• Title, Summary, Keyword: $ER{\alpha}$

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Study on the Role of Estrogen Receptor-Alpha in Yak-Kong and Soybean Induced Proliferation of MG-63 Human Osteoblastie Cells (약콩 (Rhynchosia volubilis: 서목태) 및 대두 처리에 의한 MG-63 조골세포 증식 증가에서 ER$\alpha$의 역할에 대한 연구)

  • Um, So-Jung;Kang, In-Sook;Cho, Yun-Hi
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.38 no.7
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    • pp.512-520
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    • 2005
  • Phytoestrogens, especially Yak-kong or soybean-derived isoflavones have been traditionally used as a supplement of estrogen for preventing postmenopausal osteoporosis in oriental folk medicine. In a previous study, we demonstrated that as Yak-kong and soybean increased MG-63 human osteoblastic cell proliferation, the expression of estrogen receptor $\alpha\;and\;beta\;(ER\;\alpha:\;ER\;\beta$) both were increased. However, the increased level of ER $\alpha$ is much higher than that of ER$\beta$. To determine whether the altered level of ER $\alpha$ expression affects Yak-kong or soybean induced MG-63 cell proliferation, we established cell lines stably expressing either ER $\alpha$ or antisense ER $\alpha$ RNAs. Increased expression of ER a in MG- 63 cells (ER $\alpha$-MG63) enhanced Yak-kong or soybean induced proliferation which paralleled with the enhanced expression of IGF-I. Inhibition of ER $\alpha$ expression by antisense $ER\;\alpha\;RNAs\;(As-ER\;\alpha-MG63$) caused these cells to insensitize Yak- kong or soybean induced proliferation and IGF-I expression. Furthermore, the comparable effects between Yak-kong and the combined treatment of genistein and daidzein at $0.5\;{\times}\;10^{-8}M$, which is a concentration of these two isoflavones similar to Yak-kong at 0.001 mg/ml, on cell proliferation and IGF-I expression in $ER\;\alpha-MG63\;or\;As-ER\;\alpha-MG63$ cells demonstrate that ER $\alpha$ plays an important, active role in MG-63 cell proliferation induced by phytoestrogens, especially Yak-kong or soybean derived isoflavones.

Regulation of Estrogen Receptor Under Hypoxia in Breast Cancer Cells

  • Lee, Young-Joo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.55-74
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    • 2008
  • Previously, we have shown that hypoxia, through HIF-1, induces ligand-independent $ER{\alpha}$ activation and the physical interaction of HIF-1 and $ER{\alpha}$. However, the effect of hypoxia on the transactivation of $ER{\beta}$ is not yet known. In the present study, we found that hypoxia activated the $ER{\beta}$-mediated transcriptional response in the HEK 293 cell line, as determined by the transient expression of$ER{\beta}$ and ER-responsive reporter plasmids. The hypoxia-induced estrogen response element-mediated transcriptional response was dependent on $ER{\beta}$ expression and was inhibited by the ER antagonist ICI 182,780. Transactivation of $ER{\beta}$ was induced by the expression of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ under normoxic conditions, as determined by the expression of oxygen-independent stable GFP-HIF-$1{\alpha}$. HIF-$1{\alpha}$-induced $ER{\beta}$ transactivation was abolished by the inhibition of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ activation. This was determined by using chemical inhibitors for the MAPK pathway. In addition, HIF-$1{\alpha}$ interacted with $ER{\beta}$ in a mammalian-two hybrid assay. We conclude that hypoxia activates $ER{\beta}$ in a ligand-independent manner, possibly through the interaction of HIF-$1{\alpha}$ and $ER{\beta}$.

