• Title, Summary, Keyword: ${\beta}-oxidation$

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Effect of Lipoxygenase and Other Factors on the Co-oxidation of $\beta$-Carotene in Aqueous Model System (액상 모델 시스템에서 베타-카로틴의 Co-oxidation에 대한 리폭시게나아제 및 기타 관련 인자들의 영향)

  • 최홍식;김혜경
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.202-207
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    • 1995
  • The effects of lipoxygenase, linoleic acid, tocopherol and pH on the co-oxidation of $\beta$-carotene in the aqueous system were studied. It showed that the co-oxidation of $\beta$-carotene was noticeable at both pH 7.4 and 9.0. As the concentraitons of linoleic acid and $\beta$-carotene increased, the rate of oxidation of $\beta$-carotene tended to be increased. However, $\alpha$- and $\delta$-tocopherol retarded the co-oxidation of $\beta$-carotene. As the concentrations of tocopherols increased, $\beta$-carotene was more stabilized, generally. But low concentration of $\alpha$-tocopherol(10-4M) acted more effective antioxidant than high concentration of it(10-3M) at pH 7.4. The antioxidant effect of tocopherol greatly depended on pH ; it was outstanding at pH 7.4.

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What is the Key Step in Muscle Fatty Acid Oxidation after Change of Plasma Free Fatty Acids Level in Rats?

  • Doh, Kyung-Oh;Suh, Sang-Dug;Kim, Jong-Yeon
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.173-177
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to discern the critical point in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation by changing plasma free fatty acids (FFA) level in rat. In the study, 3 key steps in lipid oxidation were examined after changing plasma FFA level by acipimox. The rates of both palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine oxidation were decreased by decrease of plasma FFA level, however, carnitine palmitoyl transferase (CPT) 1 activity was not changed, suggesting CPT1 activity may not be involved in the fatty acid oxidation at the early phase of plasma FFA change. In the fasted rats, ${\beta}-hydroxy$ acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (${\beta}$-HAD) activity was depressed to a similar extent as palmitate oxidation by a decrease of plasma FFA level. This suggested that ${\beta}-oxidation$ might be an important process to regulate fatty acid oxidation at the early period of plasma FFA change. Citrate synthase activity was not altered by the change of plasma FFA level. In conclusion, the critical step in fatty acids oxidation of skeletal muscles by the change of plasma FFA level by acipimox in fasting rats might be the ${\beta}-oxidation$ step rather than CPT1 and TCA cycle pathways.

Oxidation Resistance of SPS (Spark Plasma Sintering) Sintered β-FeSi2Bodies at High Temperature (방전플라즈마 소결법으로 제작한 β-FeSi2 소결체의 고온 내산화성)

  • Chang, Se-Hun;Hong, Ji-Min;Oh, Ik-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.132-136
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    • 2007
  • Oxidation resistance of sintered ${\beta}-FeSi_{2}$ was investigated at intermediate temperature range in air atmosphere. Fully dense and porous bodies of ${\beta}-FeSi_{2}$ samples were fabricated by using the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). They were annealed at $900^{\circ}C$ for 5days to obtain ${\beta}-FeSi_{2}$ phase. The bulk samples were oxidized at $800,\;900\;and\;950^{\circ}C$ in air atmosphere. The high temperature oxidation tests reveal that amorphous $SiO_{2}$ layer, similar to Si was formed and grew parabolically on ${\beta}-FeSi_{2}$. Accelerated oxidation is not observed as well as cracks and grain boundary oxidation. Granular ${\varepsilon}-FeSi$ was developed below the oxide layer as a result of oxidation of ${\beta}-FeSi_{2}$. Oxidation resistance of sintered ${\beta}-FeSi_{2}$ was excellent for high-temperature thermoelectric application.

Oxidation Behavior of $\beta$-Sialon ($\beta$-Sialon 소결체의 산화 거동)

  • 박용갑;장병국
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.341-346
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    • 1989
  • In order to evaluate the oxidation behavior of $\beta$-Sialon, $\beta$-Sialon ceramics was prepared from Si3N4, Al2O3, AlN and Y2O3 system. The specimens were oxidized in an oxygen atmosphere at 1, 20$0^{\circ}C$ for 9days. Oxidation behavior was evaluated by weight gain oxidation process, surface roughness. Microscopy, EDX and X-ray diffraction analysis were also used for the evaluation. The weight and surface roughness ofoxidized specimens were increased with increasing the oxidation time. Oxidized products were mullite, $\alpha$-cristobalite, yttrium aluminum oxide and yttrium silicate oxide.

