• Title, Summary, Keyword: $Ca^{2+}$-induced $Ca^{2+}$ release

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Heterogeneity of the SR-dependent Inward $Na^+-Ca^{2+}$ Exchange Current in the Heavily $Ca^{2+}-buffered$ Rat Ventricular Myocytes

  • Yoon, Kyung-Bong;Ahn, Sung-Wan;Ko, Chang-Mann
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.101-110
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    • 2004
  • Voltage-sensitive release mechanism was pharmacologically dissected from the $Ca^{2+}-induced\;Ca^{2+}\;release$ in the SR $Ca^{2+}$ release in the rat ventricular myocytes patch-clamped in a whole-cell mode. SR $Ca^{2+}$ release process was monitored by using forward-mode $Na^+-Ca^{2+}$ exchange after restriction of the interactions between $Ca^{2+}$ from SR and $Na^+-Ca^{2+}$ exchange within micro-domains with heavy cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$ buffering with 10 mM BAPTA. During stimulation every 10 s with a pulse roughly mimicking action potential, the initial outward current gradually turned into a huge inward current of $-12.9{\pm}0.5\;pA/pF$. From the inward current, two different inward $I_{NCX}s$ were identified. One was $10\;{\mu}M$ ryanodine-sensitive, constituting $14.2{\pm}2.3%$. It was completely blocked by $CdCl_2$ (0.1 mM and 0.5 mM) and by $Na^+-depletion$. The other was identified by 5 mM $NiCl_2$ after suppression of $I_{CaL}$ and ryanodine receptor, constituting $14.8{\pm}1.6%$. This latter was blocked by either 10 mM caffeine-induced SR $Ca^{2+}-depletion$ or 1 mM tetracaine. IV-relationships illustrated that the latter was activated until the peak in $30{\sim}35\;mV$ lower voltages than the former. Overall, it was concluded that the SR $Ca^{2+}$ release process in the rat ventricular myocytes is mediated by the voltage-sensitive release mechanism in addition to the $Ca^{2+}-induced-Ca^{2+}\;release$.

Inhibition of Calcium Transport by $(1R,9S)-\beta-Hydrastine$ Hydrochloride in PC12 Cells

  • Yin, Shou-Yu;Lee, Myung-Koo
    • Natural Product Sciences
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.217-220
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    • 2006
  • The effects of $(1R,9S)-\beta-hydrastine$ hydrochloride (BHSH) on $Ca^{2+}$ transport in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells were investigated. In the presence of external $Ca^{2+}$, BHSH at $100{\mu}M$ inhibited $K^+$ (56mM)-induced dopamine release, and $K^+-induced$ $Ca^{2+}$ influx and a sustained rise of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$. In addition, BHSH at 100 f.!M reduced the sustained rise of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ elicited by 20 mM caffeine, but not by $1{\mu}M$ thapsigargin, in presence of external $Ca^{2+}$. These results suggest that BHSH inhibited $K^+-induced$ dopamine release and $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ influx, and store-operated $Ca^{2+}$ channels activated by caffeine, but not by thapsigargin, in PC12 cells.

[$Ca^{2+}-induced$ $Ca^{2+}$ Release from Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Negatively Regulates Myocytic ANP Release in Beating Rabbit Atria

  • Li, Dan;Quan, He Xiu;Wen, Jin-Fu;Jin, Jing-Yu;Park, Sung-Hun;Kim, Sun-Young;Kim, Sung-Zoo;Cho, Kyung-Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2005
  • It is not clear whether $Ca^{2+}-induced$ $Ca^{2+}$ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is involved in the regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) release. Previously, we have shown that nifedipine increased ANP release, indicating that $Ca^{2+}$ entry via voltage-gated L-type $Ca^{2+}$ channel activation decreases ANP release. The purpose of the present study was two-fold: to define the role of SR $Ca^{2+}$ release in the regulation of ANP release and whether $Ca^{2+}$ entry via L-type $Ca^{2+}$ channel is prerequisite for the SR-related effect on ANP release. Experiments were performed in perfused beating rabbit atria. Ryanodine, an inhibitor of SR $Ca^{2+}$ release, increased atrial myocytic ANP release ($8.69{\pm}3.05$, $19.55{\pm}1.09$, $27.31{\pm}3.51$, and $18.91{\pm}4.76$% for 1, 2, 3, and $6{\mu}M$ ryanodine, respectively; all P<0.01) with concomitant decrease in atrial stroke volume and pulse pressure in a dose-dependent manner. In the presence of thapsigargin, an inhibitor of SR $Ca^{2+}$ pump, ryanodine-induced increase in ANP release was not observed. Thapsigargin attenuated ryanodine-induced decrease in atrial dynamic changes. Blockade of L-type $Ca^{2+}$ channel with nifedipine abolished ryanodine-induced increase in ANP release ($0.69{\pm}5.58$% vs. $27.31{\pm}3.51$%; P<0.001). In the presence of thapsigargin and ryanodine, nifedipine increased ANP release and decreased atrial dynamics. These data suggest that $Ca^{2+}$-induced $Ca^{2+}$ release from the SR is inversely involved in the regulation of atrial myocytic ANP release.

