• Title, Summary, Keyword: $CO\_{peak}$ production

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Evaluation of Combustion gas during Fire Tests of Veneers Coated with Ammonium Salts (암모늄염으로 도포시킨 베니어판의 연소 시에 발생하는 연소가스 평가)

  • Jin, Eui;Chung, Yeong-Jin
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2016
  • This study tested the combustion characteristics of veneer specimens coated with four kinds of ammonium salts. Each veneer specimen was coated three times with 20 wt.% ammonium salt solutions at room temperature. After drying, the combustion characteristics of the specimens coated with chemicals, were investigated using the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1, 2). The specimens coated with monoammonium phosphate (MAPP) and, diammonium phosphate (DMPP) showed a 6.7% and, 10.0%, lower mean heat release rate ($HRR_{mean}$), respectively, than that of the uncoated specimen. On the other hand, the specimens coated with MAPP showed a 15.7% higher $CO_{peak}$ production rate and the specimens coated with DAPP showed by 8.2% lower rate than that of the uncoated specimen. The veneer coated with ammonium sulfate (AMSF) and DAPP showed a 9.6% and 33.3% lower the peak smoke production rate ($SPR_{peak}$) than that of the uncoated specimen. In addition, the time to the peak smoke extinction area ($SEA_{peak}$) was delayed by 38.4% in the specimens coated with DAPP than the uncoated specimen. Therefore, DAPP inhibited the combustion properties of the veneer and showed a tendency to reduce smoke production.

Combustion Gas-emission of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) Treated with Alkylenediaminialkyl-bis-phosphonic Acids and Bis-(dimethylaminomethyl) Phosphinic Acid (알킬렌디아미노알킬-비스-포스폰산과 비스-디메틸아미노메틸 포스핀산으로 처리된 중질섬유판의 연소가스 발생)

  • Park, Myung-Ho;Chung, Yeong-Jin
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.112-117
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    • 2017
  • This study demonstrated the emission of combustion gases of medium density fibreboard (MDF)s coated with piperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (PIPEABP), methylpiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (MPIPEABP), N,N-dimethylethylenediaminomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (MDEDAP), or bis-(dimethylaminomethyl) phosphinic acid (DMDAP). Each MDFs were coated in three times with a brush with 15 wt% aqueous solution of the phosphorus-nitrogen acid additives. After the specimens were dried at room temperature, the emission of combustion gases was tested using a cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1, 2). The peak smoke production rate ($SPR_{peak}$) of the specimens coated with phosphorus-nitrogen acids was 18.5 to 41.5%, which is lower than that of using the virgin plate. However, the production of peak carbon monoxide ($CO_{peak}$) was 6.7 to 24.2% higher than that of using the virgin plate. Also, the peak carbon dioxide ($CO_{2peak}$) was 4.2 to 24.4% lower than that of using virgin plate. While the peak oxygen depletion rate was much higher than the level of 15%, which can be fatal to humans and the resulting risk could thus be eliminated. Overall, the combustibility of coated specimens was partially suppressed, but showed a negative effect on the reduction of carbon monoxide.

Production of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide Gases in the Combustion Tests (연소 시험에서 발생하는 일산화탄소와 이산화탄소의 발생)

  • Chung, Yeong-Jin
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed to test the production of combustion toxic gases by Pinus rigida specimens treated with various types of methylpiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid $M^{n+}$ ($PIPEABPM^{n+}$) and methylpiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (PIPEABP). Three coats of 15 wt% $PIPEABPM^{n+}$ and PIPEABP solutions were applied to plates of Pinus rigida at room temperature. After drying the treated specimens, the production of combustion toxic gases was examined using a cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). The specimens treated with $PIPEABPM^{n+}$ showed lower carbon monoxide production ($CO_{2\;peak}$; 0.0136~0.0178% at 532~678 s) than the PIPEABP plates, except for the specimen treated with $PIPEABPFe^{3+}$. In addition, the peak carbon dioxide production ($CO_{2\;peak}$) was lower (0.03648~0.3648% at 373~433 s) than that of the PIPEABP-treated plate. Notably, oxygen production was much higher than 15%, which can be fatal to humans. Therefore, the resulting risk could be eliminated. The results indicate that the combustion toxicities were partially decreased due to treatment of the virgin plate with $PIPEABPM^{n+}$.