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Quenching Mechanisms and Kinetics of $\alpha$-, $\beta$-, $\gamma$-, and $\delta$-Tocopherol in Photosensitized Oxidation of Lard

  • King, Robert;Lee, Hyung-Ok;Min, David B.
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.526-532
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    • 2009
  • Quenching mechanisms and kinetics of $\alpha$-, $\beta$-, $\gamma$-, and $\delta$-tocopherol in photosensitized oxidation of lard were studied. Lard at 0.03, 0.07, 0.11, and 0.3 M in methylene chloride containing $4.4{\times}10^{-6}\;M$ chlorophyll and 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 0.6 mM $\alpha$-, $\beta$-, $\gamma$-, and $\delta$-tocopherol were stored under light for 4 hr, respectively. Oxidation was determined by headspace oxygen and peroxide value. Tocopherols prevented the photosensitized oxidation of lard (p<0.05). Steady state kinetic study showed that $\alpha$-, $\beta$-, $\gamma$-, and $\delta$-tocopherol prevented the photosensitized oxidation of lard by quenching singlet oxygen. Singlet oxygen quenching rates of $\alpha$-, $\beta$-, $\gamma$-, and $\delta$-tocopherol by headspace oxygen depletion were 1.86, 2.39, 2.47, and $2.11{\times}10^7/M/sec$, respectively. The quenching rates of $\alpha$-, $\beta$-, $\gamma$-, and $\delta$-tocopherol by peroxide value were 1.42, 1.11, 0.97, and $0.42{\times}10^7/M/sec$, respectively. The quenching rates of tocopherols were slightly different depending on the measurements of oxidation.

Oxidation of carbohydrates and A corbon-13 n. m. r. study of the keto sugars

  • An, Seung-Ho
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.229-232
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    • 1986
  • Three inexpensive oxidation reagents, namely pyridinium chlorochromate, chromium trioxide-dipyridine and nicotinium dichromate were utilized for oxidation of carbohydrates in 78-92% yield. Hydration could be eliminated in the oxidation of pentopyranosides and hexopyranosides, while pentofuranosides had a tendency to be easily hydrated during the oxidation. In the carbon-13 n. m. r. study, the carbonyl function resulted from the oxidation affected on the chemical shifts of $\alpha$- and $\beta$-carbons of methyl 3. 4-O-isopropylidene-$\beta$-D-arabinopyranosid-2-ulose (8) and 1,2 : 4, 5-di-O-isopropylidene-$\beta$-D-erythro-2, 3-hexodiulo-2, 6-pyranose (10) to slightly down fields (0.7-2.6 p. p. m.) compared with the chemical shifts before oxidation. While the carbonyl groups of 1. 2-O-isopropylidene-5-O-ethyloxycarbonyl-$\alpha$-D-erythro-pentofuran-3-ulose (4) and methyl 3, 5-0-isopropylidene-$\alpha$-D-threo-pentofuranosid-2-ulose (6) pushed the $\alpha$-carbons to up fields (3, 2-18.3 p. p. m. However, the order of signals on the spectra before and after oxidation remained unaltered.

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Effect of Tocopherols and $\beta$-Carotene on the Oxidation of Linoleic Acid Mixture in the Solid Model System (리놀레산 함유 고형 모델시스템의 산화에 미치는 토코페롤 및 베타 카로틴의 영향)

  • Kim, Myung;Rhee, Sook-Hee;Cheigh, Hong-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 1995
  • Effects of tocopherols and $\beta$-carotene on the oxidation of the solid model system of a free fatty acid mixture (64.5% of linolic acid ; 26.4% of oleic acid ; 5.0% of palmitic acid) with tocopherols and $\beta$-carotene were studied. $\alpha$-tocopherol revealed an antioxidant activity at the concentration below 0.05%, however, it showed a prooxidant activity when the concentration was higher than 0.05%. The antioxidant activity of ${\gamma}$ -tocopherol was not affected by the concentrations in the range of 0.01~0.10% in the model and ${\gamma}$-tocopherol showed higher antioxidant activity than that of $\alpha$-tocopherol. It seemed that $\alpha$-tocopherol was unstable compared to ${\gamma}$-tocopherol during oxidation. $\beta$-carotene showed a weak antioxidative activity at the initial stage of this system while $\beta$-carotene showed a prooxidant activity in the presence of tocopherol. $\beta$ -carotene was highly susceptible to autoxidative degradation during oxidation.

