• Title, Summary, Keyword: $CO_2$

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CO2 Emission Structure Analysis of Industrial Sector with Environmental Input-Output Table 2005 (환경산업연관표 2005를 이용한 산업부문의 이산화탄소(CO2) 배출 분석)

  • Kim, Yoon Kyung
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-31
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    • 2011
  • By employing Environmental Input-Output Table 2005, which has 76 intermediate sector and 21 energy sources, this paper analyses the flow of energy demand and $CO_2$ after estimating an induced $CO_2$ emissions from 76 industrial sectors. Index of $CO_2$ intensity($CO_2/GDP$) and other index of $CO_2$ intensity($CO_2/calory$) showed that final demand sector uses more high calory energy source. Intermediate sector used less environmental friendly energy source and emit more $CO_2$ at same calory. Industries those has high induced $CO_2$ emissions are Thermal Power($32.587CO_2-g/Won$), Cement($10.370CO_2-g/Won$), Road Transportation($7.255CO_2-g/Won$), Cokes and Other Coal Products($5.791CO_2-g/Won$), Steam and Hot water supply, Sewage, Sanitary services($4.575CO_2-g/Won$). It is shown that industry such as Iron and Steel which has low $CO_2$ intensity, high backward linkage effect and high forward linkage effect makes high induced $CO_2$ emissions. Environmental load and $CO_2$ emissions in overall economy will decrease when not high $CO_2$ intensity industry but also low $CO_2$ intensity industry makes lower $CO_2$ intensity.

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Studies on Electroanalytical Chemistry for the Oxygen Adducted Tetradentate Schiff base Cobalt(III) Complexes in Pyridine Solution (Pyridine 용액에서 산소 첨가된 네자리 Schiff base Cobalt(III) 착물들의 전기 분석화학적 연구)

  • Rim, Chae-Pyeong;Chae, Hee-Nam;Chjo, Ki-Hyung;Choi, Yong-Kook
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 1995
  • Tetradentate Schiff base cobalt(II) complexes such as $Co(II)_2-N$, N-bis(salicylidene)-m-phenylendiimine; [$Co(II)_2(SMPD)_2(H_2O)_4$] and $Co(II)_2-N$, N-bis(salicylidene)-p-phenylendiimine: [$Co(II)_2(SPPD)_2(H_2O)_4$], and oxygen adducted cobalt (III) complexes such as [$Co(III)_2O_2(SMPD)_2(Py)_2$] and [$Co(III)_2O_2(SPPD)_2(Py)_2$] in pyridine solutions were synthesized. It was identified that the oxygen adducted cobalt(III) complexes have hexacoordinated octahedral configuration with pyridine and oxygen from the measurement of elemental analysis, AA, IR spectra, and TGA. The redox processes were investigated for the oxygen adducted complexes in 0.1M TEAP-pyridine solution, using cyclic voltammetry on the glassy carbon electrode. The redox processes of oxygen adducted Co(III) complexes result in $$[Co(III)_2-O_2-CO(III)]\rightarrow^{e^-}[Co(III)-O_2-Co(II)]\rightarrow^{e^-}[Co(II)-O_2-Co(II)]\rightleftarrows^{e^-}[Co(II)+Co(II)+O_2{\cdot}^-]\rightleftarrows^{e^-}[Co(II)+Co(I)+O_2{\cdot}^-]\rightleftarrows^{e^-}[Co(I)+Co(I)+O_2{\cdot}^-]$$.

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Low Concentration CO2 Absorption Performance of Aqueous Alkanolamine Solutions (알카놀아민 수용액을 이용한 저농도 CO2 흡수 특성)

  • Park, IL-Gun;Hong, Min-Sun;Kim, Beom-Seok;Kim, Heung-Lea
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, absorption and reaction characteristics of low $CO_2$ and alkanolamines were investigated. As MEA concentrations increase 1, 2 and 3 wt%, $CO_2$ loadings decrease 0.34 mol-$CO_2/mol$-absorbent, 0.32 mol-$CO_2/mol$-absorbent and 0.3 mol-$CO_2/mol$-absorbent, respectively. Also, $CO_2$ loadings decrease from 0.32 mol-$CO_2/mol$-absorbent, 0.30 mol-$CO_2/mol$-absorbent and 0.28 mol-$CO_2/mol$-absorbent as AMP concentrations increase 1, 2 and 3 wt%. Experimental results with blending solutions show that $CO_2$ loading was the highest, 0.52 mol-$CO_2/mol$-absorbent, when 0.5 wt% MEA and 0.5 wt% AMP were blended.