Evaluation of Combustion Gas for Carbon Oxide of Wood Coated with Bis-(dialkylaminoalkyl) Phosphinic Acids Additives

  • Jin, Eui;Chung, Yeong-Jin
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2016
  • This study examined the generation of combustion toxic gases of pinus rigida specimens processed with bis-(dimethylaminomethyl) phosphinic acid (DMDAP), bis-(diethylaminomethyl) phosphinic acid (DEDAP), and bis-(dibutylaminomethyl) phosphinic acid (DBDAP). Each pinus rigida plate was coated three times with 15 wt.% flame retardants in an aqueous solution. The specimens were then dried at room temperature. The production of combustion toxic gases was investigated using a cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). The first time to peak mass loss rate ($1^{st}-TMLR_{peak}$) processed with the chemical additives decreased to 5.9 from 41.2% compared with the unprocessed specimen. The second time to the peak mass loss rate ($2^{nd}-TMLR_{peak}$) for the processed specimens was decreased 1.8% for DMDAP and 5.3% for DBDAP and increased 1.8% for DEDAP. The peak carbon monoxide ($CO_{peak}$) production was 1.5 to 2.0 times higher than that of the unprocessed plate. The peak carbon dioxide ($CO_{2peak}$) production was reduced 0.01 times for DMDAP and increased 1.15 to 1.19 times for DEDAP and DBDAP compared with the unprocessed specimens. In particular, the oxygen concentration was much higher than 15%, which can be fatal to humans and the resulting hazard can be eliminated. Overall, the combustion toxicity of flammable gas were increased partially by the chemical additives compared with those of the unprocessed plate.

Combustion Characteristics of Swine Manure, Poultry Manure and Mixtures (돈분, 계분 그리고 혼합물에 대한 연소특성)

  • Chung, Yeong-Jin
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.616-620
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    • 2013
  • In this work, the combustive properties of the swine manure, poultry manure, and mixtures based on the resource recycling-energy were investigated. After the specimens were dried to a constant weight by dry oven, combustive properties were tested by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). It was found that the peak effective heat of combustion (PEHC) in the swine manure (78.72 MJ/kg) has risen due to more amount of the hydrocabon compared with poultry manure (69.41 MJ/kg), also the swine manure increased both of the higher $CO_2$ production rate (0.1959 g/s) and total smoke release rate (THRR) ($419m^2/m^2$) than those of the poultry manure. However, both of the CO production release (0.0996 kg/kg) and CO production rate (0034 g/s) in the poultry manure increased due to more amount of the inorganic contents compared with swine manure. Thus, the high combustion energy is expected to generate depend on the hydrocarbon content.

Combustive Properties of Specimens Treated with Methylenepiperazinomethyl-Bis-Phosphonic Acid (Mn+)s (메틸렌피페라지노메틸-비스-포스폰산 금속염으로 처리된 시험편의 연소성)

  • Chung, Yeong-Jin
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.505-510
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed to test the combustive properties of pinus rigida specimens treated with methylpiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid $M^{n+}$ ($PIPEABPM^{n+}$)s and methylpiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (PIPEABP). Each pinus rigida plates were painted three times with 15 wt% $PIPEABPM^{n+}s$ or PIPEABP solutions at the room temperature. After drying specimens treated with chemicals, combustive properties were examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). It was indicated that the speed to peak mass loss rate ($MLR_{peak}$), (0.104~0.121) g/s for specimens treated with $PIPEABPM^{n+}s$ was lower than that of PIPEABP plate. In addition, the total smoke release rate (TSRR), $(224.4{\sim}484.0)m^2/m^2$ for $PIPEABPM^{n+}s$ treated specimens except specimen treated with PIPEABPAl3+ and $CO_{mean}$ production (0.0537~0.0628) kg/kg was smaller than that of PIPEABP plate. In particular, for the specimens treated with $PIPEABPM^{n+}$ by reducing the smoke production rate, the second-smoke production rate (2nd-SPR) $(0.0117{\sim}0.0146)m^2/s$ was lower than that of PIPEABP plate. It can thus be concluded that combustion-retardation properties of the treated $PIPEABPM^{n+}s$ were partially improved compared to those of the virgin plate.