Caffeine and 2-Aminoethoxydiphenyl Borate (2-APB) Have Different Ability to Inhibit Intracellular Calcium Mobilization in Pancreatic Acinar Cell

  • Choi, Kyung-Jin;Kim, Kab-Sung;Kim, Se-Hoon;Kim, Dong-Kwan;Park, Hyung-Seo
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.105-111
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    • 2010
  • Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors ($InsP_3Rs$) modulate $Ca^{2+}$ release from intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ store and are extensively expressed in the membrane of endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Although caffeine and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) have been widely used to block $InsP_3Rs$, the use of these is limited due to their multiple actions. In the present study, we examined and compared the ability of caffeine and 2-APB as a blocker of $Ca^{2+}$ release from intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ stores and $Ca^{2+}$ entry through store-operated $Ca^{2+}$ (SOC) channel in the mouse pancreatic acinar cell. Caffeine did not block the $Ca^{2+}$ entry, but significantly inhibited carbamylcholine (CCh)-induced $Ca^{2+}$ release. In contrast, 2-APB did not block CCh-induced $Ca^{2+}$ release, but remarkably blocked SOC-mediated $Ca^{2+}$ entry at lower concentrations. In permeabilized acinar cell, caffeine had an inhibitory effect on InsP3-induced $Ca^{2+}$ release, but 2-APB at lower concentration, which effectively blocked $Ca^{2+}$ entry, had no inhibitory action. At higher concentrations, 2-APB has multiple paradoxical effects including inhibition of Ins$P_3$-induced $Ca^{2+}$ release and direct stimulation of $Ca^{2+}$ release. Based on the results, we concluded that caffeine is useful as an inhibitor of $InsP_3R$, and 2-APB at lower concentration is considered a blocker of $Ca^{2+}$ entry through SOC channels in the pancreatic acinar cell.

A Phospholipase C-Dependent Intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ Release Pathway Mediates the Capsaicin-Induced Apoptosis in HepG2 Human Hepatoma Cells 73

  • Kim Jung-Ae;Kang Young Shin;Lee Yong Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.73-80
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    • 2005
  • The effect of capsaicin on apoptotic cell death was investigated in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Capsaicin induced apoptosis in time- and dose-dependent manners. Capsaicin induced a rapid and sustained increase in intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration, and BAPTA, an intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ chelator, significantly inhibited capsaicin-induced apoptosis. The capsaicin-induced increase in the intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ and apoptosis were not significantly affected by the extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ chelation with EGTA, whereas blockers of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release (dantrolene) and phospholipase C inhibitors, U-73122 and manoalide, profoundly reduced the capsaicin effects. Interestingly, treatment with the vanilloid receptor antagonist, capsazepine, did not inhibit either the increased capsaicin-induced $Ca^{2+}$ or apoptosis. Collectively, these results suggest that the capsaicin-induced apoptosis in the HepG2 cells may result from the activation of a PLC-dependent intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release pathway, and it is further suggested that capsaicin may be valuable for the therapeutic intervention of human hepatomas.