Removal CO2 Using Na2CO3, K2CO3 and Li2CO3 Impregnated Activated Carbon -Characteristics of CO2 Adsorption in Fixed Bed Reactor- (Na2CO3, K2CO3 및 Li2CO3 첨착활성탄을 이용한CO2 제거 -고정층 반응기에서의 CO2 흡착특성-)

  • Choi, Won-Joon;Jung, Jong-Hyeon
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.240-246
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to gain basic information on the characteristics of $CO_2$ adsorption in relation to $Na_2CO_3$, $K_2CO_3$, $Li_2CO_3$-impregnated activated carbon in a Fixed Bed Reactor. From the results of this study the following conclusions were made: $Na_2CO_3$, $K_2CO_3$, $Li_2CO_3$-impregnated activated carbon had a longer breakthrough time and more enhanced adsorption capacity than activated carbon alone. When tested with isothermal adsorption and tested for $CO_2$ adsorption the amount of $CO_2$ adsorbed varied with temperature, $CO_2$ inlet concentration, gas flow rate, aspect ratio, etc. Based on the results, when Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin-Polanyi adsorption isotherms were used for linear regression of isothermal adsorption data, Langmuir adsorption isotherm was the most suitable. And, the optimum condition for $Na_2CO_3$ and $K_2CO_3$ impregnated activated carbon make-up was 1N and $Li_2CO_3$ was 0.1N. It could be concluded that adsorption capacity was decreased with adsorption temperature and increased gas concentration. When the aspect ratio (L/D) was varied 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0, the significant drop of adsorption amount was observed below 1.0 and breakthrough time was shortened with gas flow rate.

Review of the CO2 Geological Storage Using Nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 Foam (나노입자기반 CO2 폼을 이용한 CO2 지중저장에 대한 기술적 고찰)

  • Son, Han Am
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.213-220
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    • 2020
  • When CO2 foam is injected into the saline aquifer, the relative permeability of CO2 decreases and its viscosity increases, thereby reducing mobility in porous media and ultimately improving CO2 storge with enhanced sweep efficiency. In general, surfactants were used to fabricate CO2 foam. Recently, nanoparticles have been used to form stable foam than surfactant. This paper introduces CO2 storage technology using nanoparticle stabilized CO2 foam. If the surface of the hydrophilic nanoparticles is partially modified into a CO2-philic portion, the particles have an affinity for CO2 and water, thus forming a stable CO2 foam even in deep saline aquifers under high temperature and high salinity conditions, thereby it can be stored in the pores of the rock. In terms of economics, injection method using nanopaticle-stabilized CO2 foam is more expensive than the conventional CO2 injection, but it is estimated that it will have price competitiveness because the injection efficiency is improved. From an environmental point of view, it is possible to inject chemical substances such as surfactants and nanomaterials into aquifers or reservoirs for specific purposes such as pollutant removal and oil production. However, some studies have shown that nanoparticles and surfactants are toxic to aquatic animals, so environmentally proven substances should be used. Therefore, further research and development will be needed to study the production and injection of nanoparticle-stabilized CO2 foam that are environmentally safe and economically reasonable.

Thermophysical Properties of CO2 and CO2-Hydrate Mixture and In-Tube Heat Transfer Characteristics (CO2-Hydrate와 CO2 가스 혼합물의 전달물성과 관내측 열전달계수 및 압력강하 예측)

  • Yun, Rin
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 2013
  • The Thermophysical properties of thermal conductivity, viscosity, and heat capacity for $CO_2$ slurry ($CO_2$ gas and $CO_2$-hydrate mixture) having a high gas phase volume fraction were predicted using the conventional mixture models and the TRAPP model under hydrate formation conditions. Based on the calculated thermophysical properties, the heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop of the $CO_2$ slurry in the tube were predicted. The thermal conductivity of $CO_2$ slurry ranged from 0.02 to 0.2 W/m-K, and the mixture viscosity was larger than that of pure $CO_2$ by 1.9~2.7 times. The heat capacity of $CO_2$ slurry ranged from 63 to 68% of that for pure $CO_2$. The predicted heat transfer coefficient of $CO_2$ slurry was 6 times higher than that of pure $CO_2$. In the separate model, the estimated pressure drop increased with an increase of $CO_2$-hydrate mole fraction, and was 60% of that of pure $CO_2$.