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Sequence to Structure Approach of Estrogen Receptor Alpha and Ligand Interactions

  • Chamkasem, Aekkapot;Toniti, Waraphan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.2161-2166
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    • 2015
  • Estrogen receptors (ERs) are steroid receptors located in the cytoplasm and on the nuclear membrane. The sequence similarities of human $ER{\alpha}$, mouse $ER{\alpha}$, rat $ER{\alpha}$, dog $ER{\alpha}$, and cat $ER{\alpha}$ are above 90%, but structures of $ER{\alpha}$ may different among species. Estrogen can be agonist and antagonist depending on its target organs. This hormone play roles in several diseases including breast cancer. There are variety of the relative binding affinity (RBA) of ER and estrogen species in comparison to $17{\beta}-estradiol$ (E2), which is a natural ligand of both $ER{\alpha}$ and $ER{\beta}$. The RBA of the estrogen species are as following: diethyl stilbestrol (DES) > hexestrol > dienestrol > $17{\beta}-estradiol$ (E2) > 17- estradiol > moxestrol > estriol (E3) >4-OH estradiol > estrone-3-sulfate. Estrogen mimetic drugs, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), have been used as hormonal therapy for ER positive breast cancer and postmenopausal osteoporosis. In the postgenomic era, in silico models have become effective tools for modern drug discovery. These provide three dimensional structures of many transmembrane receptors and enzymes, which are important targets of de novo drug development. The estimated inhibition constants (Ki) from computational model have been used as a screening procedure before in vitro and in vivo studies.

The Relationship Between the Expression of Estrogen Receptor ${\beta}$ and Recurrence in Breast Cancer (에스트로겐 수용체 ${\beta}$ 발현과 유방암 재발과의 관련성)

  • Kang, Su-Hwan;Choi, Jung-Eun;Lee, Soo-Jung
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.153-164
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    • 2011
  • Background: It has been reported that estrogen receptor beta ($ER{\beta}$) mRNA expression was down-regulated during carcinogenesis and was inversely related to estrogen receptor alpha ($ER{\alpha}$) expression in breast cancer. The association of $ER{\beta}$ mRNA expression to tamoxifen resistance has also been reported. In this study, the expression of $ER{\alpha}$ and $ER{\beta}$ via immunohistochemistry (IHC) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was prompted, and an attempt was made to find out the relationship between $ER{\beta}$ expression and recurrence in the hormonal therapy group, and between $ER{\beta}$ expression and known prognostic factors. Methods: Tumor specimens were obtained at surgery from 67 female breast cancer patients during the period of September 1995 to December 2000. All the specimens were frozen in liquid nitrogen and kept at $-70^{\circ}C$ until they were used. The medical records were analyzed retrospectively. The expressions of ER were analyzed using IHC and RT-PCR methods. Results: The median follow-up was at 93.0 months (range: 14-157 months). The percentage of $ER{\alpha}+/ER{\beta}+$, $ER{\alpha}+/ER{\beta}-$, $ER{\alpha}-/ER{\beta}+$, and $ER{\alpha}-/ER{\beta}$ group were 35.9% 9.4%, 47.2%, and 7.5%, respectively, in 53 patients with hormonal therapy. $ER{\beta}$ was positive in 42 (82.3%) of 51 ER-positive patients. In the hormonal therapy group, the recurrence rates of each group was 15.8%, 0%, 40.0%, and 0%, respectively. In this group, the $ER{\beta}$ expression tended to recur, but there was no clinical significance (p=0.084). Conclusion: The $ER{\beta}$ expression may be a predictive marker of a poor response to endocrine therapy in breast cancer patients, although this needs to be confirmed in additional studies.

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Prognostic Significance of Interactions Between ER Alpha and ER Beta and Lymph Node Status in Breast Cancer Cases

  • Han, Shu-Jing;Guo, Qing-Qing;Wang, Ting;Wang, You-Xin;Zhang, Yu-Xiang;Liu, Fen;Luo, Yan-Xia;Zhang, Jie;Wang, You-Li;Yan, Yu-Xiang;Peng, Xiao-Xia;Ling, Rui;He, Yan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.6081-6084
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    • 2013
  • Objective: Both estrogen receptors, ER alpha ($ER{\alpha}$) and ER beta ($ER{\beta}$), are expressed in 50-70% of breast cancer cases. The role of $ER{\alpha}$ as a prognostic marker in breast cancer has been well established as its expression is negative correlated with tumor size and lymph node metastasis. $ER{\beta}$ is also a favorable prognostic predictor although this is less well documented than for $ER{\alpha}$. Materials and Methods: To explore whether ERs independently or together might influence clinical outcome in breast cancer, the correlation between the ERs with the clinicopathological features was analyzed in 84 patients. Results: $ER{\alpha}$ expression negatively correlated with tumor stage (r=-0.246, p=0.028) and tended to be negatively correlated with lymph node status (r=-0.156, p=0.168) and tumor size (r=-0.246, p=0.099). Also, $ER{\beta}$ was negatively correlated with nodal status (r=-0.243, p=0.028), as was coexpression of $ER{\alpha}$ and $ER{\beta}$ (p=0.043, OR=0.194, 95% CI= 0.040-0.953). Conclusion: Coexpression of ERs might serve as an indicator of good prognosis in breast cancer patients.

