel (MPT) treated arith NH$_3$. Finally the pretreated tencel fabrics were processed with enzyme (cellulase). The crystalline structure, SEM, moisture regain, water absorbency, tensile strength, and dyeing behavior of the specimens were studied. The degree of crystallinities decreased in the order of MPT-NH$_3$ > NaOH/MH$_3$ ) MH$_3$ > NaOH > MPT > untreated tencel. However moisture regain and water absorbency of the NH$_3$-treated tencel were lower than those of the untreated because of swelling characteristic of MH$_3$. The NH$_3$ treated-tencel fabric increased in the dry strength compared to untreated tencel. The increase in rate of dyeing was in the order of NaOH > NaOH > NH$_3$ > MPT-NH$_3$ > MPT > untreated tencel fabrics. The equilibrium exhaustion appeared In the order of NaOH > NaOH/NH$_3$ > MPT-NH$_3$ > untreated > MPT The fiber surface of the NH$_3$-pretreated tencel fabrics was remarkably fibrillated by cellulase treatment. The weight loss by cellulase treatment increased in the order of NaOH/NH$_3$> NH > NaOH-treated tencel fabrics and equilibrium exhaustion decreased by cellulase treatment.

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Management of Nutrient Solution Based on $\textrm{NH}_4\textrm{H}_2\textrm{PO}_4$Concentration in Deep Flow Culture of Cherry Tomato (방울토마토 담액재배시 $\textrm{NH}_4\textrm{H}_2\textrm{PO}_4$ 농도에 기초한 배양액 조절)

  • 이문정;김성은;김영식
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.188-194
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of NH$_4$H$_2$PO$_4$ on pH stabilization in deep flow culture system using tap water, and to determine the optimum range of NH$_4$H$_2$PO$_4$ in culture solution. The pH of tap water is 7.5. The higher the concentration of NH$_4$H$_2$PO$_4$ was, the more the pH of nutrient solution was decreased. In NH$_4$H$_2$PO$_4$ 4/3-5/3 me/$\ell$, the pH of nutrient solution was 6-7.5 during the experiment. The highest brix(%) was obtained in NH$_4$H$_2$PO$_4$ 5/3-6/3 me/$\ell$. Leaf length, leaf width and stem-base diameter were highest in NH$_4$H$_2$PO$_4$ 2/3 me/$\ell$. The L and b* values were highest and the a* value was lowest in NH$_4$H$_2$PO$_4$ 8/3 me/$\ell$. Toxicity symptom of ammonium appeared in NH$_4$H$_2$PO$_4$ 8/3 me/$\ell$. It suggests that there was the relationship between leaf color and growth condition. It was concluded that NH$_4$H$_2$PO$_4$ 2/3 me/$\ell$ was good before harvest stage and NH$_4$H$_2$PO$_4$ 5/3-6/3 me/$\ell$ at harvest stage.

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Effects of $\textrm{NO}_3$-N:$\textrm{NH}_4$-N Ratio and Elevated $\textrm{CO}_2$ on Growth and Quality of Lactuca sativa L. in Nutrient Film Technique (NFT재배에서 $\textrm{CO}_2$ 시용과 배양액의 $\textrm{NO}_3$:$\textrm{NH}_4$비율이 결구상추의 생육 및 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 원선이;조영렬;이용범
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.120-130
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    • 1996
  • Crisphead lettuce(Lactuca sativa L.) was grown in NFT to investigate the effects of NO$_3$-N and NH$_4$-N ratio in nutrient solution and elevated $CO_2$ treatment in the crisphead lettuce growth. This experiment has been conducted under three different ratios of NO$_3$-N:NH$_4$-N(100:0, 75:25, 50:50) with two $CO_2$ concentration (control, 1500ppm ). The results are as follows; 1. In the case of not controlling pH and EC in nutrient solution, pH was gradually increased in NO$_3$-N:NH$_4$-N=100:0 treatment but rapidly decreased in the nutrient solution 2. Daily changes of NO$_3$-N and NH$_4$-N were observed without controlling the nutrient solution. In the treatments of NO$_3$-N:NH$_4$-N ratios were 75:25 and 50:50, NO$_3$-N absorption rates were 27.7% and 26.1%, while NH$_4$-N absorption rates were 87.9% and 71.2%, respectively. 3. There was little differences in total nitrogen of leaves. However phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium contents were highly shown in the treatment of $CO_2$ 1500ppm and 100:0 ratio of NO$_3$-N:NH$_4$-N. 4. Higher $CO_2$ assimilation rate was shown in plants grown under $CO_2$ 1500ppm and 100:0 ratio of NO$_3$-N:NH$_4$-N. It dropped significantly with the increase of NH$_4$- N rates in nutrient solution. 5. Fresh weight, leaf number, root length and root weight of crisphead lettuce were far better in the treatment of $CO_2$ 1500ppm and 100:0 ratio of NO$_3$-N:NH$_4$-N. Growth differences by $CO_2$ elevation were not shown in other NO$_3$-N:NH$_4$-N treatments. 6. The highest nitrate contents of leaves were shown in NO$_3$-N single treatment but shown the lowest vitamin C contents. Nitrate contents of leaves were decreased by $CO_2$ but the effect was slight treatment.