Theoretical Study of the Structures and Binding Energies of Ca+-(CO)n and Ca+-(CO2)n (n=1,2) (Ca+-(CO)n과 Ca+-(CO2)n (n=1,2)의 구조와 결합에너지에 대한 이론 연구)

  • Park, Gil-Soon;Sung, Eun-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.272-278
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    • 2009
  • The optimized structures and vibrational frequencies for $Ca^+-(CO)_n$ and $Ca^+-(CO_2)_n$ (n=1,2) complexes were calculated with MP2 and B3LYP methods employing 6-311++G(2d,p) basis sets. Also the binding energies were investigated for all complexes to compare the stabilities. For $Ca^+-(CO)_n$ C-bonded complexes are more stable than O-bonded complexes. Two stable conformations, linear and $C_{2v}$ form, are possible for $Ca^+-(CO)_2$ complexes and the $C_{2v}$ form is more stable than the linear form. $Ca^+-(CO_2)_2$ also has two possible conformations and linear form has slightly lower energy than $C_{2v}$ form.

The effect of operating condition on $CO_2$ capture using $K_2CO_3$ solution ($K_2CO_3$ 수용액 이용 운전조건 변화에 따른 $CO_2$ 포집 특성 시험)

  • Jung, Kijin;Kim, Jinho;Lee, Sunki;Yoon, Sungpill;Kim, Hyosik;Kim, Hyeunjin
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.177.1-177.1
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    • 2011
  • 온실가스 감축에 대응하기 위해서 CCS기술이 지구온난화 문제를 해결하는 중요한 기술로 부각되고 있다. $CO_2$ 포집기술 중 습식법에는 대표적으로 아민, 암모니아, $K_2CO_3$와 같은 흡수제를 이용한 연구가 진행되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 $CO_2$ 포집기술 중 하나인 $K_2CO_3$ 수용액을 이용하여 Bench급 $CO_2$ 포집설비에 대한 성능을 파악하기 위한 일환으로 15% $CO_2$를 공급하여 $CO_2$ 포집 안정화 시험을 진행하였다. 압력변화 및 단수 변화를 하여 실험을 진행하였고, 흡수탑 후단의 $CO_2$ 농도를 측정하여 $CO_2$ 포집 성능을 파악하였다.

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Comparison of Construction Costs of Masonry Wall Types, including CO2 Emission Costs (조적벽의 CO2 배출비용을 포함한 건설원가 비교에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Byung-Yun;Kim, Bo-Ra;Kim, Gwang-Hee
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Building Construction
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 2010
  • The carbon dioxide($CO_2$) emissions that result from construction are one of the main factors causing a global warming problem. It is therefore necessary to make efforts to reduce $CO_2$ emissions in the construction industry. Some researchers have studied $CO_2$ emissions in the industry ; however, there has been a lack of study on $CO_2$ emissions cost. Therefore, in this study, the construction costs, including the $CO_2$ emission cost, of masonry wall type, which is a common brick wall, concrete brick wall, and fired brick wall, were examined. The purpose of this study is to compare the construction costs of masonry wall types, including $CO_2$ emission costs. The study found that the $CO_2$ emission costs were highest for the fired brick wall, followed by the concrete brick wall. This research could provide basic information that can be used in other engineering methods to convert $CO_2$ emissions to $CO_2$ emission cost.

Stereoselective Electron Transfer Reactions between Optically Active${\Delta}-cis-[Co(en)_2(NO_2)_2]^+$and rac-$[CO(Y)^{2-}$(Y=EDTA. PDTA, CyDTA) (광학활성인${\Delta}-cis-[Co(en)_2(NO_2)_2]^+$과 라세미-$[CO(Y)^{2-}$(Y=EDTA. PDTA, CyDTA)간의 입체선택적 전자전달반응)

  • Lee, Bae Wook;Kim, Dong Yeub;Lee, Dong Jin;Oh, Chang Eun;Doh, Myung Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 1995
  • The electron transfer reactions between cis-[Co(en)2(NO2)2]+ and rac-[Co(Y)]2-(Y=EDTA, PDTA, CyDTA) have been investigated in the presence of hydrogen ion. From the kinetic data, it has been found that electron transfer reactions between cis-[Co(en)2(NO2)2]+ and rac-[Co(Y)]2- proceed via inner-sphere pathway by catalysis of hydogen ion. The stereoselectivity in the electron transfer reactions between optically active △-cis-[Co(en)2(NO2)2]+ and rac-[Co(Y)]2- produced 6.0, 2.9, 3.0% e.e.(e.e.=enantiomeric excess) of △-[Co(EDTA)]-, △-[Co(PDTA)]- and △-[Co(CyDTA)]-, respectively. Based upon this observation, it seems that △-cis-[Co(en)2(NO2)2]+ is associated with rac-[Co(Y)]2- at first, and followed by the electron transfer reaction. Therefore, it was suggested that stereoselective electron transfer reaction between △-cis-[Co(en)2(NO2)2]+ and rac-[Co(Y)]2- proceed through both inner-sphere by the proton catalysis and outer-sphere with ionic association.

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