Estrogen Receptor α Regulates Dlx3-Mediated Osteoblast Differentiation

  • Lee, Sung Ho;Oh, Kyo-Nyeo;Han, Younho;Choi, You Hee;Lee, Kwang-Youl
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.156-162
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    • 2016
  • Estrogen receptor ${\alpha}$ (ER-${\alpha}$), which is involved in bone metabolism and breast cancer, has been shown to have transcriptional targets. Dlx3 is essential for the skeletal development and plays an important role in osteoblast differentiation. Various osteogenic stimulators and transcription factors can induce the protein expression of Dlx3. However, the regulatory function of ER-${\alpha}$ in the Dlx3 mediated osteogenic process remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of Dlx3 and found that ER-${\alpha}$ is a positive regulator of Dlx3 transcription in BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation. We also found that ER-${\alpha}$ interacts with Dlx3 and increases its transcriptional activity and DNA binding affinity. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the regulation of Dlx3 activity by ER-${\alpha}$ is independent of the ligand (estradiol) binding domain. These results indicate that Dlx3 is a novel target of ER-${\alpha}$, and that ER-${\alpha}$ regulates the osteoblast differentiation through modulation of Dlx3 expression and/or interaction with Dlx3.

Molecular Characterization and Tissue Distribution of Estrogen Receptor Genes in Domestic Yak

  • Fu, Mei;Xiong, Xian-Rong;Lan, Dao-Liang;Li, Jian
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.1684-1690
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    • 2014
  • Estrogen and its receptors are essential hormones for normal reproductive function in males and females during developmental stage. To better understand the effect of estrogen receptor (ER) gene in yak (Bos grunniens), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to clone $ER{\alpha}$ and $ER{\beta}$ genes. Bioinformatics methods were used to analyze the evolutionary relationship between yaks and other species, and real-time PCR was performed to identify the mRNA expression of $ER{\alpha}$ and $ER{\beta}$. Sequence analysis showed that the ER open reading frames (ORFs) encoded 596 and 527 amino acid proteins. The yak $ER{\alpha}$ and $ER{\beta}$ shared 45.3% to 99.5% and 53.9% to 99.1% protein sequence identities with other species homologs, respectively. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that $ER{\alpha}$ and $ER{\beta}$ were expressed in a variety of tissues, but the expression level of $ER{\alpha}$ was higher than that of $ER{\beta}$ in all tissues, except testis. The mRNA expression of $ER{\alpha}$ was highest in the mammary gland, followed by uterus, oviduct, and ovary, and lowest in the liver, kidney, lung, testis, spleen, and heart. The $ER{\beta}$ mRNA level was highest in the ovary; intermediary in the uterus and oviduct; and lowest in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, mammary gland, and testis. The identification and tissue distribution of ER genes in yaks provides a foundation for the further study on their biological functions.