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Rabbit Liver and Lung Microsomal Metabolism of $\beta$-Nicotyrine:Isozyme Specificities toward the Oxidation of $\beta$-Nicotyrine

  • ;Mark K. Shigenaga
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.87-96
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    • 1989
  • Studies on the biodisposition of beta-nicotyrine by lung and liver microsomes was examined in order to provide a better understanding of its fate in this tissue. beta-nicotyrine (100$\mu$M) was incubated with microsomes (1 mg/ml) prepared from New Zealand White rabbits. The rate of oxidation observed in lung microsomal incubations was 1.7 nmoles $\beta$-nicotyrine oxidized mg$^{-1}$ min$^{-1}$ compared with 2.7 nmoles $\beta$-nicotyrine oxidized mg$^{-1}$ min$^{-1}$ by the liver microsomal preparation. However, when these rates were expressed as a function of cytochrome P-450 content, the specific activity of the metabolic oxidation catalyzed by lung (8.3 nmoles $\beta$-nicotyrine oxidized nmole cytochrome P-450$^{-1}$ min$^{-1}$) was approxiamtely 4 times greater than liver microsomes (2.3 nmoles $\beta$-nicotyrine oxidized nmole cytochrome P-450$^{-1}$ min$^{-1}$). Isozyme studies on the oxidation of $\beta$-nicotyrine employed several methods of altering activities of specific isozymes present in pulmonary microsomes, including the use of the isozyme 2 and 6 specific inhibitor $\alpa$-methyl ABT, metabolic inhibitor(MI) complex formation. The results of this inhibition study would appear to indicate the $\beta$-nicotyrine is metabolized predominantly by pulmonary isozyme 5.

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Effect of Lipoxygenase, ${\beta}-Carotene$, ${\alpha}-Tocopherol$ and Water Activity on the Oxidation of Linoleic Acid in Starch-Solid Model System (고형상의 모델시스템에 있어서 리놀레산의 산화에 미치는 리폭시게나아제, 카로틴, 토코페롤 및 수분활성의 영향)

  • Kim, Hae-Gyoung;Cheigh, Hong-Sik;Song, Yeong-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 1992
  • Starch solid model system was employed to investigate the effect of lipoxygenase, ${\beta}-carotene$, ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ and water activity on the oxidation of linoleic acid. The rate of oxidation of linoleic acid by lipoxygenase was increased with the increase in water activity, Addition of ${\beta}-carotene$ and ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ to this system has been shown to inhibit the oxidation of linoleic acid and ${\alpha}-tocopherol$ was more effective antioxidant than ${\beta}-carotene$. However, an increase in the concentration of ${\beta}-carotene$ was found to have a strong antioxidant effect in the solid model system. And also the antioxidative action of ${\beta}-carotene$ was increased with increasing water activity in this system.

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Properties of Beta-Ga2O3 Film from the Furnace Oxidation of Freestanding GaN (FS-GaN을 열산화하여 제작된 Beta-Ga2O3 박막의 특성)

  • Son, Hoki;Lee, YoungJin;Lee, Mijai;Kim, Jin-Ho;Jeon, Dae-Woo;Hwang, Jonghee;Lee, Hae-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.427-431
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, we discuss ${\beta}-Ga_2O_3$ thin films that have been grown on freestanding GaN (FS-GaN) using furnace oxidation. A GaN template was grown by horizontalhydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), and FS-GaN was fabricated using the laser lift off (LLO) system. To obtain ${\beta}-Ga_2O_3$ thin film, FS-GaN was oxidized at $900{\sim}1,100^{\circ}C$. Surface and cross-section of prepared ${\beta}-Ga_2O_3$ thin films were observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The single crystal FS-GaNs were changed to poly-crystal ${\beta}-Ga_2O_3$. The oxidized ${\beta}-Ga_2O_3$ thin film at $1,100^{\circ}C$ was peel off from FS-GaN. Next, oxidation of FS-GaNwas investigated for 0.5~12 hours with variation of the oxidation time. The thicknesses of ${\beta}-Ga_2O_3$ thin films were measured from 100 nm to 1,200 nm. Moreover, the 2-theta XRD result indicated that (-201), (-402), and (-603) peaks were confirmed. The intensity of peaks was increased with increased oxidation time. The ${\beta}-Ga_2O_3$ thin film was generated to oxidize FS-GaN.