Analysis of Vasopressin-Induced $Ca^{2+}$ Increase in Rat Hepatocytes

  • Kim, Hyun-Sook;Fumikazu-Okajima;Im, Dong-Soon
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.64-69
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    • 2003
  • To analyze vasopressin-induced $Ca^{2+}$ increase in liver cells, rat hepatocytes were isolated and attached to collagen-coated cover slips. Using fura-2, a $Ca^{2+}$-sensing dye, changes in intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ concentration by vasopressin were monitored. Results in this communication suggested that vasopressin-induced $Ca^{2+}$ increase were composed of both $Ca^{2+}$ release from internal $Ca^{2+}$ stores and influx from the plasma membrane. The $Ca^{2+}$ influx consisted of two distinguishable components. One was dependent on the presence of vasopressin and the other was not. SK&F96365 blocked vasopressin-induced $Ca^{2+}$ influx in a dose-dependent manner. Vasopressin-induced $Ca^{2+}$ release from internal stores diminished in a primary culture of hepatocytes according to the culture time. However, changes in vasopressin-induced $Ca^{2+}$ influx across the plasma membrane differed from changes in the $Ca^{2+}$ release from internal stores, suggesting two separate signalings from receptor activation to internal stores and to the plasma membrane.

Relationship Between Histamine Release and Ca$^{2+}$ Mobilizaton in RBL 2H3 Mast Cells (RBL 2H3 비만세포에서 히스타민 유리와 칼슘과의 관계)

  • Park, Sung-Hun;Kim, Soo-Jeong;Kim, Jung-Min;Park, Ju-Hyun;Choi, Bang-Shil;Lee, Ji-Yun;Choi, Mi-Yeong;Sim, Sang-Soo
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.63-67
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    • 2007
  • To investigate the relation between extracellular Ca$^{2+}$ and histamine release, we observed agonist-induced histamine release from RBL 2H3 mast cells in the presence or absence of extracellular Ca$^{2+}$ concentration. Histamine release induced by melittin and thapsigargin were greater in the presence of extracellular Ca$^{2+}$ than in the absence of extracellular Ca$^{2+}$. Econazole-induced histamine release had nothing to do with extracellular Ca$^{2+}$, whereas arachidonic acid-induced histamine release increased in the absence of extracellular Ca$^{2+}$. Calmodulin antagonists did not affect melittin-induced histamine release but they may potentiate arachidonic acid-induced histamine release. These data suggest that arachidonic acid-induced histamine release may be mediated via Ca$^{2+}$-independent pathway and may be potentiated by the block of Ca$^{2+}$-dependent pathway.

lntracellular $Ca^{2+}$ Mediates Lipoxygenase-induced Proliferation of U-373 MG Human Astrocytoma Cells

  • Kim, Jung-Ae;Chung, Young-Ja;Lee, Yong-Soo
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.664-670
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    • 1998
  • The role of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$, in the regulation of tumor cell proliferation by products of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism was investigated using U-373 MG human as trocytoma cells. Treatment with nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), a lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitor, or caffeic acid (CA), a specific 5-LOX inhibitor, suppressed proliferation of the tumor cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, indomethacin (indo), a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, did not significantly alter proliferation of the tumor cells. At anti-proliferative concentrations, NDGA and CA significantly inhibited intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release induced by carbachol, a known intracelluar $Ca^{2+}$ agonist in the tumor cells. Exogenous administration of leukotriene $B_4(LTB_4)$, an AA metabolite of LOX pathway, enhanced proliferation of the tumor cells in a concentration-dependent fashion. In addition, $LTB_4$, induced intracelluar $Ca^{2+}$ release. Intracellular $Ca^{2+}$-inhibitors, such as an intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ chelator (BAPTA) and intracellular $Ca^{2+}$-release inhibitors (dantrolene and TMB-8), significantly blocked the LTB4-induced enhancement of cell proliferation and intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ release. These results suggest that LOX activity may be critical for cell proliferation of the human astrocytoma cells and that intracelluar $Ca^{2+}$ may play a major role in the mechanism of action of LOX.