PKA-Mediated Stabilization of FoxH1 Negatively Regulates ERα Activity

  • Yum, Jinah;Jeong, Hyung Min;Kim, Seulki;Seo, Jin Won;Han, Younho;Lee, Kwang-Youl;Yeo, Chang-Yeol
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.67-71
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    • 2009
  • Estrogen receptor ${\alpha}$ ($ER{\alpha}$) mediates the mitogenic effects of estrogen. $ER{\alpha}$ signaling regulates the normal growth and differentiation of mammary tissue, but uncontrolled $ER{\alpha}$ activation increases the risk to breast cancer. Estrogen binding induces ligand-dependent $ER{\alpha}$ activation, thereby facilitating $ER{\alpha}$ dimerization, promoter binding and coactivator recruitment. $ER{\alpha}$ can also be activated in a ligand-independent manner by many signaling pathways, including protein kinase A (PKA) signaling. However, in several $ER{\alpha}$-positive breast cancer cells, PKA inhibits estrogen-dependent cell growth. FoxH1 represses the transcriptional activities of estrogen receptors and androgen receptors (AR). Interestingly, FoxH1 has been found to inhibit the PKA-induced and ligand-induced activation of AR. In the present study, we examined the effects of PKA activation on the ability of FoxH1 to represses $ER{\alpha}$ transcriptional activity. We found that PKA increases the protein stability of FoxH1, and that FoxH1 inhibits PKA-induced and estradiol-induced activation of an estrogen response element (ERE). Furthermore, in MCF7 cells, FoxH1 knockdown increased the PKA-induced and estradiol-induced activation of the ERE. These results suggest that PKA can negatively regulate $ER{\alpha}$, at least in part, through FoxH1.

Synthesis and Evaluation of Estrogen Receptor β -Selective Ligands: Fluoroalkylated Indazole Estrogens

  • Moon, Byung-Seok;Katzenellenbogen, John A.;Cheon, Gi-Jeong;Chi, Dae-Yoon;Lee, Kyo-Chul;An, Gwang-Il
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.1107-1114
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    • 2008
  • It is important to identify selective ligands for the estrogen receptor subtypes ER$\alpha$ or ER$\beta$ to evaluate them as pharmaceutical targets in breast cancer. To develop ER$\beta$-selective ligands as PET imaging agents, a series of aryl indazole estrogen analogues substituted at the C3 position with fluoroethyl and fluoropropyl groups were synthesized and evaluated for their relative binding affinities and selectivities for ER$\alpha$ vs ER$\beta$. The fluoroethylated indazole estrogen (FEIE, 1i) and fluoropropylated indazole estrogen (FPIE, 1h) showed 41- fold and 17-fold ER$\beta$/ER$\alpha$ selectivity, respectively. However, their binding affinities to ER$\alpha$ and ER$\beta$ were very low.

Association of Poor Prognosis Subtypes of Breast Cancer with Estrogen Receptor Alpha Methylation in Iranian Women

  • Izadi, Pantea;Noruzinia, Mehrdad;Fereidooni, Foruzandeh;Nateghi, Mohammad Reza
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.4113-4117
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    • 2012
  • Breast cancer is a prevalent heterogeneous malignant disease. Gene expression profiling by DNA microarray can classify breast tumors into five different molecular subtypes: luminal A, luminal B, HER-2, basal and normal-like which have differing prognosis. Recently it has been shown that immunohistochemistry (IHC) markers including estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2), can divide tumors to main subtypes: luminal A (ER+; PR+/-; HER-2-), luminal B (ER+;PR+/-; HER-2+), basal-like (ER-;PR-;HER2-) and Her2+ (ER-; PR-; HER-2+). Some subtypes such as basal-like subtype have been characterized by poor prognosis and reduced overall survival. Due to the importance of the ER signaling pathway in mammary cell proliferation; it appears that epigenetic changes in the $ER{\alpha}$ gene as a central component of this pathway, may contribute to prognostic prediction. Thus this study aimed to clarify the correlation of different IHC-based subtypes of breast tumors with $ER{\alpha}$ methylation in Iranian breast cancer patients. For this purpose one hundred fresh breast tumors obtained by surgical resection underwent DNA extraction for assessment of their ER methylation status by methylation specific PCR (MSP). These tumors were classified into main subtypes according to IHC markers and data were collected on pathological features of the patients. $ER{\alpha}$ methylation was found in 25 of 28 (89.3%) basal tumors, 21 of 24 (87.5%) Her2+ tumors, 18 of 34 (52.9%) luminal A tumors and 7 of 14 (50%) luminal B tumors. A strong correlation was found between $ER{\alpha}$ methylation and poor prognosis tumor subtypes (basal and Her2+) in patients (P<0.001). Our findings show that $ER{\alpha}$ methylation is correlated with poor prognosis subtypes of breast tumors in Iranian patients and may play an important role in pathogenesis of the more aggressive breast tumors.