Combustion Characteristics of Wood Specimens Treated with Methylenepiperazinomethyl-Bis-Phosphonic Acid (Mn+)s (메틸렌피페라지노메틸-비스-포스폰산 금속염으로 처리된 목재 시험편의 연소특성)

  • Jin, Eui;Chung, Yeong-Jin
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.55-61
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    • 2014
  • This study was performed to test the combustive properties of pinus rigida specimens treated with methylpiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid $M^{n+}$ ($PIPEABPM^{n+}$)s and methylpiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (PIPEABP). Pinus rigida Plates were painted in three times with 15 wt% $PIPEABPM^{n+}s$ and PIPEABP solutions at the room temperature respectively. After drying specimen treated with chemicals, combustive properties were examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). It was indicated that the specimens treated with $PIPEABPM^{n+}s$ showed the lower speed to peak mass loss rate ($MLR_{peak}$), (0.104~0.121) g/s than that of PIPEABP plate. In adition, the specimens treated with $PIPEABPM^{n+}s$ showed both the lower total smoke release rate (TSRR), (224.4~484.0) $m^2/m^2$ and $CO_{mean}$ production (0.0537~0.0628) kg/kg than those of PIPEAB plate. Especially, for the specimens treated with $PIPEABPM^{n+}$ by reducing the smoke production rate except 2nd-smoke production rate (2nd-SPR), (0.0254~0.02270) g/s treated with $PIPEABPNi^{2+}$, 2nd-SPR (0.0117~0.0146) g/s was lower than that of PIPEABP plate. Thus, It is supposed that the combustion-retardation properties were improved by the partial due to the treated $PIPEABPM^{n+}s$ in the virgin plate.

Comparison of Combustion Properties of the Pinus rigida, Castanea sativa, and Zelkova serrata (리기다 소나무, 밤나무, 느티나무의 연소성질 비교)

  • Chung, Yeong-Jin
    • Fire Science and Engineering
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2009
  • This paper investigated the combustion properties of the Pinus rigida, Castanea sativa, and Zelkova serrata which are grown in Korea using the cone calorimeter. The heat release rate and smoke production for these species were measured. With respect to an increase of retardant properties attributed to char formation, Zelkova serrata showed good properties compared with that of Pinus rigida and Castanea sativa. The Castanea sativa has high $CO_{peak}$ Yield and high $CO/CO_2$ Yield compared with that of Pinus rigida and Zelkova serrata.

Gas sensing pattern in chungkukjang production using household fermentation system (가정용 발효기를 이용한 청국장 제조과정의 가스감지 패턴)

  • Jung, H.C.;Choi, S.Y.;Kim, J.B.
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.72-76
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    • 2009
  • The sensing system was designed and fabricated to investigate the ferment environment of soybeans. $NH_3$ gas was saturated after about 7 h and $CO_2$ gas was reached the peak after about 8 h in the inoculation of Bacillus subtilis. However, times that $CO_2$ gas and $NH_3$ gas were reached maximum value without Bacillus subtilis were about 15 h and 18 h, respectively. The sample that inoculated Bacillus subtils had deeper taste than one without it. We found that the peak time of $CO_2$ gas means the starting time of fermentation. If we control the operating time after the start of fermentation, it is expected to make a suitable Chungkukjang to individual preference.

Combustion Properties of Wood Treated by Combining Phosphorus-Nitrogen Compounds (인-질소 화합물 조합에 의해 처리된 목재의 연소성)

  • Jin, Eui;Chung, Yeong-Jin;Kim, Si-Kuk
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2016
  • This study was to investigate the characteristics of combustion toxic gases of pinus rigida specimens treated with chemical additives such as pyrophosphoric acid (PP)/ammonuium ion ($NH_4{^+}$), methylenepiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (PIPEABP) and $PIPEABP/NH_4{^+}$. Each pinus rigida plates was painted in three times with 15 wt% of each chemical additives in the aqueous solution. After drying these specimens at room temperature, the production of combustion gases and smoke was examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). As a result, the peak mass loss rate time (PMLR time) treated with chemicals was delayed upto 10.5~47.4% compared to that of using untreated specimen. In addition, the peak production of carbon monoxide ($CO\;_{peak}$) of 32.1~71.4% and total smoke release rate (TSRR) of 15.6~43.6% for test pieces treated with the chemical additive were higher than that of using the virgin plate. In particular, for the specimens treated with the chemical additive, the rate of smoke release (RSR) 29.4~41.5% was obtained higher than that of untreated plate except the specimen treated with $PP/4NH_4{^+}$. It can thus be concluded that the treatment using the chemical additive could partially increase the combustion-retardation properties of the species when compared to those of the virgin plate.