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Effects of N$H_3$ on the Induced Defect in Si Oxidation (N$H_3$가 Si산화의 열유기 결함에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Yeong-Jo;Kim, Cheol-Ju
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.403-409
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    • 1993
  • In this paper, an $NH_3$, added during dry oxidation and annealing m Si( 111) is clarified effect ive to suppress or remove defects. Annealing effects in $N_2$ and $NH_3/N_2$ ambient are estimated with dry $O_2$ and $NH_4$ oxidation($NH_3$ added in dry $O_2$ oxidation) method. C;em'rated defects in dry $O_2$ oxidation are lengthened according to oxidation time. but any defects in $NH_3$ oxidation are not found. Dry oxidation, after $NH_3$ oxidation as an initial oxidation. lias the defect -removing effect at the interface of Si -$SiO_2$. After dry or $NH_3$. oxidation. the annealmg 7.5% $NH_3/N_2$ ambient brings out gettering effect of OSF. The annealing in 7.5% $NH_3/N_2$ ambient for NI L oxidation method decreaSE,s $NH_3$ length of OSF about 20 % compared with dry oxidation method. Tlw feature of OSF is pit type, the gettering is directed to (011) plane for (111) plane. and OSFs are etched following to 110) directIon.

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Biological Study on the Increment of Survival Rate during Early Life Cycle in th Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli (Telostei: Scorpaenidae) - I. Effects of Ammonia on Survival and Growth of the Larvae and Juveniles Stage (조피볼락, Sebastes schlegeli의 초기생활사 동안 생존율 향상을 위한 생물학적 연구 - I. 자어의 생존과 성장에 미치는 암모니아의 영향)

  • Chin, Pyung;Shin, Yun-Kyung;Kim, Hak-Gyoon;Lee, Jeong-Sick;Kim, Hyung-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 1998
  • The effect of ammonia on survival and growth of the larval rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli was examined by a static renewal bioassay method. The tolerance of larvae to ammonia toxicity was more sensitive at the early larvae, but increased with the development of larvae. In 14 day-old-larvae after parturition, the mortality with treatment of each concentration of ammonia was 5% at control group and 0.0112 $NH_3$mg/l, whereas it was increased up to 27.5% at exposure group of 0.1230 $NH_3$mg/l with higher concentration. Regression equation between ammonium concentration(X) and mortality(Y) was followed; Y=0.516+3.482 X($r^2=0.4737$, P<0.01). The NOEC(no-observable-effect concentration) and LOEC (lowest-observable-effect concentration) to mortality compared to control group were 0.100 $NH_3mg/l$ and 0.1230 $NH_3$mg/l, respectively and chronic value(ChV) which is the geometric mean of the NOEC and LOEC was 0.1110 $NH_3$mg/l. Body length after 7-days exposure in control group, 0.0112 $NH_3$mg/l and 0.1230 $NH_3$mg/l were 7.8325mm, 7.700mm and 7.05mm, respectively. The NOEC, LOEC and chronic value(ChV) were 0.0335 $NH_3$mg/l, 0.0558 $NH_3$mg/l and 0.0432 $NH_3$mg/l, respectively.

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