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Alteration of Ryanodine-receptors in Cultured Rat Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells

  • Kim, Eun-Ji;Kim, Dong-Kwan;Kim, Shin-Hye;Lee, Kyung-Moo;Park, Hyung-Seo;Kim, Se-Hoon
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.431-436
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    • 2011
  • Vascular smooth muscle cells can obtain a proliferative function in environments such as atherosclerosis in vivo or primary culture in vitro. Proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells is accompanied by changes in ryanodine receptors (RyRs). In several studies, the cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$ response to caffeine is decreased during smooth muscle cell culture. Although caffeine is commonly used to investigate RyR function because it is difficult to measure $Ca^{2+}$ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) directly, caffeine has additional off-target effects, including blocking inositol trisphosphate receptors and store-operated $Ca^{2+}$ entry. Using freshly dissociated rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs) and cultured RASMCs, we sought to provide direct evidence for the operation of RyRs through the $Ca^{2+}$- induced $Ca^{2+}$ -release pathway by directly measuring $Ca^{2+}$ release from SR in permeabilized cells. An additional goal was to elucidate alterations of RyRs that occurred during culture. Perfusion of permeabilized, freshly dissociated RASMCs with $Ca^{2+}$ stimulated $Ca^{2+}$ release from the SR. Caffeine and ryanodine also induced $Ca^{2+}$ release from the SR in dissociated RASMCs. In contrast, ryanodine, caffeine and $Ca^{2+}$ failed to trigger $Ca^{2+}$ release in cultured RASMCs. These results are consistent with results obtained by immunocytochemistry, which showed that RyRs were expressed in dissociated RASMCs, but not in cultured RASMCs. This study is the first to demonstrate $Ca^{2+}$ release from the SR by cytosolic $Ca^{2+}$ elevation in vascular smooth muscle cells, and also supports previous studies on the alterations of RyRs in vascular smooth muscle cells associated with culture.

Mechanism of $Ca^{2+}$ Regulation in Osteoblast-like Cells (골아세포내 $Ca^{2+}$ 활성도의 조절기전)

  • Park, Mi-Jung
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.25-41
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    • 1999
  • Physiological activity of osteoblast including bone formation is known to be closely related to the increase of intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ activity($[Ca^{2+}]_i$) in osteoblast. $Ca^{2+}$ is an important intracellular messenger in diverse cellular functions, and regulation of its level is mediated by the transmembrane $Ca^{2+}$ movement via $Ca^{2+}$ channels, $Na^+-Ca^{2+}$ exchange, and by intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ movement through the intracellular stores. The purpose of this study is to investigate how the intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ is regulated in osteoblast-like cells(OLCs) by measuring $Ca^{2+}$ activity with cell imaging technique. OLCs were isolated from femur and tibia of neonatal rats, and cultured for 7 days. Cultured OLCs were loaded with a $Ca^{2+}$-sensitive fluorescent dye, Fura-2, and fluorescence images were monitored with a cooled CCD camera. The images were processed and analyzed with an image analyzing software. The results were as follows. (1) $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ of OLC decreased as the $Ca^{2+}$ concentration in the superfusing Tyrode solution was lowered. When $Na^+$ concentration in the superfusing solution was decreased, $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ increased.. These suggest that $Ca^{2+}$ flux occurs via the $Na^+-Ca^{2+}$ exchange mechanism. (2) When $Na^+$ in the superfusing solution was removed. a transient $Ca^{2+}$, increase($Ca^{2+}$ spike) was occasionally observed. However, $Ca^{2+}$ spike was not observed after adding 1 ${\mu}M$ thapsigargin. This implies that the generation of $Ca^{2+}$ spike is mediated by the release of $Ca^{2+}$ from endoplasmic reticulum(ER). (3) As the $Ca^{2+}$ concentration in the superfusing solution was raised, the frequency of 0mM $Na^+$-induced $Ca^{2+}$ spike increased, suggesting that $Ca^{2+}$-induced $Ca^{2+}$ release(CICR) mechanism exists. (4) After $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was decreased with the superfusion of $Ca^{2+}$-free solution containing thapsigargin, the recovery of $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ with reperfusion of 2.5mM $Ca^{2+}$ solution transiently exceeded the control level, suggesting that the depletion of $Ca^{2+}$ in ER induces $Ca^{2+}$ influx from extracellular medium via store-operated $Ca^{2+}$ influx(SOCI) mechanism. (5) $[Ca^{2+}]_i$ was not affected by the superfusion of 25mM $K^+$ Tyrode solution. These results suggest that intracellular $Ca^{2+}$ activity in osteoblast is regulated by transmembrane $Ca^{2+}$ flux via $Na^+-Ca^{2+}$ exchange, $Ca^{2+}$ release from the internal store (ER) via $Ca^{2+}$-induced $Ca^{2+}$ release, and store-operated $Ca^{2+}$ influx across the cell membrane.

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